1. Global Cross-Reference

rdf:type Instance
owl:AnnotationProperty:
owl:Class:
owl:ObjectProperty:

owl:Class Instance
cwrc:Certainty:
cwrc:EducationalAward:
cwrc:Ethnicity:
cwrc:Gender:
cwrc:GeographicHeritage:
cwrc:NationalHeritage:
cwrc:NationalIdentity:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation:
cwrc:RaceColour:
cwrc:Religion:
cwrc:Role:
cwrc:Sexuality:
cwrc:SocialClass:

2. Terms and Details

owl:AnnotationProperty (1)

[back to top]

Competency Question

A Question that can be asked of the ontology and will be used to specify the high level requirements of the CWRC Ontology allowing decisions about structure and components to be made.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CompetencyQuestion
Tag: cwrc:CompetencyQuestion
rdf:type: owl:AnnotationProperty

owl:Class (56)

[back to top]

address

A mailing or street address.

Comment: CWRC address is the equivalent of a schema.org Postal Address and uses the predicates from schema Postal Address.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Address
Tag: cwrc:Address
owl:sameAs: schema:PostalAddress
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:Place

[back to top]

boarding school

"A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding” is used in the sense of "room and board" i.e., lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#BoardingSchool
Tag: cwrc:BoardingSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Boarding_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

certainty

Certainty describes the quality of a fact in the ontology. It is used primarily to represent information that may not be fact.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Certainty
Tag: cwrc:Certainty
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: owl:Thing
skos:closeMatch: http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ref-teidata.certainty.html
Within Range: cwrc:hasCertainty
Within Domain: cwrc:certaintyOf
Instances: highCertainty lowCertainty mediumCertainty unknownCertainty

[back to top]

change set

A change set represents changes or additions made to the ontology by ontology editors or through users where instances were affected. Change sets will also be used to translate and contain Orlando recordInfo instances.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ChangeSet
Tag: cwrc:ChangeSet
prov:wasDerivedFrom: http://vocab.org/changeset/
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept http://www.w3.org/2006/time/Instant
rdfs:range: skos:note
Within Range: cwrc:madeAlteration
Within Domain: cwrc:alteredBy cwrc:affectedEntity

[back to top]

co-ed school

"Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures, particularly in Western countries. Single-sex education, however, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries. The relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CoEducationalSchool
Tag: cwrc:CoEducationalSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Mixed-sex_education
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

comprehensive school

"A comprehensive school is a secondary school or middle school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools. They correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States and Canada and to the German Gesamtschule." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ComprehensiveSchool
Tag: cwrc:ComprehensiveSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Comprehensive_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

context

The Context class provides the discursive context for assertions in the ontology. Where the assertions have been generated from a source text, Context provides the text, or the relevant snippet of a longer text, from which they have been extracted.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Context
Tag: cwrc:Context
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept oa:Annotation
Children Classes: cwrc:EducationContext cwrc:CulturalFormContext
Within Range: prov:wasDerivedFrom

[back to top]

cultural form

The Cultural Form class of properties associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject herself or himself or attributed by others. Although cultural forms or social identities circulate around the notion of characteristics, traditions, beliefs, or origins that are shared with others, recent work has stressed the contingency, provisionality, and constructedness of such categories through both complex discourses and social practices. As argued by Stuart Hall, "It seems to be in the attempt to rearticulate the relationship between subjects and discursive practices that the question of identity recurs" ("Introduction"). See Stuart Hall and Paul du Goy's edited collection Questions of Cultural Identity (Paul du Goy and Stuart Hall, 1996). Given their highly discursive nature, the concepts and categories classed as cultural forms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually. The same word or label can therefore occur as multiple cultural forms, reflecting the shifting discursive contexts in which it has been used and the diverse situations from which it has emerged. Each specific Cultural Form is understood to interact not only with other cultural forms or identity categories applied to a person, and other instances of the form applied to other people, but also always with Cultural Formation Context annotations, which support the understanding that social identities are always constructions in progress.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalForm
Tag: cwrc:CulturalForm
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
Children Classes: cwrc:GeographicHeritage cwrc:RaceColour cwrc:Language cwrc:RaceEthnicity cwrc:NationalIdentity cwrc:Religion cwrc:Ethnicity cwrc:SocialClass cwrc:Gender cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation cwrc:NationalHeritage cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

cultural form context

Cultural Form Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Cultural Form Context provide information about and discussions of a person's social identity or subjectivity through the use of cultural form properties, which when multiple often indicate intersectional identities.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalFormContext
Tag: cwrc:CulturalFormContext
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:Context
Children Classes: cwrc:NationalityContext cwrc:ReligionContext cwrc:SocialClassContext cwrc:PoliticalContext cwrc:GenderContext cwrc:RaceEthnicityContext cwrc:SexualityContext

[back to top]

dame school

"A dame school was an early form of a private elementary school in English-speaking countries. They were usually taught by women and were often located in the home of the teacher." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#DameSchool
Tag: cwrc:DameSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Dame_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

day school

"A day school—as opposed to a boarding school—is an institution where children (or high-school age adolescents) are given educational instruction during the day, after which the students return to their homes. The term can also be used to emphasize the length of full-day programs as opposed to after-school programs, as in Jewish day school." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#DaySchool
Tag: cwrc:DaySchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Day_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

domestic education context

Context for education that takes place at home. For example, of a woman writer in the Victorian period taught by her brother or a governess.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#DomesticEducationContext
Tag: cwrc:DomesticEducationContext
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationContext
skos:closeMatch: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling

[back to top]

education context

Education Context is a significant subclass of context. It has subclasses for domestic education context, institutional education context, and self taught education context. Annotations typed as Education Context or a subclass provide information about and discussions of a person's education, whether formal or informal.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EducationContext
Tag: cwrc:EducationContext
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:Context
Children Classes: cwrc:EducationalAward cwrc:InstitutionalEducationContext cwrc:DomesticEducationContext cwrc:SelfTaughtEducationContext
Within Range: cwrc:hasEducation

[back to top]

educational award

Describes the different kinds of educational awards (scholarship, prize, etc.) that can be awarded to a person. An entrance scholarship to Oxford is different from winning first prize in a Spelling Bee and distinguishing between awards will help understand the material conditions affecting the subject's access to education.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EducationalAward
Tag: cwrc:EducationalAward
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationContext
Within Range: cwrc:awardedTo
Within Domain: cwrc:hasAward
Instances: educationalAwardPrize educationalAwardScholarship

[back to top]

educational organization

"A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EducationalOrganization
Tag: cwrc:EducationalOrganization
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:School
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:Organization
Children Classes: cwrc:DaySchool cwrc:PostSecondarySchool cwrc:PrivateSchool cwrc:DameSchool cwrc:PrepSchool cwrc:TradeSchool cwrc:CoEducationalSchool cwrc:ComprehensiveSchool cwrc:BoardingSchool cwrc:StateSchool cwrc:SecondarySchool cwrc:PrimarySchool cwrc:GrammarSchool cwrc:SecularSchool cwrc:ReligiousSchool cwrc:SingleSexSchool cwrc:SecondaryModernSchool

[back to top]

ethnicity

A subclass of Cultural Form for indicating a person's ethnicity, either as self-reported or as assigned by others, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. Ethnicities are groups constructed on the conception of shared national, religious, geographical, racial, or cultural backgrounds or traditions, and particular ethnicities may be denigrated, lauded, or both, depending on the context. Ethnicities are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and which are understood here finally as discursive or representational although they have real material impacts. As Angel Oquendo writes, "Despite its long ‘materialist' past in which it was taken to be synonymous with ‘race,' the concept of ethnicity as used today does appear to focus on cultural rather than on physiognomic difference." (Angel R. Oquendo, "Re-imagining the Latino/a Race" in The Latino/a Condition: A Critical Reader edited by Richard Delgado, Jean Stefancic 1998). This ontology therefore does not attempt to lay out an exact, fully defined, or mutually exclusive set of ethnic categories: this is an impossibility given their shifting use and the overlap among them and with identity categories for race, geography, and nationality, as demonstrated by Noel Ignatieve in his book How the Irish Became White (Ignatieve, 1995). Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated race or ethnicity context annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Ethnicity
Tag: cwrc:Ethnicity
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasEthnicity cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfReported cwrc:hasEthnicityReported
Instances: african-americanEthnicity africanEthnicity ashkenaziJewishEthnicity bengaliEthnicity blackEthnicity celticEthnicity europeanEthnicity irishEthnicity jewishEthnicity romaniEthnicity sephardicJewishEthnicity thracianEthnicity wendishEthnicity whiteEthnicity

[back to top]

event

An event that occurs in time.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Event
Tag: cwrc:Event
owl:sameAs: dbpedia:Event http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5.Event http://linkedevents.org/ontology/Event
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: http://www.w3.org/2006/time/TemporalEntity
Within Range: cwrc:eventOf cwrc:hasEvent cwrc:participantOf
Within Domain: cwrc:hasRole cwrc:hasParticipant

[back to top]

fictional person

A person, broadly defined, who features in an imaginative work such as a literary work, as a character or in some other way that distinguishes the reference to them from the natural person who is being represented. In other words, there is a distinction between a simple allusion to a natural person, and the fictionalization of that person within a text or other work of art.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FictionalPerson
Tag: cwrc:FictionalPerson
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: foaf:Person

[back to top]

gender

A subclass of cultural form for indicating a person's gender, whether attributed or self-reported, with accompanying context, where present, provided by gender context annotations. Although in popular culture gender and biological sex are conflated and understood to be binary, the concept of gender stresses the relationality, constructedness, and performativity of gendered identities and gendered behaviour, whose categories are historically contingent and shifting, and the boundaries between them blurry. Simone de Beauvoir (1973) stated "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," a belief that has been taken up by many other theorists of gender including Judith Butler (1990). Gender studies to date has investigated the social construction of femininity more than that of masculinity. The multi-layered constructedness of gender is also underlined by Donna Haraway who understands it as a "socially, historically, and semiotically positioned difference" (Donna Haraway, 1988). Gender is understood as fluid, situational, and sometimes plural, and it is related to, though not commensurate with, sexual identity and orientation, just as it is related to but not defined by specific forms of embodiment. Rather than seeing biological sex as a pre-social or natural given, the body is understood as a site of inscription (cf. (Elizabeth Grosz, 1994)) which is also socially constructed and indeed epigenetically shaped by environmental factors (N. Katherine Hayles, 2012). As articulated by feminist neurologist Gillian Einstein, (2012)"The world writes on the body." This ontology therefore does not provide separate terms for sex as distinct from gender. Instead, it privileges terms associated with gender, recognizing that they are conventionally but not necessarily associated with sex, and that there is constant slippage between gender and sex in the way that these categories circulate through discourses, actions, and institutions. Far from indicating a universal facet of experience, gender intersects with other identity categories and axes of oppression such as class, race or colour, or geographical heritage to produced quite different interests and experiences among people of the same gender, as with the intersection of religion and white masculine identity in the Muscular Christianity movement in nineteenth-century Britain. Being a woman of colour often compounds the impacts of gender oppression. Such interaction between different forms of oppression is termed "intersectionality" (Kimberlé Crenshaw, 1989). Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated gender context annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Gender
Tag: cwrc:Gender
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasGender cwrc:hasGenderSelfReported cwrc:hasGenderReported
Instances: Androgynous GenderQueer cisGender cisMan cisWoman man transGender transMan transWoman woman

[back to top]

gender context

Gender Context is a significant subclass of context. It is associated with the cultural form subclass gender, and sometimes other intersecting Cultural Forms. Annotations typed as Gender Context provide information about and discussions of a person's subjectivity with regards to their gender and gender identity. Gender Context provides depth to more granular categorizations of a person indicated through the properties has gender identity or has gender identity (self-reported).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderContext
Tag: cwrc:GenderContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:Gender
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

geographic heritage

A subclass of cultural form, this property indicates a person's geographic heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. Geographic heritage involves the geographical origins of a person's family, which often contributes to an understanding of their racial and ethnic background. It offers a way to capture individuals identified as "South-Asian," for example, when no more precise national heritage is indicated. See race or ethnicity context for a detailed description of the complexities of this class. It can be multiple and it can be different from a person's national identity or national heritage, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated nationality context excerpts or annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GeographicHeritage
Tag: cwrc:GeographicHeritage
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageReported
Instances: englishGeographicHeritage jewishGeographicHeritage

[back to top]

grammar school

"A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GrammarSchool
Tag: cwrc:GrammarSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Grammar_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

institutional education context

Context for education or learning within an institutional setting.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#InstitutionalEducationContext
Tag: cwrc:InstitutionalEducationContext
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationContext
skos:related: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School

[back to top]

language

These terms do not differentiate between spoken and/or written.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Language
Tag: cwrc:Language
owl:sameAs: http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/iso639-1/iso639-1_Language
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilityReported cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilityReported

[back to top]

national heritage

A subclass of cultural form, this property indicates a person's national heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. National Heritage is composed of various elements related to national identity, often transmitted from previous generations and influenced by a subject's national historical background or geographic heritage. It can be multiple and can be different from a person's national identity, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated nationality context excerpts or annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalHeritage
Tag: cwrc:NationalHeritage
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasNationalHeritageSelfReported cwrc:hasNationalHeritage cwrc:hasNationalHeritageReported
Instances: englishNationalHeritage welshNationalHeritage

[back to top]

national identity

A subclass of cultural form, this property indicates a person's national identity, either as self-reported or as assigned by others, with accompanying context, where present,provided by nationality context annotations. It is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Like other identity categories, nationality may be plural, fluid, or contingent, and it can intersect with national heritage or geographic heritage as well as other identity categories. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated nationality context annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalIdentity
Tag: cwrc:NationalIdentity
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasNationalityReported cwrc:hasNationality cwrc:hasNationalitySelfReported
Instances: englishNationalIdentity jewishNationalIdentity

[back to top]

nationality context

Nationality Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Nationality Context provide information about and discussions of a person's cultural formation in relation to their national identity, national heritage, and geographic heritage -- which are not always aligned. Nationality Context provides depth to more granular indications of national identity through the national heritage, national identity, and geographic heritage properties.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalityContext
Tag: cwrc:NationalityContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:GeographicHeritage cwrc:NationalHeritage cwrc:NationalIdentity
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

natural person

A human being who is alive, or was alive at some point in time. Natural persons may be fictionalized, in which case they are also classed as a fictional person.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NaturalPerson
Tag: cwrc:NaturalPerson
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: foaf:Person
Within Range: cwrc:alteredBy cwrc:personaOf
Within Domain: cwrc:madeAlteration cwrc:hasEducation cwrc:hasPersona

[back to top]

organization

A social or corporate institution such as a publisher, school, political group, or company.

Comment:

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Organization
Tag: cwrc:Organization
owl:sameAs: schema:Organization http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Organization
rdf:type: owl:Class
Children Classes: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

persona

A persona, unlike a role, cannot be adopted by people generally, but is specific to one natural person, or more rarely several natural persons. A persona is an original creation, often bearing meaning regarding the biographical, historical and sociological context to which its/their creator/s is/are attached. Personas as defined here should not be associated with mental illness or multiple personality disorder, since they are not the product of a distorted or uncontrolled perception of reality. At the heart of a persona is an identity that is interacted with by others and that at times can be confused with an actual natural person. It is incarnated and developed by a natural person, and may have a social, literary, artistic or political activity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Persona
Tag: cwrc:Persona
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: foaf:Person
Within Range: cwrc:hasPersona
Within Domain: cwrc:personaOf

[back to top]

place

1- It may be, but is not necessarily, a populated place. Some places, such as cross-roads, do not have a population or settlement per se. Geonames will sometimes categorize places that are now abandoned as "populated places."

2- A named place, whether incorporated, settled, or occupied.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Place
Tag: cwrc:Place
owl:equivalentClass: http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Place schema:Place http://www.geonames.org/ontology#Feature
owl:sameAs: http://geovocab.org/spatial#Feature http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#Feature
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing
Children Classes: cwrc:Address

[back to top]

political affiliation

This subclass of CulturalForm indicates affiliations, connections and associations which designate a person's political involvement. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organisation and informal political positions held by the writer. Political affiliations are defined broadly and include things like "against capital punishment" or "strong supporter of the Empire" in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as "marxist" or "conservative. Political affiliations can be multiple, sometimes contradictory, and may change over time."

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalAffiliation
Tag: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationSelfReported cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationReported cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliation
Instances: abolitionism aidsActivism americanNationalism anarchism animalWelfareAdvocacy anti-American anti-Antisemitism anti-Apartheid anti-Boer anti-Bolshevism anti-Bonapartism anti-British anti-CapitalPunishment anti-Capitalism anti-Caste anti-Catholicism anti-Censorship anti-Communism anti-Conscriptionism anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct anti-CorporalPunishment anti-Dreyfusard anti-European anti-Fascism anti-Federalism anti-Feminism anti-Globalism anti-Imperialism anti-Jacobin anti-Jacobite anti-LandLeague anti-Monarchism anti-NuclearMovement anti-Pacifism anti-PovertyMovement anti-Racism anti-Socialism anti-Suffrage anti-Trade-Unionism anti-Urbanism anti-Vaccination anti-Vivisection anti-War anti-Zionism antidisestablishmentarianism antisemitism artsAdvocacy birthControlActivism blackAnti-Oppression bolshevism bonapartism boulangism britishNationalism capitalism childrensWelfare christianPacifism christianSocialism civilLibertarianism civilRights co-operativeMovement communalism communism conscientiousObjection conservatism conservativeFeminism conservativePartyUk constitutionalism covenanters disestablishmentarianism dressReform dreyfusard educationReform egalitarianism egyptianNationalism elderRights environmentalism eugenics existentialism fascism feminism feministAnti-ViolenceActivism feministInternationalism feministPacifism freeTradeMovement frenchNationalism gayRights germanNationalism girondin greekNationalist guelphPartyFlorence hanoverian housingMovement humanRights humanism imperialism indianIndependence indigenousRights individualism internationalism irishHomeRuleMovement irishNationalism irishRepublicanism irishUnionism italianNationalism jacobinism jacobitism jewishEmancipation labourMovement left-Wing liberalUnionistParty liberalism libertarianism maoism marriageLawReform marxism monarchism multiculturalism multiracialism nationalism nazism neo-Conservatism newDealer nihilism nonjurorsMovement pacifism parliamentarianism parliamentaryReform patriotism polishNationalism poorAdvocacy poorLawReform prisonReform pro-American pro-BoerWar pro-Catholicism pro-Choice pro-European pro-Slavery propertyLawReform protestantRule racialEquality racism radicalism rationalism republicanism revolutionaryPolitics sabbatarianism sanitaryMovement scottishNationalism secularism sexualReform socialPurity socialReform socialism societyOfFriends spanishRepublicanism stalinism suffrage taxResistance temperanceMovement toryPartyBritain tradeUnionism urbanReform vegetarianism welshNationalism whiggism wilkite womanism womensEducationReform womensEmploymentReform zionism

[back to top]

political context

Political Context is a significant subclass of context. It is associated with the cultural form subclass Ethnicity, and sometimes other intersecting Cultural Forms. Annotations typed as Political Context provide information about and discussions of a person's subjectivity with regards to their political identity. Political Context provides depth to more granular categorizations of a person indicated by the properties has political affiliation and has political affiliation (self-reported).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalContext
Tag: cwrc:PoliticalContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

post-secondary school

"Higher education, post-secondary education, or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education. Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education. The right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education" (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PostSecondarySchool
Tag: cwrc:PostSecondarySchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Higher_education
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

prep school

Within a North American context, prep schools are private educational institutions that prepare students for college. Within a British context, they are private schools for students -- the age range of the students can vary significantly depending on when they went to school, though typically ranging from ages seven (though sometimes three) to thirteen.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PrepSchool
Tag: cwrc:PrepSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Preparatory_school_(United_Kingdom)
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

primary school

"A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before secondary school. (In some countries there is an intermediate stage of middle school between primary and secondary education.)" (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PrimarySchool
Tag: cwrc:PrimarySchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Primary_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

private school

"Private schools, also known as independent schools, non-governmental, or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship, which makes the cost cheaper, depending on a talent the student may have (e.g. sport scholarship, art scholarship, academic scholarship), financial need, or tax credit scholarships that might be available." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PrivateSchool
Tag: cwrc:PrivateSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Private_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

race or colour

A subclass of cultural form, this property indicates a person's race or colour, often as presumed, perceived, or otherwise assigned according to cultural conventions, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. Despite the ways in which categories of race or colour frequently serve heinous interests, their ideological and material impacts in the formation of identities requires recognition. These are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and which are understood here finally as discursive or representational although they have real material impacts. They are thus as social constructs: "There is nothing more to being, or not being, a given race than the social acceptance and societal ascription of a race to a person" (Damon Sajnani, 2015). This ontology therefore does not attempt to lay out an exact, fully defined, or mutually exclusive set of racial categories: this is an impossibility given their shifting use and the overlap among them and with identity categories for ethnicity, geography, and nationality. Those applying this class and its subclasses are encouraged not to let privileged identities operate as an unspoken given or to use this class solely in relation to the marginalized. Those concerned about "white" and "black" as homogenizing categories are encouraged to reach for specificity through plural categories and representations of intersectionality, and to consult race or ethnicity context annotations, if available.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceColour
Tag: cwrc:RaceColour
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasRaceColour cwrc:hasRaceColourReported cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfReported
Instances: asianRaceColour blackRaceColour eurasianRace jewishRaceColour mixedRaceColour whiteRaceColour

[back to top]

race or ethnicity
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:RaceEthnicity
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm

[back to top]

race or ethnicity context

Race or Ethnicity Context is a subclass of cultural form context, and is associated with the cultural form subclasses race or colour and ethnicity, and sometimes other cultural forms. Annotations typed as Race or Ethnicity Context provide contextualizing information about and discussions related to a person's perceived or self-reported identity with regards to race and/or ethnicity (Race or Colour or ethnicity). Despite the ways in which categories of Race or Colour and ethnicity frequently serve heinous interests, their ideological and material impacts in the formation of identities requires recognition. These are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and are understood here finally as discursive or representational although they have real material impacts. They are thus social constructs: "There is nothing more to being, or not being, a given race than the social acceptance and societal ascription of a race to a person" (Damon Sajnani, 2015).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicityContext
Tag: cwrc:RaceEthnicityContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:Ethnicity cwrc:RaceColour
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

religion

A subclass of cultural form, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convenience.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Religion
Tag: cwrc:Religion
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasReligion cwrc:hasReligionReported cwrc:hasReligionSelfReported
Instances: abrahamicReligions agnosticism anglicanism atheism baptistChristianity buddhism catholicism christianScience christianity churchOfIreland congregationalism dissentProtestant fifthMonarchists hinduism islam judaism lollardy methodism millenarianism neo-thomism occultism paganism pantheism plymouthBrethren presbyterianism protestantism quakerism spiritualism tractarianMovement unitarianism

[back to top]

religious context

Religion Context is a significant subclass of context. It is associated with the cultural form subclass religion, and sometimes other intersecting Cultural Forms. Annotations typed as Religion Context provide information about and discussions of a person's subjectivity with regards to their religion. Religion Context provides depth to more granular categorizations of a person indicated by the properties has religious affiliation or has religious affiliation (self-reported).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ReligionContext
Tag: cwrc:ReligionContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:Religion
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

religious school

A school associated formally in some way with a religion, ranging from parochial schools to faith-based schools.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ReligiousSchool
Tag: cwrc:ReligiousSchool
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

role

A role of a Person or Actor in some Event, CreativeWork, or Organisation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Role
Tag: cwrc:Role
rdf:type: owl:Class
Instances: Actor

[back to top]

secondary modern school

"A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school that once existed throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland, from 1944 until the 1970s under the Tripartite System and still persist in Northern Ireland, where they are usually referred to simply as Secondary schools, and in areas of England, such as Buckinghamshire (where they are referred to as community schools), Lincolnshire, Wirral Medway and Kent where they are called high schools. " (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SecondaryModernSchool
Tag: cwrc:SecondaryModernSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Secondary_modern_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

secondary school

"A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle school- high school system. Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16. The organisations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SecondarySchool
Tag: cwrc:SecondarySchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Secondary_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

secular school

A school that is not formally associated with a religious organization and/or one that is avowedly secular in its educational principles, often but not always publicly-funded institutions that are funded by countries with a separation between religion and the state.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SecularSchool
Tag: cwrc:SecularSchool
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

self taught education context

Education context related to learning conducted independently.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SelfTaughtEducationContext
Tag: cwrc:SelfTaughtEducationContext
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationContext
skos:related: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autodidacticism

[back to top]

sexuality

A subclass of cultural form and linked to sexuality context, Sexuality properties indicate in a word or phrase identifications or aspects of sexuality (i.e., "lesbian," "monogamous," "heterosexual" but also "promiscuous") not as a means of shutting down but advancing investigation and critical analysis of these identifications. The association assumes that sexual identity does not function in an essentialist manner but can be plural and fluid, so multiple designations can be applied to a single person can be associated with multiple terms. Sexual identity may come from the subject her/himself or be ascribed by others. Terms may be in tension or mutually exclusive, they may reflect different life stages, and they may or may not reflect actual sexual practices. Linking a person to the term "lesbian" as a sexualityIdentity class, for instance, does not necessarily signify that the subject was in any definitive sense a lesbian; such identifications are often impossible for reasons of historical gaps and silences. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See (Campbell and Cowan, 2016)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Sexuality
Tag: cwrc:Sexuality
owl:sameAs: http://homosaurus.org/terms/sexualIdentity
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfReported cwrc:hasSexualityReported cwrc:hasSexuality
Instances: heterosexual homosexual lesbian sexualityBisexuality sexualityCelibacy sexualityFrigidity sexualityLibertinism sexualityPromiscuity

[back to top]

sexuality context

Sexuality Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Sexuality Context provide information about and discussions of a person's subjectivity with regards to their sexuality and sexual identity. Sexuality Context provides depth to more granular categorizations of a person through the sexuality or Sexuality Self-Reported properties. It does not provide context for individual sexual experiences and relationships, although specific relationships may be invoked to indicate the impact on a subject's life and understanding of her own sexuality. Contextualizations allow recognition of the complicated politics of sexuality, for example, considerations regarding outing, the historical specificity of some categories such as "congenital invert," the appropriation of derogatory terms, and the multiplicity of constructions. There are important politics of privacy with respect to the disclosure of a subject's sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual identity. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See (Campbell and Cowan, 2016)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexualityContext
Tag: cwrc:SexualityContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:Gender cwrc:Sexuality
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

single-sex school

"Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education, is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. The practice was common before the twentieth century, particularly in secondary education and higher education. Single-sex education in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religion, and is practiced in many parts of the world. Recently, there has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational research. Single sex education is practiced in many Muslim majority countries; while in the West it is most popular in Belgium, Chile, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Israel, New Zealand, Australia, South Korea. Motivations for such education range from religious ideas of sex segregation to beliefs that the sexes learn and behave differently, and, as such, they thrive in a single sex environment. In the 19th century, in Western countries, single sex girls' finishing schools, and women's colleges offered women a chance to education at a time when they were denied access to mainstream educational institutions. The former were especially common in Switzerland, the latter in the US and the UK, which were pioneers in women's education." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SingleSexSchool
Tag: cwrc:SingleSexSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Single-sex_education
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

social class

A subclass of cultural form, socialClass terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as social class context, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClass
Tag: cwrc:SocialClass
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalForm
Within Range: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfReported cwrc:hasSocialClassReported cwrc:hasSocialClass
Instances: entrepreneurial-industrialist gentry indigent lowerMiddleClass managerial nobility professional rural-unskilled servants shopkeepers skilledCraftpersonArtisan upper-middleClass urban-industrialUnskilled yeoman-farmer

[back to top]

social class context

Social Class Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Social Class Context provide information about and discussions of a person's cultural formation in relation to social class identities and sometimes other intersecting Cultural Forms. Social Class Context provides depth to more granular indications of social class through the Social Class property(Orlando, 2006).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassContext
Tag: cwrc:SocialClassContext
dcterms:subject: cwrc:SocialClass
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

[back to top]

state school

"State schools (also known as public schools outside of England and Wales) generally refer to primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. The term may also refer to public institutions of post-secondary education." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#StateSchool
Tag: cwrc:StateSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:State_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

[back to top]

textual label

Collection of ambiguous or overloaded labels associated with contested concepts.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#TextLabels
Tag: cwrc:TextLabels
rdf:type: owl:Class skos:ConceptScheme
skos:related: skosxl:Label
Within Range: cwrc:representedBy
Within Domain: cwrc:represents
Instances: blackLabel englishLabel eurasianLabel jewishLabel manLabel queerLabel whiteLabel womanLabel

[back to top]

trade school

"A vocational school, sometimes called a trade school or vocational college, is a post-secondary educational institution designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job. Vocational schools are traditionally distinguished from four-year colleges by their focus on job-specific training to students who are typically bound for one of the skilled trades, rather than providing academic training for students pursuing careers in a professional discipline. While many schools have largely adhered to this convention, the purely vocational focus of other trade schools began to shift in the 1990s "toward a broader preparation that develops the academic" as well as technical skills of their students." (DBpedia, 2018)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#TradeSchool
Tag: cwrc:TradeSchool
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Secondary_education_in_France dbpedia:Vocational_school
rdf:type: owl:Class
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:EducationalOrganization

owl:ObjectProperty (133)

[back to top]

affected entity

Affected entities link to the Object or Class that was modified within a change set, this can be any rdf:resource. A change set may have 0 to many affected entities.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#affectedEntity
Tag: cwrc:affectedEntity
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:ChangeSet

[back to top]

altered by

Links a natural person to a change set entry.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#alteredBy
Tag: cwrc:alteredBy
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:ChangeSet
rdfs:range: cwrc:NaturalPerson
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:madeAlteration

[back to top]

attends

Indicates attending or having attended for education either a particular school or a particular type of schooling.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#attends
Tag: cwrc:attends
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStudent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:School

[back to top]

aunt of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#auntOf
Tag: cwrc:auntOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasAunt
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo

[back to top]

awarded to
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#awardedTo
Tag: cwrc:awardedTo
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:range: cwrc:EducationalAward
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasAward

[back to top]

brother of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#brotherOf
Tag: cwrc:brotherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasBrother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:siblingOf
skos:broader: schema:sibling
Children Properties: cwrc:stepBrotherOf

[back to top]

certainty of

Links a level of certainty to a source

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#certaintyOf
Tag: cwrc:certaintyOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasCertainty
rdf:type: owl:InverseFunctionalProperty owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:Certainty

[back to top]

child of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#childOf
Tag: cwrc:childOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasParent
Children Properties: cwrc:daughterOf cwrc:sonOf

[back to top]

contrary to
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#contraryTo
Tag: cwrc:contraryTo
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty owl:SymmetricProperty

[back to top]

cousin of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#cousinOf
Tag: cwrc:cousinOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasCousin
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasCousin

[back to top]

cultural form of

This is the inverse of has a cultural form.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#culturalFormOf
Tag: cwrc:culturalFormOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasCulturalForm
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

daughter of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#daughterOf
Tag: cwrc:daughterOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasDaughter
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:childOf
skos:broader: schema:parent

[back to top]

domain includes

Specifies a particular class type that is acceptable to use for a relation's domain

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#domainIncludes
Tag: cwrc:domainIncludes
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: owl:Thing
rdfs:range: owl:Thing

[back to top]

event of

Associates an event with a subject or an event with another event.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eventOf
Tag: cwrc:eventOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasEvent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: owl:Thing
rdfs:range: cwrc:Event

[back to top]

father of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fatherOf
Tag: cwrc:fatherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasFather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:parentOf
skos:broader: https://schema.org/children

[back to top]

grandchild of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandChildOf
Tag: cwrc:grandChildOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasGrandParent
Children Properties: cwrc:grandSonOf cwrc:grandDaughterOf

[back to top]

granddaughter of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandDaughterOf
Tag: cwrc:grandDaughterOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandDaughter
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:grandChildOf

[back to top]

grandfather of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandFatherOf
Tag: cwrc:grandFatherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandFather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:grandParentOf

[back to top]

grandmother of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandMotherOf
Tag: cwrc:grandMotherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandMother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:grandParentOf

[back to top]

grandparent of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandParentOf
Tag: cwrc:grandParentOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandParent
owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasGrandChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
Children Properties: cwrc:grandFatherOf cwrc:grandMotherOf

[back to top]

grandson of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandSonOf
Tag: cwrc:grandSonOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGrandSon
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:grandChildOf

[back to top]

guardian of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#guardianOf
Tag: cwrc:guardianOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasGuardian
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship

[back to top]

has aunt

Relates a person to the sister of their father or mother, but can also refer to any maternal relationship and need not be restricted to a consanguineal relation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasAunt
Tag: cwrc:hasAunt
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aunt
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:auntOf

[back to top]

has award

Indicates an award, prize, or recognition that a person has won, such as a literary award or an educational award prize.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasAward
Tag: cwrc:hasAward
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:awardedTo
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:EducationalAward

[back to top]

has brother

Relates a person to a male-identified sibling. Although the term typically refers to consanguineal relationships, it is often used to describe relationships beyond "blood ties."

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasBrother
Tag: cwrc:hasBrother
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSibling
skos:broader: schema:sibling
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:brotherOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasStepBrother

[back to top]

has certainty

Associates a level of certainty for a source

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCertainty
Tag: cwrc:hasCertainty
rdf:type: owl:FunctionalProperty owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:range: cwrc:Certainty
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:certaintyOf

[back to top]

has child

Relates a person to a child, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasChild
Tag: cwrc:hasChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:parentOf
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:childOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasSon cwrc:hasDaughter

[back to top]

has companion

Describes a relationship with a person, usually a peer, in the context of the subject's education.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCompanion
Tag: cwrc:hasCompanion
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person

[back to top]

has contested behaviour

Describes behaviour, which is perceived as negative, in the context of the subject's education. Often indicative of struggle against systemic discrimination, including within the structures of educational institutions.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasContestedBehaviour
Tag: cwrc:hasContestedBehaviour
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person

[back to top]

has cousin

Relates a person to the child of their aunt or uncle; a person belonging to the same extended family, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCousin
Tag: cwrc:hasCousin
owl:sameAs: cwrc:cousinOf
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephew_and_niece
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:cousinOf

[back to top]

has a cultural form

This associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as a cultural form are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForm
Tag: cwrc:hasCulturalForm
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:culturalFormOf

[back to top]

has daughter

Relates a person to a female-identified child, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasDaughter
Tag: cwrc:hasDaughter
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daughter
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasChild
skos:broader: schema:children
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:daughterOf

[back to top]

has education

Links a person to information about their education in education context.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEducation
Tag: cwrc:hasEducation
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:NaturalPerson
rdfs:range: cwrc:EducationContext

[back to top]

has ethnic identity

Indicates a person's ethnic identity, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see ethnicity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:hasEthnicity
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Ethnicity
Children Properties: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfReported cwrc:hasEthnicityReported

[back to top]

has ethnic identity (reported)

Indicates a person's reported ethnic identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. For more information on this property, see ethnicity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicityReported
Tag: cwrc:hasEthnicityReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Ethnicity
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasEthnicity

[back to top]

has ethnic identity (self-reported)

Indicates a person's self-reported ethnic identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. For more information on this property, see ethnicity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Ethnicity
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasEthnicity

[back to top]

has event

Associates a subject with an event

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEvent
Tag: cwrc:hasEvent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: owl:Thing
rdfs:range: cwrc:Event
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:eventOf

[back to top]

has father

Relates a person to their father, the male-identified parent, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasFather
Tag: cwrc:hasFather
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasParent
skos:broader: schema:parent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:fatherOf

[back to top]

has functional relation

Relates terms within the CWRC ontology to external terms that are semantically incommensurate but that may be pragmatically related for processing purposes such as search and retrieval. For example, the gender instance woman relates functionally to appearances:SexISO5218-2 because important datasets employ the ISO5218 value "female". hasFunctionalRelation can be leveraged by search tools to broaden the results returned.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasFunctionalRelation
Tag: cwrc:hasFunctionalRelation
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

has gender identity

Describes a person's gender identity, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by gender context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGender
Tag: cwrc:hasGender
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Gender
Children Properties: cwrc:hasGenderSelfReported cwrc:hasGenderReported

[back to top]

has gender identity (reported)

Indicates a person's reported gender identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by gender context annotations.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderReported
Tag: cwrc:hasGenderReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Gender
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGender

[back to top]

has gender identity (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported gender identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by gender context annotations.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasGenderSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Gender
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGender

[back to top]

has geographic heritage

Describes a person's heritage in relation to a place, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. Place names and boundaries change over time, and a conception of geographical heritage from one historical period may not be commensurate with those from an earlier or later period, even if they go by the same name. Similarly, a sense of geographical heritage may differ from a sense of identity with a political entity that goes by the same name. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see geographic heritage.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritage
Tag: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:GeographicHeritage
Children Properties: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageReported cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported

[back to top]

has geographic heritage (reported)

Describes a person's reported geographic heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageReported
Tag: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:GeographicHeritage
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage

[back to top]

has geographic heritage (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported geographic heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:GeographicHeritage
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage

[back to top]

has grandchild

Relates a person to a child of a person's child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandChild
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandChild
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family#Roles
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:grandParentOf
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandChildOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasGrandSon cwrc:hasGrandDaughter

[back to top]

has granddaughter

Relates a person to a female-identified child of a person's child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandDaughter
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandDaughter
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family#Roles
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGrandChild
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandDaughterOf

[back to top]

has grandfather

Relates a person to the father of their mother or father.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandFather
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandFather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGrandParent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandFatherOf

[back to top]

has grandmother

Relates a person to the mother of their mother or father.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandMother
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandMother
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandparent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGrandParent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandMotherOf

[back to top]

has grandparent

Relates a person to the parent of their mother or father.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandParent
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandParent
owl:sameAs: cwrc:grandChildOf
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandparent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandParentOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasGrandMother cwrc:hasGrandFather

[back to top]

has grandson

Relates a person to a male-identified child of a person's child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGrandSon
Tag: cwrc:hasGrandSon
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family#Roles
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasGrandChild
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:grandSonOf

[back to top]

has guardian

Relates a person (usually a minor) to another, usually an adult who is charged with their care. This term stretches beyond the legal definition of "guardian" to include a broader social relation between dependant and dependee (e.g.: in loco parentis)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGuardian
Tag: cwrc:hasGuardian
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:guardianOf

[back to top]

has husband

Relates a person to a male-identified partner in a marital relationship.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasHusband
Tag: cwrc:hasHusband
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasPartner
skos:broader: https://schema.org/spouse
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:husbandOf

[back to top]

has instructor

Describes the subject's relationship with an educational instructor or mentor, formal or informal.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasInstructor
Tag: cwrc:hasInstructor
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:range: foaf:Person

[back to top]

language known

Knowledge of the language for speaking, writing, or reading, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbility
Tag: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
Children Properties: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilityReported

[back to top]

language known (reported)

Reported knowledge of the language for speaking, writing, or reading, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. For further information about this property, see linguistic ability (spoken and/or writen).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilityReported
Tag: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilityReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

[back to top]

language known (self-reported)

Self-reported knowledge of the language for speaking, writing, or reading, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. For further information about this property, see linguistic ability (spoken and/or writen).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility
Children Properties: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilityReported

[back to top]

has location

The location of a thing. For example where an event took place or a organization is located

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLocation
Tag: cwrc:hasLocation
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: owl:Thing
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:locationOf

[back to top]

has mother

Relates a person to their mother, the female-identified parent, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasMother
Tag: cwrc:hasMother
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasParent
skos:broader: schema:parent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:motherOf

[back to top]

has national heritage

Describes a person's national heritage, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalHeritage
Tag: cwrc:hasNationalHeritage
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalHeritage
Children Properties: cwrc:hasNationalHeritageReported cwrc:hasNationalHeritageSelfReported

[back to top]

has national heritage (reported)

Describes a person's reported national heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalHeritageReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNationalHeritageReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalHeritage
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasNationalHeritage

[back to top]

has national heritage (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported national heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalHeritageSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNationalHeritageSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalHeritage
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasNationalHeritage

[back to top]

has national identity

Describes a person's national identity identity, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationality
Tag: cwrc:hasNationality
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalIdentity
Children Properties: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfReported cwrc:hasNationalityReported

[back to top]

has national identity (reported)

This property indicates a person's reported national identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. It is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. For more information on this property see national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalityReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNationalityReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalIdentity
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasNationality

[back to top]

has national identity (self-reported)

This property indicates a person's self-reported national identity, with with accompanying context, where present, provided by nationality context annotations. It is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. For more information on this property see national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:NationalIdentity
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasNationality

[back to top]

natively known language

Knowledge of the language, acquired during a person’s upbringing, for speaking, writing or reading, which may be self-reported or reported by another, and with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbility
Tag: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

[back to top]

natively known language (reported)

Reported knowledge of the language, acquired during a person’s upbringing, for speaking, writing, or reading, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilityReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilityReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

[back to top]

natively known language (self-reported)

Self-reported knowledge of the language, acquired during a person’s upbringing, for speaking, writing, or reading, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Language
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

[back to top]

has nephew

Relates a person to the son of their sibling.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNephew
Tag: cwrc:hasNephew
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:nephewOf

[back to top]

has niece

Relates a person to the daughter of their sibling.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNiece
Tag: cwrc:hasNiece
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephew_and_niece
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:nieceOf

[back to top]

has parent

Relates a person to their father, mother, or, in certain cases, their guardian.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasParent
Tag: cwrc:hasParent
owl:sameAs: schema:parent cwrc:childOf
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:parentOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasMother cwrc:hasFather

[back to top]

has Participant

Associates an event with a person.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasParticipant
Tag: cwrc:hasParticipant
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:Event
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:participantOf

[back to top]

has partner
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasPartner
Tag: cwrc:hasPartner
owl:sameAs: cwrc:partnerOf
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:partnerOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasWife cwrc:hasHusband

[back to top]

has persona

Associates a persona with one more natural person(s).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasPersona
Tag: cwrc:hasPersona
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:NaturalPerson
rdfs:range: cwrc:Persona
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:personaOf

[back to top]

has political affiliation

Describes a person's political affiliation, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by political context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see political affiliation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasPoliticalAffiliation
Tag: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliation
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
Children Properties: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationReported cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationSelfReported

[back to top]

has political affiliation (reported)

Describes a person's reported political affiliation. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see political affiliation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasPoliticalAffiliationReported
Tag: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

has political affiliation (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported political affiliation. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see political affiliation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasPoliticalAffiliationSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliationSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasPoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

has race or colour identity

This describes a person's identity with respect to race or colour, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For more information on this property see race or colour.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:hasRaceColour
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:RaceColour
Children Properties: cwrc:hasRaceColourReported cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfReported

[back to top]

has race or colour identity (reported)

Indicates a person's reported identity with respect to race or colour, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. For further information about this property, see race or colour.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourReported
Tag: cwrc:hasRaceColourReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:RaceColour
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRaceColour

[back to top]

has race or colour identity (self-reported)

Indicates a person's self-reported identity with respect to race or colour, with accompanying context, where present, provided by race or ethnicity context annotations. For further information about this property, see race or colour.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:RaceColour
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRaceColour

[back to top]

has relative
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRelative
Tag: cwrc:hasRelative
owl:sameAs: cwrc:relativeOf
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship
Children Properties: cwrc:hasParent cwrc:hasNiece cwrc:hasStepChild cwrc:hasChild cwrc:hasGrandChild cwrc:hasStepParent cwrc:hasAunt cwrc:hasGrandParent cwrc:hasCousin cwrc:hasUncle cwrc:hasSibling cwrc:hasNephew

[back to top]

has religious affiliation

Indicates a person's religion or belief system, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context annotations. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see religion.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligion
Tag: cwrc:hasReligion
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Religion
Children Properties: cwrc:hasReligionReported cwrc:hasReligionSelfReported

[back to top]

has religious affiliation (reported)

Indicates a person's reported religion or belief system, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context annotations. For further information about this property, see religion.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionReported
Tag: cwrc:hasReligionReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Religion
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasReligion

[back to top]

has religious affiliation (self-reported)

Indicates a person's self-reported religion or belief system, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context annotations. For further information about this property, see religion.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasReligionSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Religion
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasReligion

[back to top]

has role

Associates an event element to a role.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRole
Tag: cwrc:hasRole
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:Event

[back to top]

has sexual identity

Describes a person's sexual identity, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by sexuality context. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see sexuality.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexuality
Tag: cwrc:hasSexuality
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Sexuality
Children Properties: cwrc:hasSexualityReported cwrc:hasSexualitySelfReported

[back to top]

has sexual identity (reported)

This describes a person's reported sexual identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by sexuality context. For more information, see sexuality and sexuality context.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualityReported
Tag: cwrc:hasSexualityReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Sexuality
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSexuality

[back to top]

has sexual identity (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported sexual identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by sexuality context. For more information, see sexuality and sexuality context.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Sexuality
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSexuality

[back to top]

has sibling

Describes a relationship in which two or more individuals share the same parentage.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSibling
Tag: cwrc:hasSibling
owl:sameAs: schema:sibling cwrc:siblingOf
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibling
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:siblingOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasBrother cwrc:hasSister

[back to top]

has sister

Relates a person to a female-identified sibling. Although the term typically refers to consanguineal relationships, it is often used to describe relationships beyond "blood ties".

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSister
Tag: cwrc:hasSister
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sister
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSibling
skos:broader: schema:sibling
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:sisterOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasStepSister

[back to top]

has class identity

Describes a person's class identity, which may be self-reported or reported by another, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. As with other cultural forms, an individual may have more than one property or descriptor of this type. For further information about this property, see social class.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClass
Tag: cwrc:hasSocialClass
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:SocialClass
Children Properties: cwrc:hasSocialClassReported cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfReported

[back to top]

has class identity (reported)

Describes a person's reported class identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. For further information about this property, see social class.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassReported
Tag: cwrc:hasSocialClassReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:SocialClass
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSocialClass

[back to top]

has class identity (self-reported)

Describes a person's self-reported class identity, with accompanying context, where present, provided by cultural form context. For further information about this property, see social class.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfReported
Tag: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfReported
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:SocialClass
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSocialClass

[back to top]

has son

Relates a person to a male-identified child, consanguineal or otherwise.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSon
Tag: cwrc:hasSon
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasChild
skos:broader: schema:children
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:sonOf

[back to top]

has stepbrother

Relates a person to a male-identified stepsibling, that is, a child of the person's stepparent.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepBrother
Tag: cwrc:hasStepBrother
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepsibling
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasBrother
skos:broader: schema:sibling
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepBrotherOf

[back to top]

has stepchild

Relates a person to the child of that person's spouse, in contrast to what is commonly referred to as the "biological parent" of said child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepChild
Tag: cwrc:hasStepChild
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepchild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:related: https://schema.org/children
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepChildOf
Children Properties: cwrc:hasStepSon cwrc:hasStepDaughter

[back to top]

has stepdaughter

Relates a person to a female-identified child of that person's spouse, in contrast to what is commonly referred to as the "biological parent" of said child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepDaughter
Tag: cwrc:hasStepDaughter
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepchild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasStepChild
skos:related: https://schema.org/children
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepDaughterOf

[back to top]

has stepfather

Relates a person to their stepfather, that is, a parent married to that person's so-called "biological parent", in contrast to a consanguineal relationship.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepFather
Tag: cwrc:hasStepFather
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepfather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasStepParent
skos:broader: schema:parent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepFatherOf

[back to top]

has stepmother

Relates a person to their stepmother, that is, a parent married to that person's so-called "biological parent", in contrast to a consanguineal relationship.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepMother
Tag: cwrc:hasStepMother
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepParent
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepmother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasStepParent
skos:broader: schema:parent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepMotherOf

[back to top]

has stepparent

Relates a person to their stepparent, that is, a parent married to that person's so-called "biological parent", in contrast to a consanguineal relationship.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepParent
Tag: cwrc:hasStepParent
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepChild
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepfather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:parent
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepMother
Children Properties: cwrc:hasStepFather cwrc:hasStepMother

[back to top]

has stepsister

Relates a person to a female-identified stepsibling, that is, a child of the person's stepparent.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepSister
Tag: cwrc:hasStepSister
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepsibling
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasSister
skos:broader: schema:sibling
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepSisterOf

[back to top]

has stepson

Relates a person to a male-identified child of that person's spouse, in contrast to what is commonly referred to as the "biological parent" of said child.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStepSon
Tag: cwrc:hasStepSon
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepchild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasStepChild
skos:related: https://schema.org/children
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:stepSonOf

[back to top]

has student

Indicates that the student was educated by the entity in question,—an instructor, an educational institution, or a particular type of schooling.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasStudent
Tag: cwrc:hasStudent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:School
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:attends

[back to top]

has uncle

Relates a person to the sister of their father or mother, but can also refer to any avuncular relationship and need not be restricted to a consanguineal relation.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasUncle
Tag: cwrc:hasUncle
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncle
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasRelative
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:uncleOf

[back to top]

has wife

Relates a person to a female-identified partner in a marital relationship.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasWife
Tag: cwrc:hasWife
prov:wasDerivedFrom: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wife
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:hasPartner
skos:broader: https://schema.org/spouse
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:wifeOf

[back to top]

husband of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#husbandOf
Tag: cwrc:husbandOf
owl:differentFrom: dbpedia:Partnership
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasHusband
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:partnerOf
skos:broader: https://schema.org/spouse

[back to top]

interpersonal relationship
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#interpersonalRelationship
Tag: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
Children Properties: cwrc:relativeOf cwrc:hasGuardian cwrc:guardianOf cwrc:hasRelative

[back to top]

location Of

Things that are or were at this location at some point in time.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#locationOf
Tag: cwrc:locationOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasLocation
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:range: owl:Thing

[back to top]

made alteration

Links an change set to a natural person

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#madeAlteration
Tag: cwrc:madeAlteration
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:alteredBy
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:NaturalPerson
rdfs:range: cwrc:ChangeSet

[back to top]

mother of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#motherOf
Tag: cwrc:motherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasMother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:parentOf
skos:broader: schema:children

[back to top]

nephew of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nephewOf
Tag: cwrc:nephewOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasNephew
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo

[back to top]

niece of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nieceOf
Tag: cwrc:nieceOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasNiece
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo

[back to top]

parent of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parentOf
Tag: cwrc:parentOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasParent
owl:sameAs: schema:children cwrc:hasChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
Children Properties: cwrc:motherOf cwrc:fatherOf

[back to top]

participant of

The event that the Person is associated with.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#participantOf
Tag: cwrc:participantOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasParticipant
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: cwrc:Event

[back to top]

partner of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#partnerOf
Tag: cwrc:partnerOf
owl:differentFrom: dbpedia:Partnership
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasPartner
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasPartner
Children Properties: cwrc:wifeOf cwrc:husbandOf

[back to top]

persona of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personaOf
Tag: cwrc:personaOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasPersona
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:Persona
rdfs:range: cwrc:NaturalPerson

[back to top]

range includes

Specifies a particular class type that is acceptable to use for a relation's range

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rangeIncludes
Tag: cwrc:rangeIncludes
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: owl:Thing
rdfs:range: owl:Thing

[back to top]

relative of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#relativeOf
Tag: cwrc:relativeOf
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasRelative
Children Properties: cwrc:uncleOf cwrc:nieceOf cwrc:childOf cwrc:partnerOf cwrc:siblingOf cwrc:grandParentOf cwrc:stepParentOf cwrc:auntOf cwrc:grandChildOf cwrc:cousinOf cwrc:nephewOf cwrc:stepChildOf cwrc:parentOf

[back to top]

represented by

Relates ambiguous or overloaded terms, classed as textual label to two or more particularly contested and related concepts. Often used for cultural form; for instance English and English are both represented by English identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#representedBy
Tag: cwrc:representedBy
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:represents
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:range: cwrc:TextLabels

[back to top]

represents

Relates a concept to ambiguous or overloaded terms, classed as textual label, that designate multivalent and frequently contested concepts. For instance, English identity is a textual label that represents both English and English.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#represents
Tag: cwrc:represents
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: cwrc:TextLabels
*owl:inverseOf: cwrc:representedBy

[back to top]

sibling of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#siblingOf
Tag: cwrc:siblingOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasSibling
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
*owl:sameAs: cwrc:hasSibling
Children Properties: cwrc:sisterOf cwrc:brotherOf

[back to top]

sister of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sisterOf
Tag: cwrc:sisterOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasSister
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:siblingOf
Children Properties: cwrc:stepSisterOf

[back to top]

son of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sonOf
Tag: cwrc:sonOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasSon
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:childOf
skos:broader: schema:parent

[back to top]

stepbrother of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepBrotherOf
Tag: cwrc:stepBrotherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepBrother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:brotherOf
skos:broader: schema:sibling

[back to top]

stepchild of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepChildOf
Tag: cwrc:stepChildOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepChild
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:related: https://schema.org/parent
Children Properties: cwrc:stepDaughterOf cwrc:stepSonOf

[back to top]

stepdaughter of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepDaughterOf
Tag: cwrc:stepDaughterOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepDaughter
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:stepChildOf
skos:related: https://schema.org/parent

[back to top]

stepfather of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepFatherOf
Tag: cwrc:stepFatherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepFather
prov:wasDerivedFrom: cwrc:hasStepFather
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:stepParentOf
skos:broader: schema:children

[back to top]

stepmother of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepMotherOf
Tag: cwrc:stepMotherOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepMother
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:stepParentOf
skos:broader: schema:children

[back to top]

stepparent of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepParentOf
Tag: cwrc:stepParentOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepParent
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:children
Children Properties: cwrc:stepFatherOf cwrc:stepMotherOf

[back to top]

stepsister of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepSisterOf
Tag: cwrc:stepSisterOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepSister
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:sisterOf
skos:broader: schema:sibling

[back to top]

stepson of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepSonOf
Tag: cwrc:stepSonOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasStepSon
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:stepChildOf
skos:related: https://schema.org/parent

[back to top]

uncle of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#uncleOf
Tag: cwrc:uncleOf
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasUncle
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:relativeOf
skos:broader: schema:relatedTo

[back to top]

wife of
URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#wifeOf
Tag: cwrc:wifeOf
owl:differentFrom: dbpedia:Partnership
owl:inverseOf: cwrc:hasWife
rdf:type: owl:ObjectProperty
rdfs:domain: foaf:Person
rdfs:range: foaf:Person
rdfs:subPropertyOf: cwrc:partnerOf
skos:broader: https://schema.org/spouse

owl:Class Instances

[back to top]

high certainty

A predefined value of certainty that represents cases where where a fact is considered of high quality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#highCertainty
Tag: cwrc:highCertainty
rdf:type: cwrc:Certainty

[back to top]

low certainty

A predefined value of certainty that represents cases where where a fact is considered of low quality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lowCertainty
Tag: cwrc:lowCertainty
rdf:type: cwrc:Certainty

[back to top]

medium certainty

A predefined value of certainty that represents cases where where a fact is considered of medium quality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#mediumCertainty
Tag: cwrc:mediumCertainty
rdf:type: cwrc:Certainty

[back to top]

unknown certainty

A predefined value of certainty that is used when one does not want to assert an opinion on certainty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unknownCertainty
Tag: cwrc:unknownCertainty
rdf:type: cwrc:Certainty

[back to top]

educational award prize

An educational prize is a medal or award, monetary or otherwise, presented by either an institution or person of authority to an individual who has excelled beyond their peers, reached a great achievement, and/or produced a very high standard of work.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#educationalAwardPrize
Tag: cwrc:educationalAwardPrize
rdf:type: cwrc:EducationalAward
skos:inScheme: cwrc:EducationalAward

[back to top]

educational award scholarship

A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further their education. Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award. Scholarship money is not required to be repaid.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#educationalAwardScholarship
Tag: cwrc:educationalAwardScholarship
rdf:type: cwrc:EducationalAward
skos:inScheme: cwrc:EducationalAward

[back to top]

African-American

"African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may also be used to include only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: African-Americans ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#african-americanEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:african-americanEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:blackLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:African_Americans
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

African

"The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, each generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture. The ethnolinguistic groups include various Afro-Asiatic, Khoisan, Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan populations." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: black African descent ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#africanEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:africanEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:blackLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:List_of_ethnic_groups_of_Africa
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Ashkenazi Jewish

"Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modern Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכֲּנַז Y'hudey Ashkenaz), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community of Jews in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews consisted of various dialects of Yiddish." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Ashkenazim, or German Jewish Ashkenazim ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ashkenaziJewishEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:ashkenaziJewishEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:jewishLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Ashkenazi_Jews
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:jewishEthnicity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Bengali

"The Bengalis (বাঙালি Bangali), also spelled as the Bangalees, are a major Indo-Aryan ethnic group. They are native to the region of Bengal in South Asia, which is presently-divided between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. They speak the Bengali language, the most easterly branch of the Indo-European language family. Bengalis are the third largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese and the Arabs. They have four major religious subgroups, including Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians and Bengali Buddhists." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bengaliEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:bengaliEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Bengalis
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

black

"Black people (seen both capitalized and with lowercase 'b') is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, "black" is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, and as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and these social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, and the social criteria for "blackness" vary. For example, in North America the term black people is not necessarily an indicator of skin color or ethnic origin, but is instead a socially based racial classification related to being African American, with a family history associated with institutionalized slavery. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are generally not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:blackEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:blackLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Black_people
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Celtic

"A modern Celtic identity emerged in Western Europe following the identification of the native peoples of the Atlantic fringe as Celts by Edward Lhuyd in the 18th century. Lhuyd and others equated the Celts described by Greco-Roman writers with the pre-Roman peoples of France, Great Britain and Ireland. The Irish and ancient British languages were thus Celtic languages. The descendants of these languages were the Brittonic (Breton, Cornish and Welsh variants) and Gaelic (Irish, Manx and Scottish variants) languages. These peoples were therefore modern Celts. Attempts were made to link their distinctive cultures to those of the Ancient Celtic people." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Highland Highland (that is Celtic) ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#celticEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:celticEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Celts_(modern)
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

European

"The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#europeanEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:europeanEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Ethnic_groups_in_Europe
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Irish

"The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies (see Prehistoric Ireland). For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people (see Gaelic Ireland). Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th century (re)conquest and colonization of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots to parts of the island, especially the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland (an independent state), and the smaller Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom)." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:irishEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Irish_people
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Jewish

"The Jews (/dʒuːz/; Hebrew: יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel. The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age). The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, and the Kingdom of Judah. Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'. Though few sources in the Bible mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian Captivity and Exile, to Babylonian Captivity and Exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation, and the historical relations between Israelites and their homeland, became a major feature of Jewish history, identity and memory. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since then the population has slowly risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, or less than 0.2% of the total world population (roughly one in every 514 people). According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel (6.4 million), and 40% in the United States (5.7 million), with most of the remainder living in Europe (1.4 million) and Canada (0.4 million). These numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household. The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to issues with census methodology, disputes among proponents of halakhic, secular, political, and ancestral identification factors regarding who is a Jew may affect the figure considerably depending on the source. Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and Basic Laws. Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, including philosophy, ethics, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, religion, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, as well as science and technology, both historically and in modern times." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Judaism Jew Jewry a Jewish one-quarter Jewish Jews Jewish ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:jewishEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:jewishLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jews
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Romani

"The Romani (also spelled Romany; /ˈroʊməni/, /ˈrɒ-/), or Roma, are a traditionally nomadic ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, presumably from where the states Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab exist today. The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym "Gypsies" (or "Gipsies"), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity."(DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: gypsy Roma gipsy gypsies ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#romaniEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:romaniEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Romani_people
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Sephardic Jewish

"Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַד Y'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000). They established communities throughout Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sephardicJewishEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:sephardicJewishEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Sephardi_Jews
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:jewishEthnicity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Thracian

"The Thracians (/ˈθreɪʃənz/; Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Thracians ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#thracianEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:thracianEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Thracians
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Wendish

"Wends (Old English: Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, German: Wenden, Winden, Danish: vendere, Swedish: vender, Polish: Wendowie) is a historical name for the West Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Wends or Sorbs ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#wendishEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:wendishEthnicity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Wends
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

white

"White people is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The contemporary usage of 'white people' or a 'white race; as a large group of (mainly European) populations contrasting with 'black', American Indian, 'colored' or non-white originates in the 17th century. It is today particularly used as a racial classifier in multiracial societies, such as the United States (White American), the United Kingdom (White British), Brazil (White Brazilian), and South Africa (White South African). Various social constructions of whiteness have been significant to national identity, public policy, religion, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, white privilege, eugenics, racial marginalization and racial quotas. The term 'white race' or 'white people' entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery and unequal status in European colonies. Description of populations as 'white' in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources. Scholarship on race generally distinguishes the modern concept from pre-modern descriptions of collective difference." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteEthnicity
Tag: cwrc:whiteEthnicity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:whiteLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:White_people
rdf:type: cwrc:Ethnicity skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

androgynous

Indicates gender ambiguity or indeterminacy, and the adoption or presentation of a blend of both masculine and feminine gender attributes and behaviour. The term is strongly associated with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when it was redefined by Jungian theories and later by Jungian feminist psychologists (Elizabeth Wright, 1992). Androgyny may involve cross-dressing, or appropriation of external attributes usually assigned to the supposedly opposite sex or gender. It may be understood as gender indetermination, gender neutrality, or a fairly balanced mix of male and female attributes. The term also has political significance in some feminist circles. For example, androgyny is an important feature in Virginia Woolf's vision of writing and creative processes (Virginia Woolf, 1929).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Androgynous
Tag: cwrc:Androgynous
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

genderqueer

Indicates refusal of dominant gender categories and cisnormativity, and identification with both, a combination, or neither of the dominant binary gender roles. The term is strongly associated with the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It comes from deconstructionist and post-structuralist theory, and was coined by Teresa de Lauretis at a conference in 1990. Because "queer" identity is recent, its definition is still debated among scholars and activists. Even though it is not rigidly defined, the term is increasingly deployed to refer to a large category of people who are not "straight", in a sense that is not restricted to sexual orientation. Following Judith Butler, queerness is not understood as an essence, but best described as a doing or performance, a way to situate oneself deliberately against traditional notions of gender. See Genderqueer - Wikipedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderQueer
Tag: cwrc:GenderQueer
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:queerLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender http://www.w8.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender
skos:note: Listed as non-binary? in french

[back to top]

cisgender

Indicates alignment between a person's gender identity and their sex as understood or assigned at birth. As per the Trans Student Educational Resources (TSER), "the term is not indicative of gender expression, sexual orientation, hormonal makeup, physical anatomy, or how one is perceived in daily life" (TSER, 2017).

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#cisGender
Tag: cwrc:cisGender
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

cisman

Indicates a cisgendered man.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#cisMan
Tag: cwrc:cisMan
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:manLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

ciswoman

Indicates a cisgendered woman.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#cisWoman
Tag: cwrc:cisWoman
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:womanLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

man

Indicates identification with or labelling as the gender man, and who is often but not necessarily understood to be sexed male.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#man
Tag: cwrc:man
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:manLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

transgender

Indicates divergence of a person's gender identity from their sex as understood or assigned at birth. Unlike transwoman or transman, "the term transgender is not indicative of gender expression," nor is it indicative of "sexual orientation, hormonal makeup, physical anatomy, or how one is perceived in daily life."(TSER, 2017)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transGender
Tag: cwrc:transGender
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

transman/transmale

Typically indicates identification as a man while having been assigned the sex "female" at birth. Some trans men prefer to drop the prefix "trans" and keep the label "man" (TSER, 2017). This definition includes trans boys too.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transMan
Tag: cwrc:transMan
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:manLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

transwoman/transfemale

Typically indicates identification as a woman while having been assigned the sex "male" at birth. Some trans women prefer to drop the prefix "trans" and keep the label "woman" (TSER, 2017). This definition includes trans girls too.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transWoman
Tag: cwrc:transWoman
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:womanLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

woman

Indicates a subject identification with or labelling as the gender woman, and who is often but not necessarily understood to be sexed female. "One is not born, but rather becomes, woman" (Simone de Beauvoir, 1973)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#woman
Tag: cwrc:woman
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:womanLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:Gender skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

England

Indicates a subject's identification with or labeling as of English heritage in relation to a place, often England.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishGeographicHeritage
Tag: cwrc:englishGeographicHeritage
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:englishLabel
owl:sameAs: eurovoc:5438
rdf:type: cwrc:GeographicHeritage skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:GeographicHeritage

[back to top]

Jewish

Indicates a subject's identification with or labelling as of Jewish heritage in relation to a place, which may or may not be Israel.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishGeographicHeritage
Tag: cwrc:jewishGeographicHeritage
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:jewishLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:GeographicHeritage skos:Concept
skos:closeMatch: dbpedia:Jewish_identity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:GeographicHeritage

[back to top]

English

Indicates a subject's identification with or labelling as English as an inherited national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalHeritage
Tag: cwrc:englishNationalHeritage
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:englishLabel
owl:sameAs: geonames:6269131
rdf:type: cwrc:NationalHeritage skos:Concept

[back to top]

Welsh

Indicates a subject's identification with or labelling as Welsh as an inherited national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#welshNationalHeritage
Tag: cwrc:welshNationalHeritage
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:welshLabel
owl:sameAs: geonames:2634895
rdf:type: cwrc:NationalHeritage skos:Concept
skos:closeMatch: dbpedia:Welsh_people

[back to top]

English

Indicates a subject's identification with or labelling as English as a national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalIdentity
Tag: cwrc:englishNationalIdentity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:englishLabel
owl:sameAs: eurovoc:5438
rdf:type: cwrc:NationalIdentity skos:Concept
skos:closeMatch: dbpedia:English_national_identity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:NationalIdentity

[back to top]

Jewish

Indicates a subject's identification with or labelling as Jewish or Israeli as a national identity.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishNationalIdentity
Tag: cwrc:jewishNationalIdentity
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:jewishLabel
rdf:type: cwrc:NationalIdentity skos:Concept
skos:closeMatch: dbpedia:Israelis
skos:inScheme: cwrc:NationalIdentity
skos:relatedMatch: dbpedia:Zionism

cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation (171)

[back to top]

abolitionism

"Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, following the example of the Swedish monarch, passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and so was not enforced. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church, taking up a plea by Lourenco da Silva de Mendouca, officially condemned the slave trade, which was affirmed vehemently by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanist grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, and eventually encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, which emancipated a slave in England, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labour continued to do so: French, English and Portuguese territories in the West Indies; South America; and the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal; freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. David Brion Davis argues that the main driving force was a new moral consciousness, with an intellectual assist from the Enlightenment, and a powerful impulse from religious Quakers and evangelicals. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315. Revolutionary France abolished slavery in its colonies in 1794, before it was restored by Napoleon in 1802. Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory, establishing the second republic in the New World. The northern states in the U.S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies abolished it in 1848 and the U.S. in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia; and to emancipate the serfs in Russia (Emancipation reform of 1861). It was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish legal slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. Today, child and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in most countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children" (DBpedia, 2017).

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: integrationism abolition sugar boycotter anti-slavery abolitionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abolitionism
Tag: cwrc:abolitionism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-Slavery
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Abolitionism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights cwrc:humanRights cwrc:racialEquality
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:racism

[back to top]

AIDS activism

Activism related to HIV/AIDS, ranging from addressing attitudes to changing government policies related to treatment and medication. See: Category:AIDS activism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: aids activist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#aidsActivism
Tag: cwrc:aidsActivism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:AIDS_activism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

American nationalism

American nationalism emphasizes the distinctiveness of American language, culture, and history, and calls for a celebration of "Americanness," which might include white nationalist pride and anti-immigration.

[skos:altLabel: american nationalist us patriotism us nationalist (us) nationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#americanNationalism
Tag: cwrc:americanNationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-American

[back to top]

anarchism

"Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system. Anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular world view, instead fluxing and flowing as a philosophy. Many types and traditions of anarchism exist, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is usually considered a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anarchist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anarchism
Tag: cwrc:anarchism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:nationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anarchism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Monarchism

[back to top]

animal welfare advocacy

Advocacy, often in the form of activism, for the welfare of animals. See: Animal welfare - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-blood-sports animal activist animal rights anti-hunting animal rights advocate animal welfare activist anti-cruelty to animals anti-cruelty ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#animalWelfareAdvocacy
Tag: cwrc:animalWelfareAdvocacy
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Animal_welfare
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

anti-American politics

Opposed to the policies or influence of the United States of America, often with reference to specific government actions. See: Anti-Americanism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-American
Tag: cwrc:anti-American
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:americanNationalism cwrc:pro-American
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-Americanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-antisemitism

Opposed to anti-semitic attitudes and practices. See Antisemitism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-antisemitic anti-antisemitist anti-anti-semitism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Antisemitism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:antisemitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Antisemitism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:racialEquality
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Fascism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:nazism

[back to top]

anti-apartheid

"The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing South Africa's system of apartheid and supporting South Africa's non-whites." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Apartheid
Tag: cwrc:anti-Apartheid
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-Apartheid_Movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights cwrc:racialEquality cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-Boer politics

"Opposition to the Second Boer War in Britain was modest when the war began on 11 October 1899 and was always less widespread than support for it, let alone prevailing indifference. However, influential groups formed immediately and ineffectually against the war, including the South African Conciliation Committee and W. T. Stead's Stop the War Committee." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Boer
Tag: cwrc:anti-Boer
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-BoerWar
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Opposition_to_the_Second_Boer_War
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-War

[back to top]

anti-Bolshevism

"Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when America and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Most modern anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim that the socialist state will "wither away" when it becomes unnecessary in a true communist society. Anti-communists also accuse communists of having caused several famines that occurred in 20th-century communist states, such as the Russian Famine of 1921 and the much more severe famine in China during the Great Leap Forward. Some anti-communists refer to both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Opponents argue that communist parties that have come to power have tended to be rigidly intolerant of political opposition. Communist governments have also been accused of creating a new ruling class (a Nomenklatura), with powers and privileges greater than those previously enjoyed by the upper classes in the non-communist regimes." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-bolshevik ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Bolshevism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Bolshevism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:bolshevism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-communism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Communism

[back to top]

anti-Bonapartism

Opposed to the political ideology of Napolean Bonaparte and his followers. See Bonapartism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-bonapartist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Bonapartism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Bonapartism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:bonapartism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Bonapartism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-British politics

Opposed to the policies or influence of the United Kingdom, often with reference to specific government actions. See: Anti-British sentiment - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-British
Tag: cwrc:anti-British
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-British_sentiment
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-capital punishment

"Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital is derived from the Latin capitalis ("of the head", referring to execution by beheading). Fifty-eight countries retain capital punishment, 102 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 32 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. Also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members. The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014 non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India, the United States, and Indonesia." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: opponent of capital punishment anti-capital-punishment ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-CapitalPunishment
Tag: cwrc:anti-CapitalPunishment
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Capital_punishment
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-capitalism

"Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism. Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic system." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-capitalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Capitalism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Capitalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-capitalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:communism

[back to top]

anti-caste movement

Advocacy or activism opposing the caste system in India. See Caste system in India - Wikipedia; Caste politics - Wikipedia; Dalit - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: worked against the caste system ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Caste
Tag: cwrc:anti-Caste
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Caste_politics dbpedia:Caste_system_in_India dbpedia:Dalit
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

anti-catholicism

"Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and adherents. After the Reformation and until at least the late 20th Century, majority Protestant states (especially England, Germany, the United States, and Canada) made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, with anti-Catholic sentiment at times leading to violence and religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists"). Historically, Catholics in Protestant countries were frequently (and almost always baselessly) suspected of conspiring against the state in furtherance of papal interests or to establish a political hegemony under the "Papacy", with Protestants sometimes questioning Catholic individuals' loyalty to the state and suspecting Catholics of ultimately maintaining loyalty to the Vatican rather than their domiciled country. In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, suspicion or discrimination of Catholic immigrants often overlapped or conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, hispanophobia, Anti-Quebec sentiment). In the Early modern period, in the face of rising secular powers in Europe, the Catholic Church struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in primarily Catholic nations. As a result of these struggles, there arose in some majority Catholic countries (especially among those individuals with certain secular political views) a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social, spiritual, and religious power of the Pope and the clergy in the form of anti-clericalism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-catholic anti-catholic-emancipation ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Catholicism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Catholicism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-Catholicism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-Catholicism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-censorship movement

Opposition to censorship. See Freedom of speech - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: free speech advocate pro free speech pro-free speech Freedom of Speech intellectual property activist anti-censorship ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Censorship
Tag: cwrc:anti-Censorship
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Freedom_of_speech
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Monarchism

[back to top]

anti-communism

"Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when America and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Most modern anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim that the socialist state will "wither away" when it becomes unnecessary in a true communist society. Anti-communists also accuse communists of having caused several famines that occurred in 20th-century communist states, such as the Russian Famine of 1921 and the much more severe famine in China during the Great Leap Forward. Some anti-communists refer to both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Opponents argue that communist parties that have come to power have tended to be rigidly intolerant of political opposition. Communist governments have also been accused of creating a new ruling class (a Nomenklatura), with powers and privileges greater than those previously enjoyed by the upper classes in the non-communist regimes." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-communist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Communism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Communism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:communism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-communism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:communism

[back to top]

anti-conscriptionism

Opposition to compulsory enlistment of people in either war or peacetime into a national service, usually military service.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-conscriptionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Conscriptionism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Conscriptionism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:communism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-War

[back to top]

anti-Contagious Diseases Act

Opposition to government regulation of prostitution including the forced physical examination of suspected prostitutes for venereal disease. See: Contagious Diseases Acts - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-contagious diseases acts "against the Contagious Diseases Acts" anti-contagious diseases act activist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct
Tag: cwrc:anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Contagious_Diseases_Acts
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-corporal punishment

"Campaigns against corporal punishment aim to reduce or eliminate corporal punishment of minors by instigating legal and cultural changes in the areas where such punishments are practiced. Such campaigns date mostly from the late 20th century, although occasional voices in opposition to corporal punishment existed from ancient times through to the modern era. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child defines "corporal punishment" as: any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light. Most involves hitting ("smacking", "slapping", "spanking") children, with the hand or with an implement – whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc. But it can also involve, for example, kicking, shaking or throwing children, scratching, pinching, biting, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, burning, scalding, or forced ingestion." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-CorporalPunishment
Tag: cwrc:anti-CorporalPunishment
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Campaigns_against_corporal_punishment
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-Dreyfusard

Supporters of the French military during the prosecution of Captain Alfred Dreyfus. See: Dreyfus affair - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Dreyfusard
Tag: cwrc:anti-Dreyfusard
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:dreyfusard
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Dreyfus_affair
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-European politics

Opposed to the existence, policies, or influence of the European Union. On Euroskepticism, see Euroscepticism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-European
Tag: cwrc:anti-European
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-European
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Euroscepticism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-fascism

"Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals. The anti-fascist movement began in a few European countries in the 1920s and eventually spread to other countries around the world." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-fascist anti-nazi ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Fascism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Fascism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:fascism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-fascism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism

[back to top]

Anti-Federalism

"Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-federalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Federalism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Federalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-Federalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-feminism

"Antifeminism is criticism of some or all feminist ideology, arguing that modern feminism is not practiced in ways that promote true gender equality. This opposition has taken various forms across time and cultures. For example, antifeminists in the late 1800s and early 1900s resisted women's suffrage, while antifeminists in the late 20th century opposed the Equal Rights Amendment. Antifeminism may be motivated by the belief that feminist theories of patriarchy and disadvantages suffered by women in modern society are mischaracterized or exaggerated; that feminism as a movement encourages misandry and results in harm or oppression of men; or driven by general opposition towards women's rights." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: gender conservative anti-feminist antifeminist anti-women's liberation non-feminist misogynist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Feminism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Feminism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:feminism cwrc:suffrage
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Antifeminism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:womensEmploymentReform

[back to top]

anti-globalism

"The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism. The movement is also commonly referred to as the global justice movement, alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, anti-corporate globalization movement, or movement against neoliberal globalization. Participants base their criticisms on a number of related ideas. What is shared is that participants oppose what they see as large, multi-national corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Specifically, corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labor hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, and the integrity of national legislative authority, independence and sovereignty. As of January 2012, some commentators have characterized the unprecedented changes in the global economy as "turbo-capitalism" (Edward Luttwak), "market fundamentalism" (George Soros), "casino capitalism" (Susan Strange), and as "McWorld" (Benjamin Barber). Many anti-globalization activists call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, advancement of human rights, fair trade and sustainable development and therefore feel the term "anti-globalization" is misleading." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-globalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Globalism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Globalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-globalization_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Anti-imperialism

""Anti-imperialism" in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. A less common usage is by isolationists who oppose an interventionist foreign policy. People who categorise themselves as anti-imperialists, often state that they are opposed to colonialism, colonial empire, hegemony, imperialism, and territorial expansion of a country beyond its established borders. The phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War and at the onset of the Cold War as political movements in colonies of European powers promoted national sovereignty. Some "anti-imperialist" groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism, this was criticized as "social imperialism". In the Arab and Muslim world, the term is often used in the context of Anti-Zionist nationalist and religious movements." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-colonial anti-colonialist anti-imperial anti-imperialist anti-colonialism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Imperialism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Imperialism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:imperialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-imperialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-British

[back to top]

anti-Jacobin

Opposed to Jacobinism. See Jacobin - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-revolutionary ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Jacobin
Tag: cwrc:anti-Jacobin
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jacobin
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-Jacobite

Opposed to Jacobitism. See Jacobitism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Jacobite
Tag: cwrc:anti-Jacobite
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:jacobitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jacobitism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Anti-Irish National Land League

Opposed to the Irish Land League movement. See Irish National Land League - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-LandLeague
Tag: cwrc:anti-LandLeague
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Irish_National_Land_League
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:irishUnionism

[back to top]

anti-monarchism

"The abolition of monarchy has occurred throughout history, either through revolutions, coups d'état, wars, or legislative reforms (such as abdications). The founding of the Roman Republic is a noteworthy example and became part of the nation's traditions including as justification for the assassination of Julius Caesar. The twentieth century saw a major acceleration of this process, with many monarchies violently overthrown by revolution or war, or else abolished as part of the process of decolonisation. By contrast, the restoration of monarchies is rare in modern times, with only two major examples, Spain and Cambodia." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-monarchist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Monarchism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Monarchism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:monarchism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Abolition_of_monarchy
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-nuclear movement

"The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. Some direct action groups, environmental groups, and professional organisations have identified themselves with the movement at the local, national, and international level. Major anti-nuclear groups include Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, and the Nuclear Information and Resource Service. The initial objective of the movement was nuclear disarmament, though since the late 1960s opposition has included the use of nuclear power. Many anti-nuclear groups oppose both nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The formation of green parties in the 1970s and 1980s was often a direct result of anti-nuclear politics. Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing. Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, West Germany. The project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s. A protest against nuclear power occurred in July 1977 in Bilbao, Spain, with up to 200,000 people in attendance. Following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, an anti-nuclear protest was held in New York City, involving 200,000 people. In 1981, Germany's largest anti-nuclear power demonstration took place to protest against the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant west of Hamburg; some 100,000 people came face to face with 10,000 police officers. The largest protest was held on June 12, 1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons. A 1983 nuclear weapons protest in West Berlin had about 600,000 participants. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program. In the US, public opposition preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone 1, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, and many other nuclear power plants. For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster nuclear power was off the policy agenda in most countries, and the anti-nuclear power movement seemed to have won its case. Some anti-nuclear groups disbanded. In the 2000s (decade), however, following public relations activities by the nuclear industry, advances in nuclear reactor designs, and concerns about climate change, nuclear power issues came back into energy policy discussions in some countries. The 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents subsequently undermined the nuclear power industry's proposed renaissance and revived nuclear opposition worldwide, putting governments on the defensive. As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Norway have no nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear power. Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power. Globally, more nuclear power reactors have closed than opened in recent years." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro nuclear disarmament anti-nuclear activist anti-nuclear war Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament anti-nuclear weapons nuclear disarmament campaigner nuclear disarmament anti-nuclear ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-NuclearMovement
Tag: cwrc:anti-NuclearMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-nuclear_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:environmentalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-pacifism

Opposed to pacifism. See Pacifism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: war supporter conscriptionist anti-appeasement ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Pacifism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Pacifism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pacifism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Pacifism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-poverty movement

Advocacy or activism to reduce poverty. See Poverty reduction - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-poverty activist anti-poverty movement poverty activist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-PovertyMovement
Tag: cwrc:anti-PovertyMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Poverty_reduction
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-racism

"Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. In general, anti-racism is intended to promote an egalitarian society in which people do not face discrimination on the basis of their race, however defined. By its nature, anti-racism tends to promote the view that racism in a particular society is both pernicious and socially pervasive, and that particular changes in political, economic, and/or social life are required to eliminate it." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-racist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Racism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Racism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:racism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-racism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:blackAnti-Oppression
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-Slavery

[back to top]

anti-socialism

"Criticism of socialism refers to any critique of socialist models of economic organisation and their feasibility; as well as the political and social implications of adopting such a system. Some criticisms are not directed towards socialism as a system, but are directed towards the socialist movement, socialist political parties or existing socialist states. Some critics consider socialism to be a purely theoretical concept that should be criticized on theoretical grounds (such as in the Socialist calculation debate); others hold that certain historical examples exist and that they can be criticized on practical grounds. Economic liberals and right libertarians view private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty, and view the economic dynamics of capitalism as immutable and absolute. Therefore, they perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty. According to the Austrian school economist Ludwig von Mises, an economic system that does not utilize money, financial calculation and market pricing will be unable to effectively value capital goods and coordinate production, and therefore socialism is impossible because it lacks the necessary information to perform economic calculation in the first place. Another central argument leveled against socialist systems based on economic planning is based on the use of dispersed knowledge. Socialism is unfeasible in this view because information cannot be aggregated by a central body and effectively used to formulate a plan for an entire economy, because doing so would result in distorted or absent price signals. Many economic criticisms of socialism focus on the experiences of Soviet-type planned economies. It is argued that a lack of budget constraints in enterprises operating in a planned economy reduces incentives for enterprises to act on information efficiently, thereby reducing overall welfare for society. Other economists criticize models of socialism based on neoclassical economics for their reliance on the faulty and unrealistic assumptions of economic equilibrium and pareto efficiency. Some philosophers have also criticized the aims of socialism, arguing that equality erodes away at individual diversities, and that the establishment of an equal society would have to entail strong coercion. Critics of the socialist political movement often criticize the internal conflicts of the socialist movement as creating a sort of "responsibility void." Because there are many models of socialism, most critiques are only focused on a specific type of socialism. Therefore, the criticisms presented below may not apply to all forms of socialism, and many will focus on the experience of Soviet-type economies. It is also important to note that different models of socialism conflict with each other over questions of property ownership, economic coordination and how socialism is to be achieved - so critics of specific models of socialism might be advocates of a different type of socialism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-socialist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Socialism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Socialism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:socialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Criticisms_of_socialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-suffrage

"Anti-suffragism was a political movement composed mainly of women, begun in the late 19th century in order to campaign against women's suffrage in Great Britain and the United States. It was closely associated with "domestic feminism", the belief that women had the right to complete freedom within the home." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-suffragist anti-sufffragist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Suffrage
Tag: cwrc:anti-Suffrage
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:suffrage
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-suffragism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-trade-unionism

Opposed to trade unions or the trade union movement. See Trade union - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-trade-unionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Trade-Unionism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Trade-Unionism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:labourMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Trade_union
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:labourMovement

[back to top]

anti-urbanism

"Anti-urbanism is hostility towards the city as opposed to the country, a simple rejection of the city, or a wish to destroy the city." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-countryside ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Urbanism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Urbanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-urbanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-vaccination movement

Opposition to vaccination, usually compulsory vaccination. See Vaccine controversies - Wikipedia Also see: Category:Vaccine controversies - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: movement against compulsory vaccination ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Vaccination
Tag: cwrc:anti-Vaccination
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Vaccine_controversies dbpedia:Vaccine_controversies
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-vivisection

Opposition to experimentation and testing on live animals. See Category:Anti-vivisection movement - Wikipedia Also see Vivisection - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-vivisectionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Vivisection
Tag: cwrc:anti-Vivisection
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Anti-vivisection_movement dbpedia:Vivisection
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

anti-war movement

"An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term can also refer to pacifism, which is the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts. Many activists distinguish between anti-war movements and peace movements. Anti-war activists work through protest and other grassroots means to attempt to pressure a government (or governments) to put an end to a particular war or conflict." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-militaristic anti-war activism anti Vietnam war anti-war anti-militarism vietnam war protester ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-War
Tag: cwrc:anti-War
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-BoerWar
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-war_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:pacifism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

anti-Zionism

"Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, broadly defined in the modern era as the opposition to the ethnonationalist and political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the establishment of a Jewish state as a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (also referred to as Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land) or to the modern State of Israel as defined as A Jewish and Democratic State. The term is used to describe various religious, moral, and political points of view, but their diversity of motivation and expression is sufficiently different that "anti-Zionism" cannot be seen as having a single ideology or source. According to many notable Jewish and non-Jewish sources, anti-Zionism has become a cover for modern-day antisemitism, a position that critics have challenged as a tactic to silence criticism of Israeli policies." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-israel anti-zionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Zionism
Tag: cwrc:anti-Zionism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:zionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anti-Zionism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

antidisestablishmentarianism

"Antidisestablishmentarianism (/ˌæn.ti.dɪs.ɪs.tæb.lɪʃ.mənˈtɛə.rɪə.nɪ.zᵊm/, /ˌæn.taɪˌdɪs.ɛsˌtæb.lɪʃ.məntˈɛ.ri.ənˌɪ.zm/) is a political position that developed in 19th-century Britain in opposition to Liberal proposals for the disestablishment of the Church of England—meaning the removal of the Anglican Church's status as the state church of England, Ireland, and Wales. The establishment was maintained in England, but in Ireland the Church of Ireland (Anglican) was disestablished in 1871. In Wales, four Church of England dioceses were disestablished in 1920 and became the Church in Wales. Antidisestablishmentarianism is also one of the longest non-scientific words. The word has also come by analogy to refer to any opposition to those who oppose the establishment, whether the government, in whole or part, or the established society." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: antidisestablishmentarian ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#antidisestablishmentarianism
Tag: cwrc:antidisestablishmentarianism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:disestablishmentarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Antidisestablishmentarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

antisemitism

"Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is widely considered to be a form of racism. The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass ("Jew-hatred") ,and that has been its common use since then. Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 1894–1906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-semitism antisemitic ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#antisemitism
Tag: cwrc:antisemitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Antisemitism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:racism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism

[back to top]

arts advocacy

Advocacy for the fine, performing, or liberal arts.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: artists' advocate advocate for the arts ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#artsAdvocacy
Tag: cwrc:artsAdvocacy
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

birth control activism

Promotion of birth control awareness, practices, and resources. See: Birth control movement in the United States - Wikipedia. Also see:Category:Birth control - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: birth-control activist pro-birth control contraceptionist birth control activist pro-contraception pro birth control birth control campaigner ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#birthControlActivism
Tag: cwrc:birthControlActivism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Birth_control_movement_in_the_United_States dbpedia:Category:Birth_control
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism cwrc:pro-Choice cwrc:sexualReform

[back to top]

black anti-oppression movement

Opposition to the social, institutional, and political oppression of people defined as black, which varies historically and geographically. See Racism in the United Kingdom - Wikipedia and Civil rights movement - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-segregationist black power black liberation black activist black pride black liberationist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackAnti-Oppression
Tag: cwrc:blackAnti-Oppression
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_(1954%E2%80%931968) dbpedia:Racism_in_the_United_Kingdom
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights cwrc:racialEquality
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:abolitionism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:pro-Slavery

[back to top]

Bolshevism

"The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (Russian: большевики, большевик (singular); IPA: [bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik]; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks or Reds came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). With the Reds defeating the Whites, and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organisation consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Bolshevist pro-bolshevik ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bolshevism
Tag: cwrc:bolshevism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Bolsheviks
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:communism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Bolshevism

[back to top]

Bonapartism

"Bonapartism is the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors. It was later used to refer to persons who hoped to restore the House of Bonaparte and its style of government. After Napoleon, the term was applied to the French politicians who seized power in the coup of 18 Brumaire, ruling in the French Consulate and subsequently in the First and Second French Empires under the House of Bonaparte (the family of Bonaparte and his nephew Louis). The term was used more generally for a political movement that advocated a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state, with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric, army support, and conservatism. Marxism and Leninism developed a vocabulary of political terms that included Bonapartism, derived from their analysis of the career of Napoleon Bonaparte. Karl Marx was a student of Jacobinism and the French Revolution, and was a contemporary critic of the Second Republic and Second Empire. He used "Bonapartism" to refer to a situation in which counter-revolutionary military officers seize power from revolutionaries, and use selective reforms to co-opt the radicalism of the popular classes. Marx argued that in the process, Bonapartists preserve and mask the power of a narrower ruling class. According to his essay "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon" (1852), Marx believed that both Bonaparte and his nephew Napoleon III had corrupted revolutions in France in this way. In this document, he drew attention to what he calls the phenomenon's repetitive history by saying: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce." More generally, "Bonapartism" may be used to describe the replacement of civilian leadership by military leadership within revolutionary movements or governments. Many modern-day Trotskyists and other leftists use the phrase "left Bonapartist" to describe those, such as Stalin and Mao, who controlled 20th-century bureaucratic socialist regimes. In addition, Leon Trotsky was accused of using his position as commander of the Red Army to gain top-level power after Lenin's death. Noted political scientists and historians greatly differ on the definition and interpretation of Bonapartism. Sudhir Hazareesingh's book The Legend of Napoleon explores numerous interpretations of the term. He says that it refers to a "popular national leader confirmed by popular election, above party politics, promoting equality, progress, and social change, with a belief in religion as an adjunct to the State, a belief that the central authority can transform society and a belief in the 'nation' and its glory and a fundamental belief in national unity." Hazareesingh believes that although recent research shows Napoleon used forced conscription of French troops, some men must have fought believing in Napoleon's ideals. He says that to argue Bonapartism co-opted the masses is an example of the Marxist perspective of false consciousness: the idea that the masses can be manipulated by a few determined leaders in the pursuit of ends. Scholar Raymond Hinnebusch has characterized Hafez al-Asad's regime in Syria as Bonapartist." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-bonapartist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bonapartism
Tag: cwrc:bonapartism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Bonapartism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Bonapartism

[back to top]

boulangism

Followed the three principles of "revenge on Germany", "revision of the constitution", and "the return to monarchy" in frustration with French conservatism. Based on the politics of Georges Ernest Boulanger. See: Georges Ernest Boulanger - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: boulangist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#boulangism
Tag: cwrc:boulangism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Georges_Ernest_Boulanger
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

British nationalism

"British nationalism asserts that the British are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the British, in a definition of Britishness that may include people of English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster, Scots and Irish descent. British nationalism is closely associated with British unionism, which seeks to uphold the political union that is the United Kingdom, or strengthen the links between the countries of the United Kingdom. British nationalism's unifying identity descends from the ancient Britons who dwelt on the island of Great Britain. British nationalism grew to include people outside Great Britain, in Ireland, because of the 1542 Crown of Ireland Act, which declared that the crown of Ireland was to be held by the ruling monarch of England as well as Anglo-Irish calls for unity with Britain. It is characterised as a "powerful but ambivalent force in British politics". In its moderate form, British nationalism has been a civic nationalism, emphasising both cohesion and diversity of the people of the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and its former colonies. Recently however, nativist nationalism has arisen based on fear of Britain being swamped by immigrants; this anti-immigrant nativist nationalism has manifested politically in the British National Party and other nativist nationalist movements. Politicians, such as British Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party and his direct predecessor Gordon Brown of the Labour Party, have sought to promote British nationalism as a progressive cause." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: british nationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#britishNationalism
Tag: cwrc:britishNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:British_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, and competitive markets. In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment is determined by the owners of the factors of production in financial and capital markets, and prices and the distribution of goods are mainly determined by competition in the market. Economists, political economists, and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism, and state capitalism. Different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition, and state-sanctioned social policies. The degree of competition in markets, the role of intervention and regulation, and the scope of state ownership vary across different models of capitalism;the extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, are matters of politics and of policy. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which combine elements of free markets with state intervention, and in some cases, with economic planning. Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures. Following the decline of mercantilism, mixed capitalist systems became dominant in the Western world and continue to spread See: Capitalism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: free market capitalism capitalist capitalism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#capitalism
Tag: cwrc:capitalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Capitalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

children's welfare

Advocacy or activism for the rights or welfare of children. See: Category:Child welfare - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: children's rights children's rights activist campaigner against child prostitution children's rights advocate ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#childrensWelfare
Tag: cwrc:childrensWelfare
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Child_welfare
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Christian pacifism

"Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith. Christian pacifists state that Jesus himself was a pacifist who taught and practiced pacifism and that his followers must do likewise. Notable Christian pacifists include Martin Luther King, Jr., Leo Tolstoy, and Ammon Hennacy. Hennacy believed that adherence to Christianity required not just pacifism but, because governments inevitably threatened or used force to resolve conflicts, anarchism. However, most Christian pacifists, including the peace churches, Christian Peacemaker Teams, and individuals such as John Howard Yoder, make no claim to be anarchists." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: christian pacifist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianPacifism
Tag: cwrc:christianPacifism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Christian_pacifism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:pacifism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Christian socialism

"Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists believe capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a mortal sin. Christian socialists identify the cause of inequality to be the greed that they associate with capitalism. Christian socialism became a major movement in the United Kingdom beginning in the 1960s through the Christian Socialist Movement, since 2013 known as Christians on the Left. Other earlier figures are also viewed as Christian socialists, such as the nineteenth century writers Frederick Denison Maurice (The Kingdom of Christ, 1838), John Ruskin (Unto This Last, 1862), Charles Kingsley (The Water-Babies, 1863), Thomas Hughes (Tom Brown's Schooldays, 1857), Frederick James Furnivall (co-creator of the Oxford English Dictionary), Adin Ballou (Practical Christian Socialism, 1854), and Francis Bellamy (a Baptist minister and the author of the United States' Pledge of Allegiance)." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: christian socialist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianSocialism
Tag: cwrc:christianSocialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Christian_socialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

civil libertarianism

"Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasises the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure, etc.). Civil libertarianism is not a complete ideology; rather, it is a collection of views on the specific issues of civil liberties and civil rights." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: civil libertarian ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#civilLibertarianism
Tag: cwrc:civilLibertarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Civil_libertarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:libertarianism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

civil rights movement

"Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organisations, and private individuals. They ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression. Civil rights include the ensuring of people's physical and mental integrity, life, and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, national origin, colour, age, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion, or disability; and individual rights such as privacy and the freedoms of thought, speech, religion, press, assembly, and movement. Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; the right to due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote. Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights. They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social, and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: personal rights advocate pro civil rights civil rights activist civil rights ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#civilRights
Tag: cwrc:civilRights
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Civil_and_political_rights
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

co-operative movement

Supporter of the co-operative movement. History of the cooperative movement - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#co-operativeMovement
Tag: cwrc:co-operativeMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:History_of_the_cooperative_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:socialReform

[back to top]

communalism

"Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localised independent communities. A prominent libertarian socialist, Murray Bookchin, defines communalism as "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation", as well as "the principles and practice of communal ownership". This usage of communalism appears to have emerged during the late 20th century to distinguish commune-based systems from other political movements and/or governments espousing (if not actually practicing) similar ideas. In particular, earlier communities and movements advocating such practices that were often described as "anarchist", "socialist" and/or "communist". Many historical communities practicing utopian socialism or anarchist communism did implement internal rules of communalist property ownership in the context of federated communalism. It is at least theoretically possible for a federation of communes to include communes which do not practice communalist rules of property, which is to say, that the overall national government may be a federation of communes, but that private property rather than communalist property is the order within each such commune. Karl Marx, often viewed as the founder of modern communism, criticized older forms, including primitive communism and/or utopian socialism, as poorly conceived and/or prone to disintegration in practise. Communalism in the form described above is distinct from the predominant usage in South Asian forms of English: allegiance to a particular ethnic and/or religious group rather than to a broader society. As such, this usage is synonymous with sectarianism and associated with communal violence." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: communalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#communalism
Tag: cwrc:communalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Communalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

communism

"In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism (anarchist communism), and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism, that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class – who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society – and the capitalist class – a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production (the physical and institutional means with which commodities are produced and distributed), and that political, social and economic conflict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to this analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: christian communist communist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#communism
Tag: cwrc:communism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Communism cwrc:liberalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Communism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:maoism cwrc:marxism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Communism

[back to top]

conscientious objection

"A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, disability, or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to volunteer military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist, or antimilitarist. On March 8, 1995 the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/83 stated that "persons performing military service should not be excluded from the right to have conscientious objections to military service." This was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that "persons [already] performing military service may develop conscientious objections." A number of organisations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day. The term has also been extended to objecting to working for the military-industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conscientiousObjection
Tag: cwrc:conscientiousObjection
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Conscientious_objector
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:pacifism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

conservatism

"Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasising stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated with François-René de Chateaubriand in 1818, during the period of Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959, "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself."" (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: conservative ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservatism
Tag: cwrc:conservatism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Conservatism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:neo-Conservatism

[back to top]

conservative feminism

Feminism that tends towards social conservativism. See Feminism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: conservative feminism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservativeFeminism
Tag: cwrc:conservativeFeminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Feminism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:conservatism

[back to top]

Conservative Party (UK)

"The Tories were members of two political parties which existed, sequentially, in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York (who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland). This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: conservative party ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservativePartyUk
Tag: cwrc:conservativePartyUk
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Tories_(British_political_party)
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:conservatism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:toryPartyBritain

[back to top]

constitutionalism

"Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law". Political organisations are constitutional to the extent that they "contain institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry, including those that may be in the minority". As described by political scientist and constitutional scholar David Fellman: Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience, which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher law. Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judgment or mere fiat of public officials…. Throughout the literature dealing with modern public law and the foundations of statecraft the central element of the concept of constitutionalism is that in political society government officials are not free to do anything they please in any manner they choose; they are bound to observe both the limitations on power and the procedures which are set out in the supreme, constitutional law of the community. It may therefore be said that the touchstone of constitutionalism is the concept of limited government under a higher law." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: constitutional feminist constitutionalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#constitutionalism
Tag: cwrc:constitutionalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Constitutionalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Covenanters

"The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally. They derive their name from the term covenant after the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. There were two important covenants in Scottish history, the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#covenanters
Tag: cwrc:covenanters
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Covenanter
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

disestablishmentarianism

"Disestablishmentarianism refers to campaigns to sever links between church and state, particularly in relation to the Church of England as an established church. It was initially a movement in the United Kingdom in the 18th century. The established churches in Wales and Ireland could not count on even nominal adherence by a majority of the population of those countries. In Ireland, the predominantly Roman Catholic population campaigned against the position of the established Anglican Church of Ireland - eventually disestablished in Ireland from 1 January 1871. In England there was a campaign by Liberals, dissenters and nonconformists to disestablish the Church of England in the 19th century. The campaigners were called "Liberationists" (the "Liberation Society" was founded by Edward Miall in 1844). This campaign failed, but nearly all of the legal disabilities of nonconformists were gradually dismantled. The campaign for disestablishment was revived in the 20th century when Parliament rejected the 1929 revision of the Book of Common Prayer, leading to calls for separation of Church and State to prevent political interference in matters of worship. In the late 20th century, reform of the House of Lords also brought into question the position of the Lords Spiritual. Nick Clegg, the former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Liberal Democrats, said in April 2014 that he thought the Church of England and the British state should be separated "in the long run". Prime Minister David Cameron, responding to Clegg's comments, said that disestablishmentarianism is "a long-term Liberal idea, but it is not a Conservative one" and that he believed having an established church works well. The Church of England was disestablished in Wales in 1920, becoming the Church in Wales. An Act of the British Parliament enabling the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland was passed in 1869, coming into effect on 1 January 1871. The Church of Scotland was disestablished in 1929 but remains the largest church in Scotland." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-episcopal anti-episcopalian anti-anglican anti-tithes ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#disestablishmentarianism
Tag: cwrc:disestablishmentarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Disestablishmentarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:antidisestablishmentarianism

[back to top]

dress reform

"Victorian dress reform was an objective of the Victorian dress reform movement (also known as the rational dress movement) of the middle and late Victorian era, comprising various reformers who proposed, designed, and wore clothing considered more practical and comfortable than the fashions of the time. Dress reformists were largely middle class women involved in the first wave of feminism in the United States and in Britain, from the 1850s through the 1890s. The movement emerged in the Progressive Era along with calls for temperance, women's education, suffrage and moral purity. Dress reform called for emancipation from the "dictates of fashion", expressed a desire to "cover the limbs as well as the torso adequately," and promoted "rational dress". The movement had its greatest success in the reform of women's undergarments, which could be modified without exposing the wearer to social ridicule. Dress reformers were also influential in persuading women to adopt simplified garments for athletic activities such as bicycling or swimming. The movement was much less concerned with men's clothing, although it initiated the widespread adoption of knitted wool union suits or long johns. Some proponents of the movement established dress reform parlors, or storefronts, where women could buy sewing patterns for the newfangled garments, or buy them directly." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: dress reformer ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dressReform
Tag: cwrc:dressReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Victorian_dress_reform
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Dreyfusard

Supporters of Captain Alfred Dreyfus in his prosecution by the French military. See: Dreyfus affair - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dreyfusard
Tag: cwrc:dreyfusard
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:antisemitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Dreyfus_affair
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Dreyfusard

[back to top]

education reform

"Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Historically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. However, since the 1980s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs (i.e., student achievement). In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the primary source of K-12 education for American youth. Education reformers desire to make public education into a market (in the form of an input-output system), where accountability creates high-stakes from curriculum standards tied to standardized tests. As a result of this input-output system, equality has been conceptualized as an end point, which is often evidenced by an achievement gap among diverse populations. This conceptualization of education reform is based on the market-logic of competition. As a consequence, competition creates inequality which has continued to drive the market-logic of equality at an end point by reproducing the achievement gap among diverse youth. Overall, education reform has and continues to be used as a substitute for needed economic reforms in the United States. The one constant for all forms of education reform includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health, wealth, and well-being. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students and society. From ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a highly educated full-time (extremely expensive) personal tutor. Historically, this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education. Related reforms attempted to develop similar classical results by concentrating on "why" and "which" questions neglected by classical education. Abstract, introspective answers to these questions can theoretically compress large amounts of facts into relatively few principles. This path was taken by some Transcendentalist educators, such as Amos Bronson Alcott. In the early modern age, Victorian schools were reformed to teach commercially useful topics, such as modern languages and mathematics, rather than classical subjects, such as Latin and Greek. Many reformers focused on reforming society by reforming education on more scientific, humanistic, pragmatic or democratic principles. John Dewey and Anton Makarenko are prominent examples of such reformers. Some reformers incorporated several motivations, e.g. Maria Montessori, who both "educated for peace" (a social goal), and to "meet the needs of the child" (A humanistic goal). In historic Prussia, an important motivation for the invention of Kindergarten was to foster national unity by teaching a national language while children were young enough that learning a language was easy. Reform has taken many forms and directions. Throughout history and the present day, the meaning and methods of education have changed through debates over what content or experiences result in an educated individual or an educated society. Changes may be implemented by individual educators and/or by broad-based school organisation and/or by curriculum changes with performance evaluations." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: educational reformer educationalist education reformer educational reform state education movement ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#educationReform
Tag: cwrc:educationReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Education_reform
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:civilRights

[back to top]

egalitarianism

"Egalitarianism (from French égal, meaning "equal")—or equalitarianism—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people. Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the term has two distinct definitions in modern English: either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights; or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people, economic egalitarianism, or the decentralization of power. Some sources define egalitarianism as the point of view that equality reflects the natural state of humanity." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: egalitarian ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#egalitarianism
Tag: cwrc:egalitarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Egalitarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

Egyptian nationalism

"Egyptian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Egyptians and Egyptian culture. Egyptian nationalism has typically been a civic nationalism that has emphasised the unity of Egyptians regardless of ethnicity or religion. Egyptian nationalism first manifested itself in Pharaonism beginning in the 19th century that identified Egypt as being a unique and independent political unit in the world since the era of the Pharaohs in ancient Egypt. Both the Arabic language spoken in modern Egypt and the ancient Egyptian language are Afroasiatic languages. The rule of Muhammad Ali of Egypt led Egypt into an advanced level of socioeconomic development in comparison with Egypt's neighbours, which along with the discoveries of relics of ancient Egyptian civilization, helped to foster Egyptian identity and Egyptian nationalism. The Urabi movement in the 1870s and 1880s was the first major Egyptian nationalist movement that demanded an end to the alleged despotism of the Muhammed Ali family and demanded curbing the growth of European influence in Egypt. It campaigned under the nationalist slogan of "Egypt for Egyptians". After the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Egyptian nationalism became focused upon ending British colonial rule. Egyptian nationalism reached its peak in popularity in 1919 when revolution against British rule took place in response to wartime deprivations imposed by the British upon Egypt during World War I. Three years of protest and political turmoil followed until Britain unilaterally declared the independence of Egypt in 1922 that was a monarchy, though Britain reserved several areas for British supervision. During the period of the Kingdom of Egypt, Egyptian nationalists remained determined to terminate the remaining British presence in Egypt. Though Arab nationalism rose as a political force in the 1930s, there remained a strong regional attachment to Egypt by those who advocated cooperation with other Arab or Muslim neighbours. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that overthrew the monarchy and established a republic, Gamal Abdel Nasser rose to power on themes that mixed Arab and Egyptian nationalism. Nasser saw Egypt as the leader of the Arab states and saw Egypt's role as promoting Arab solidarity against both the West and Israel. Egypt was briefly united with Syria from 1958 until 1961 when Syria abandoned the union. Nasser's successors, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak de-emphasised Arab nationalism and re-emphasised Egyptian nationalism based on Egypt's distinctiveness within the Arab world. Sadat and Mubarak also abandoned Nasser's Arab nationalist conflict with Israel and the West. The Arab Spring in Egypt in 2011 that forced the resignation of Mubarak from power and resulted in multiparty elections, has raised questions over the future of Egyptian nationalism. In particular the previous secular regimes of Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak avoided direct religious conflicts between the majority Muslims and the minority Coptic Christians through their emphasis on secular Egyptian nationalist culture, while concerns have been raised on whether this Egyptian nationalist culture will remain with the political changes caused by the Arab Spring. This has especially become an issue after a series of episodes of Muslim-Christian violence erupted in Egypt in 2011." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#egyptianNationalism
Tag: cwrc:egyptianNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Egyptian_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

elder rights

"Elder rights are the rights of the aged, who in the United States are not recognized as a constitutionally protected class. Common rights issues faced by elders include age-related job discrimination (such as forced age of retirement), lack of access to medical treatments because of age or age-related obstacles, societal perceptions of ability/disability due to age, and vulnerability to abuse, including financial, physical, psychological, social, and sexual because of diminished capacity and lack of access to/ability to use technology." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: elder care activist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#elderRights
Tag: cwrc:elderRights
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Elder_rights
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

environmentalism

"Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements. Environmentalism advocates the lawful preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: nature conservationist environmentalist ecologist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#environmentalism
Tag: cwrc:environmentalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Environmentalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

eugenics

"Eugenics (/juːˈdʒɛnɪks/; from Greek εὐγενής eugenes "well-born" from εὖ eu, "good, well" and γένος genos, "race, stock, kin") is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. It is a social philosophy advocating the improvement of human genetic traits through the promotion of higher rates of sexual reproduction for people with desired traits (positive eugenics), or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits (negative eugenics), or both. Alternatively, gene selection rather than "people selection" has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing (e.g. CRISPR). The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined. The definition of it as a "social philosophy"—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order—is not universally accepted, and was taken from Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy". While eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as Ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom and spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada and most European countries. In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies meant to improve the genetic stock of their countries. Such programs often included both "positive" measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and "negative" measures such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. People deemed unfit to reproduce often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges of different IQ tests, criminals and deviants, and members of disfavored minority groups. The eugenics movement became negatively associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the US eugenics programs. In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries gradually abandoned eugenics policies, although some Western countries, among them the United States, continued to carry out forced sterilizations. Since the 1980s and 1990s when new assisted reproductive technology procedures became available, such as gestational surrogacy (available since 1985), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (available since 1989) and cytoplasmic transfer (first performed in 1996), fear about a possible future revival of eugenics and a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor has emerged. A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether "negative" or "positive" policies are used, they are vulnerable to abuse because the criteria of selection are determined by whichever group is in political power. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduction. Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, resulting in inbreeding depression instead due to a low genetic variation." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: eugenicist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eugenics
Tag: cwrc:eugenics
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Eugenics
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

existentialism

"Existentialism (/ɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/) is a term applied to the work of certain late-19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. While the predominant value of existentialist thought is commonly acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity. In the view of the existentialist, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher, though he did not use the term existentialism. He proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or "authentically". Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: existentialist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#existentialism
Tag: cwrc:existentialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Existentialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

fascism

"Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism originated in Italy during World War I and spread to other European countries. Fascism opposes liberalism, Marxism and anarchism and is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes in the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens. Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and they regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature, and views political violence, war, and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th century fascist movements." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-fascist fascist party fascist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fascism
Tag: cwrc:fascism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Fascism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Fascism

[back to top]

feminism

"Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social rights for women that are equal to those of men. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence. Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be one of the main forces behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with having achieved women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: activist for women and children feminist women's rights moderate feminist health activist gender egalitarian pro-family anti-sexist proto-feminist salary reform equal rights ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feminism
Tag: cwrc:feminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Feminism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Feminism

[back to top]

feminist anti-violence activism

Activism opposing violence from a feminist perspective, often but not exclusively violence against women and children, including sexual and domestic violence and female genital mutilation.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-female-genital-mutilation ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministAnti-ViolenceActivism
Tag: cwrc:feministAnti-ViolenceActivism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

feminist internationalism

Feminist participant in the internationalism movement. See Internationalism (politics) - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministInternationalism
Tag: cwrc:feministInternationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Internationalism_%28politics%29
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism cwrc:internationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

feminist pacifism

Feminist participant in the pacifist movement. See Internationalism (politics) - Wikipedia Also see: Pacifism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministPacifism
Tag: cwrc:feministPacifism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Internationalism_(politics dbpedia:Pacifism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism cwrc:pacifism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

free trade movement

"Free Trader was a political label used in the United Kingdom by several candidates in the 1906 general election and January 1910 general election. Its candidates were in university constituencies, led by John Eldon Gorst, who had been previously elected as a Conservative Party but had split from the party in 1902. The group was in favour of limited social reforms, and in particular of free trade. While several of its candidates received substantial votes, none were elected, and in 1910 Gorst stood instead as a Liberal Party candidate, the remainder of the grouping soon petering out." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: free trader ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#freeTradeMovement
Tag: cwrc:freeTradeMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Free_Trader
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

French nationalism

"French nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the French are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the French." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#frenchNationalism
Tag: cwrc:frenchNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:French_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

gay rights movement

"Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social movements are social movements that advocate for the equalized acceptance of LGBT people in society. In these movements, LGBTQ people and their allies have a long history of campaigning for what is now generally called LGBTQ rights, sometimes also called gay rights or gay and lesbian rights. Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organisation that represents all LGBT people and their interests, numerous LGBT rights organisations are active worldwide. The earliest organisations to support LGBT rights were formed in the 19th century. A commonly stated goal among these movements is social equality for LGBT people. Some have also focused on building LGBT communities or worked towards liberation for the broader society from biphobia, homophobia, and transphobia. LGBT movements organized today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, including lobbying, street marches, social groups, media, art, and research." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: gay rights advocate pro-sexual preference ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gayRights
Tag: cwrc:gayRights
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:LGBT_social_movements
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

German nationalism

"German nationalism is the idea that asserts that Germans are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Germans. The earliest origins of German nationalism began with the birth of Romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars when Pan-Germanism started to rise. Advocacy of a German nation began to become an important political force in response to the invasion of German territories by France under Napoleon. After the rise and fall of Nazi Germany during World War II, German nationalism has been generally viewed in the country as taboo. However, during the Cold War, German nationalism arose that supported the reunification of East and West Germany that was achieved in 1990. German nationalism has faced difficulties in promoting a united German identity as well as facing opposition within Germany. The Catholic-Protestant divide in Germany at times created extreme tension and hostility between Catholic and Protestant Germans after 1871, such as in response to the policy of Kulturkampf in Prussia by German Chancellor and Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, that sought to dismantle Catholic culture in Prussia, provoking outrage amongst Germany's Catholics and resulting in the rise of the pro-Catholic Centre Party and the Bavarian People's Party. There have been rival nationalists within Germany, particularly Bavarian nationalists who claim that the terms that Bavaria entered into Germany in 1871 were controversial and have claimed the German government has long intruded into the domestic affairs of Bavaria. Outside of modern-day Germany in Austria, there are Austrian nationalists who have rejected unification of Austria with Germany on the basis of preserving Austrians' Catholic religious identity from the potential danger posed by being part of a Protestant-majority Germany." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#germanNationalism
Tag: cwrc:germanNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:German_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Girondin

"The Girondins or Girondists were members of the Gironba, a political group operating in France from 1791 to 1795 during the French Revolution. The Girondins were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. They were part of the Jacobin movement, though not every Girondin was a member of the Jacobin Club. The Girondins campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain (Montagnards), a radical faction within the Jacobin Club. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondins and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondins comprised a group of loosely affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the Legislative Assembly from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The term became standard with Lamartine's history in 1847. Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution—one that Napoleon later achieved. He called on the Convention to dominate Western Europe by conquering the Rhineland, Poland, and Holland, with a goal of creating a protective ring of satellite republics in Britain, Spain and Italy by 1795. The Girondins were thus the war party in 1792–93. Other prominent Girondins included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in the English-born, sometime American, activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland (who had gone into hiding) committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the killing of the fiery radical journalist (and denouncer of the Girondins) Jean-Paul Marat by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday, who was executed." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#girondin
Tag: cwrc:girondin
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Girondins
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:jacobinism

[back to top]

Greek nationalism

"Greek nationalism (or Hellenic nationalism) refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture. As an ideology, Greek nationalism originated and evolved in pre-modern times. It became a major political movement beginning in the 18th century, which culminated in the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire. It became a potent movement in Greece shortly prior to, and during World War I under the leadership of nationalist figure Eleutherios Venizelos who pursued the Megali Idea and managed to liberate Greece in the Balkan Wars and after World War I, briefly annexed the region of Izmir before it was retaken by Turkey. Today Greek nationalism remains important in the Greco-Turkish dispute over Cyprus." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#greekNationalist
Tag: cwrc:greekNationalist
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Greek_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Guelph party (Florence)

The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of Central and Northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#guelphPartyFlorence
Tag: cwrc:guelphPartyFlorence
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Guelphs_and_Ghibellines
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:pro-Catholicism

[back to top]

Hanoverian

"The House of Hanover is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and that also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 and ruled the United Kingdom until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. The House of Hanover was formally named the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line, as it was originally a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The senior branch became extinct in 1884, and the House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: House of Hanover ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hanoverian
Tag: cwrc:hanoverian
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:House_of_Hanover
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

housing movement

Advocacy or activism related to housing for the poor or otherwise disadvantaged.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: housing charity housing activism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#housingMovement
Tag: cwrc:housingMovement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:civilRights

[back to top]

human rights

Advocacy or activism in support of human rights. Human rights - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: humanitarian human rights activist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#humanRights
Tag: cwrc:humanRights
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Human_rights
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

humanism

"Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasises the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it. The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today humanism typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: humanist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#humanism
Tag: cwrc:humanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Humanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

imperialism

"Imperialism means "to extend a country's power through military and diplomacy". Its name originated from the Latin word imperium, which means to rule over large territories. Imperialism is "a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means". It has also allowed for the rapid spread of technologies and ideas. The term imperialism has been applied to Western (and Japanese) political and economic dominance especially in Asia and Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars. Some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. Imperialism is defined as "A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force." Imperialism is particularly focused on the control that one group, often a state power, has on another group of people. This is often through various forms of "othering" (see other) based on racial, religious, or cultural stereotypes. There are "formal" or "informal" imperialisms. "Formal imperialism" is defined as "physical control or full-fledged colonial rule". "Informal imperialism" is less direct; however, it is still a powerful form of dominance. The definition of imperialism has not been finalized for centuries and was confusedly seen to represent the policies of major powers, or simply, general-purpose aggressiveness. Further on, some writers used the term imperialism, in slightly more discriminating fashion, to mean all kinds of domination or control by a group of people over another. To clear out this confusion about the definition of imperialism one could speak of "formal" and "informal" imperialism, the first meaning physical control or "full-fledged colonial rule" while the second implied less direct rule though still containing perceivable kinds of dominance. Informal rule is generally less costly than taking over territories formally. This is because, with informal rule, the control is spread more subtly through technological superiority, enforcing land officials into large debts that cannot be repaid, ownership of private industries thus expanding the controlled area, or having countries agree to uneven trade agreements forcefully. It is mostly accepted that modern-day colonialism is an expression of imperialism and cannot exist without the latter. The extent to which "informal" imperialism with no formal colonies is properly described remains a controversial topic among historians. Both colonization and imperialism have been described by Tom Nairn and Paul James as early forms of globalization: Even if a particular empire does not have a "global reach" as we would define it today, empires by their nature still tend to contribute to processes of globalization because of the way that imperial power tends to generate counter-power at its edge-lands and send out reverberations far beyond the territories of their immediate control. The word imperialism became common in Great Britain during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation. In Great Britain, the word had until then mostly been used to refer to the politics of Napoleon III in obtaining favorable public opinion in France through foreign military interventions." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: imperialist colonialist commonwealth supporter ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#imperialism
Tag: cwrc:imperialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Imperialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Imperialism

[back to top]

Indian independence movement

"The Indian Independence Movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1858) and the British Raj (1858–1947) in the Indian subcontinent. The Movement spanned a total of 190 years (1757-1947). The very first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of nonviolence and civil resistance, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's constitutional struggle for the rights of minorities in India, and several other campaigns. Activists Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Bhagat Singh preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Poets and writers such as Rabindranath Tagore, Subramaniya Bharathi, Allama Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature, poetry, and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. Babasaheb Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India movement led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Army movement led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. The Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society. It also underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic, republican, and civil-libertarian political structure. After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, due to the increasing influence of left-wing elements in the Congress as well as the rise and growth of the Communist Party of India. The All-India Muslim League was formed in 1906 as a separate Muslim party which later in 1940 called for separate state of Pakistan. The work of these various movements led ultimately to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which ended the suzerainty in India and the creation of Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India; Pakistan was a dominion until 1956, when it adopted its first republican constitution. In 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-independence (indian) indian nationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indianIndependence
Tag: cwrc:indianIndependence
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Indian_independence_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:civilRights cwrc:socialReform

[back to top]

Indigenous rights movement

Advocacy or activism in support of human rights. Indigenous rights - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigenousRights
Tag: cwrc:indigenousRights
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Indigenous_rights
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Imperialism cwrc:humanRights

[back to top]

individualism

"Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasises the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism and more corporate social forms. Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical Liberalism, existentialism, and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization". It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors as so also with humanist philosophical positions and ethics." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: individualist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#individualism
Tag: cwrc:individualism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Individualism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

internationalism

"Internationalism is a political principle which advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and peoples, and whose ideological roots can be traced to both socialism and liberalism. Supporters of this principle are referred to as internationalists, and generally believe that the people of the world should unite across national, political, cultural, racial, or class boundaries to advance their common interests, or that the governments of the world should cooperate because their mutual long-term interests are of greater importance than their short-term disputes. Internationalism is, in general, opposed to nationalism, jingoism or chauvinism, and war, and proponents can include supporters of any of the four socialist Internationals and organisations such as the United Nations or the World Federalist Movement." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: internationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#internationalism
Tag: cwrc:internationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Internationalism_(politics)
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Irish Home Rule Movement

"The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that agitated for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was the dominant political movement of Irish nationalism from 1870 to the end of World War I. Isaac Butt founded the Home Government Association in 1870. This was succeeded in 1873 by the Home Rule League, and in 1882 by the Irish Parliamentary Party. These organisations campaigned for home rule in the British House of Commons. Under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, the movement came close to success when the Liberal government under William Ewart Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill in 1886, but the bill was defeated in the House of Commons after a split in the Liberal Party. After Parnell's death, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in 1893; it passed the Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords. After the removal of the Lords' veto in 1911, the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, leading to the Home Rule Crisis. On the outbreak of World War I it was enacted, but suspended until the conclusion of the war. Following the Easter Rising of 1916, public support shifted from the Home Rule movement to the more radical Sinn Féin party. In the 1918 General Election the Irish Parliamentary Party suffered a crushing defeat, only a handful of MP's surviving. This was effectively the death of the Home Rule movement. The elected Sinn Féin MPs had no interest in home rule, instead setting up their own legislature, Dáil Éireann, and declaring the independence of Ireland as a republic. Britain passed a Fourth Home Rule Bill, the Government of Ireland Act 1920, aimed at creating separate parliaments for Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. The former was established in 1921, and the state continues to this day, but the latter never functioned. Following the Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War, the 26 southern counties of Ireland gained independence as the Irish Free State." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: home ruler home ruler (ireland) irish home ruler ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishHomeRuleMovement
Tag: cwrc:irishHomeRuleMovement
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:irishUnionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Irish_Home_Rule_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:republicanism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:irishNationalism cwrc:irishRepublicanism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:liberalUnionistParty

[back to top]

Irish nationalism

"Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation. Since the partition of Ireland, the term generally refers to support for a united Ireland. Irish nationalists assert that rule from London has been to the detriment of Irish interests." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: cultural nationalist irish nationalist irish patriotism parnellite ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishNationalism
Tag: cwrc:irishNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Irish_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:irishRepublicanism

[back to top]

Irish republicanism

"Irish republicanism (Irish: poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic. The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was reflected in Ireland in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule. This followed hundreds of years of British conquest and Irish resistance through rebellion. Discrimination against Catholics and Non-conformists, attempts by the British administration to suppress Irish culture, and the belief that Ireland was economically disadvantaged as a result of the Act of Union were among the specific factors leading to such opposition. The Society of United Irishmen, formed in the 1780s and led primarily by liberal Protestants, evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the 1798 Rebellion with the help of French troops. The rebellion had some success, especially in County Wexford, before it was suppressed. A second rising in 1803, led by Robert Emmet, was quickly put down, and Emmet was hanged. The Young Ireland movement, formed in the 1830s, was initially a part of the Repeal Association of Daniel O'Connell, but broke with O'Connell on the issue of the legitimacy of the use of violence. Primarily a political and cultural organisation, some members of Young Ireland staged an abortive rising, the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Its leaders were transported to Van Diemen's Land. Some of these escaped to the United States, where they linked up with other Irish exiles to form the Fenian Brotherhood. Together with the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in Ireland by James Stephens and others in 1858, they made up a movement commonly known as "Fenians" which was dedicated to the overthrow of British imperial rule in Ireland. They staged another rising, the Fenian Rising, in 1867, and a dynamite campaign in England in the 1880s. In the early 20th century IRB members, in particular Tom Clarke and Seán MacDermott, began planning another rising. The Easter Rising took place from 24 to 30 April 1916, when members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the centre of Dublin, proclaimed a republic and held off British forces for almost a week. The execution of the Rising's leaders, including Clarke, MacDermott, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, led to a surge of support for republicanism in Ireland. In 1917 the Sinn Féin party stated as its aim the "securing the international recognition of Ireland as an independent Irish Republic", and in the general election of 1918 Sinn Féin took 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British House of Commons. The elected members did not take their seats but instead set up the First Dáil. Between 1919 and 1921 the Irish Republican Army (IRA), who were loyal to the Dáil, fought the British Army and Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) in the Irish War of Independence. Talks between the British and Irish in late 1921 led to a treaty by which the British conceded, not a 32-county Irish Republic, but a 26-county Irish Free State with Dominion status. This led to the Irish Civil War, in which the republicans were defeated by their former comrades. The Free State became an independent constitutional monarchy following the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 and formally became a republic with the passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. That same year, the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland thereafter. The Border Campaign, which lasted from 1956 to 1962, involved bombings and attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks. The failure of this campaign led the republican leadership to concentrate on political action, and to move to the left. Following the outbreak of The Troubles in 1968-9, the movement split between Officials (leftists) and Provisionals (traditionalists) at the beginning of 1970. Both sides were initially involved in an armed campaign against the British state, but the Officials gradually moved into mainstream politics after the Official IRA ceasefire of 1972; the associated "Official Sinn Féin" eventually renamed itself the Workers' Party. The Provisional IRA, except during brief ceasefires in 1972 and 1975, kept up a campaign of violence for nearly thirty years, directed against security forces and civilian targets (especially businesses). While the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) represented the nationalists of Northern Ireland in initiatives such as the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement, republicans took no part in these, believing that a withdrawal of British troops and a commitment to a united Ireland was a necessary precondition of any settlement. This began to change with a landmark speech by Danny Morrison in 1981, advocating what became known as the Armalite and ballot box strategy. Under the leadership of Gerry Adams, Sinn Féin began to focus on the search for a political settlement. When the party voted in 1986 to take seats in legislative bodies within Ireland, there was a walk-out of die-hard republicans, who set up Republican Sinn Féin and the Continuity IRA. Following the Hume–Adams dialogue, Sinn Féin took part in the Northern Ireland peace process which led to the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997 and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly, republicans sat in government in Northern Ireland for the first time when Martin McGuinness and Bairbre de Brún were elected to the Northern Ireland Executive. However, another split occurred, with anti-Agreement republicans setting up the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and the Real IRA. Today, Irish republicanism is divided between those who support the institutions set up under the Good Friday Agreement and the later St Andrews Agreement, and those who oppose them. The latter are often referred to as "dissident" republicans." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-unionist irish republic irish independence irish resistance irish republican irish republicanism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishRepublicanism
Tag: cwrc:irishRepublicanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Irish_republicanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:republicanism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:irishNationalism

[back to top]

Irish unionism

"Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Since the partition of Ireland, unionism in Ireland has focused on maintaining and preserving the place of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. In this context, a distinction may be made between the unionism in the province of Ulster and unionism elsewhere in Ireland. Today in Northern Ireland, Unionist ideology is expressed in a number of different ways: through preferences for particular newspapers or sports team, participation in unionist culture and by voting for political candidates who espouse unionism. Irish nationalism is opposed to the ideology of unionism. Most unionists come from Protestant backgrounds; most nationalists come from a Roman Catholic background. Exceptions to these generalisations exist; there are Protestant nationalists and there are Catholic unionists." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: anti-home ruler anti-irish anti-irish nationalist unionist anti-home rule ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishUnionism
Tag: cwrc:irishUnionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Unionism_in_Ireland
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:irishNationalism cwrc:irishRepublicanism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:irishHomeRuleMovement

[back to top]

Italian nationalism

Support for the unification of Italy as a single nation or of Italian nationalism. See Italian nationalism - Wikipedia; Italian unification - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: mazzinian italian nationalist italian risorgimento ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#italianNationalism
Tag: cwrc:italianNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Italian_nationalism dbpedia:Italian_unification
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Jacobinism

"A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99). The club was so called from the Dominican convent where they originally met, in the Rue Saint-Jacques (Latin: Jacobus) in Paris. Today, Jacobin and Jacobinism are used in a variety of senses. Jacobin is sometimes used in Britain as a pejorative for radical, left-wing revolutionary politics, especially when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression. In France, Jacobin now generally indicates a supporter of a centralized republican state and strong central government powers and/or supporters of extensive government intervention to transform society." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: jacobin ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jacobinism
Tag: cwrc:jacobinism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jacobin_(politics)
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:revolutionaryPolitics
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Jacobitism

"Jacobitism (/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzm/ JAK-ə-beye-TIZ-əm;Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas, Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James VII of Scotland, II of England and Ireland, and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland. The movement took its name from Jacobus, the Renaissance Latin form of Iacomus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled against the British government on several occasions between 1688 and 1746. After James II was deposed in 1688 and replaced by his daughter Mary II, ruling jointly with her husband and first cousin (James's nephew) William III, the Stuarts lived in exile, occasionally attempting to regain the throne. The strongholds of Jacobitism were parts of the Scottish Highlands and the lowland north-east of Scotland, Ireland, and parts of Northern England (mostly within the counties of Northumberland and Lancashire). Significant support also existed in Wales and South-West England. The Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with the line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones was illegal. Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy. In Scotland, the Jacobite cause became intertwined with the last throes of the warrior clan system. The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: jacobite ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jacobitism
Tag: cwrc:jacobitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jacobitism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:pro-Catholicism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Jacobite

[back to top]

Jewish emancipation

"Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis. It included efforts within the community to integrate into their societies as citizens. It occurred gradually between the late 18th century and the early 20th century. Jewish emancipation followed the Age of Enlightenment and the concurrent Jewish enlightenment. Various nations repealed or superseded previous discriminatory laws applied specifically against Jews where they resided. Before the emancipation, most Jews were isolated in residential areas from the rest of the society; emancipation was a major goal of European Jews of that time, who worked within their communities to achieve integration in the majority societies and broader education. Many became active politically and culturally within wider European civil society as Jews gained full citizenship. They emigrated to countries offering better social and economic opportunities, such as the Russian Empire and France. Some European Jews turned to Socialism, others to Jewish nationalism: Zionism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishEmancipation
Tag: cwrc:jewishEmancipation
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:antisemitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jewish_emancipation
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:civilRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

labour movement

"The Labour movement or Labor movement (see spelling differences), or, respectively, labourism or laborism, are general terms for the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, their governments. The standard unit of organisation is the trade union. In some countries, especially the United Kingdom and Australia, the labour movement is understood to include a formal political wing, usually as a political party known as a "labour party" or "workers' party". Many individuals and political groups otherwise considered to represent ruling classes may be part of and active in the labour movement. Contemporary labourism developed in response to the depredations of industrial capitalism at about the same time as socialism. However, while the goal of labourism was to protect and strengthen the interests of labour within capitalism, the goal of socialism was to replace the capitalist system entirely." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: labour activism anti-sweated labour labour advocate labour activist factory reformer women's labour activist labour organizer labour feminist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#labourMovement
Tag: cwrc:labourMovement
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Trade-Unionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Labour_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:socialReform cwrc:socialism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Trade-Unionism

[back to top]

left-wing

"Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism), as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished (by advocating for social justice). The term left wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms Left and Right were coined during the French Revolution (1789–1799), referring to the seating arrangement in the Estates General: those who sat on the left generally opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents". The word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century, usually with disparaging intent, and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views. The term was later applied to a number of movements, especially republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism, anarchism, and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since then, the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements, and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to author Barry Clark, "Leftists [...] claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status, power, and wealth are eliminated." " (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: leftist anti-conservative ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#left-Wing
Tag: cwrc:left-Wing
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Left-wing_politics
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Liberal Unionist Party

"The Liberal Unionist Party was a British political party that was formed in 1886 by a faction that broke away from the Liberal Party. Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule. The two parties formed the ten-year-long, coalition Unionist Government 1895–1905 but kept separate political funds and their own party organisations until a complete merger was agreed in May 1912." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: liberal unionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#liberalUnionistParty
Tag: cwrc:liberalUnionistParty
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:irishHomeRuleMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Liberal_Unionist_Party
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:liberalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

liberalism

"Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Whereas classical liberalism emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality, and international cooperation. Liberalism first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty, and property, while adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and the rule of law. Prominent revolutionaries in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. Liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the French Revolution. The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America, and North America. In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: liberal ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#liberalism
Tag: cwrc:liberalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Liberalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:communism

[back to top]

Libertarianism

"Libertarianism (Latin: liber, "free") is a collection of political philosophies that uphold liberty. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasising political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment. Libertarians generally share a skepticism of authority; however, they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling to restrict or to dissolve coercive social institutions. Some libertarians advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure, and natural resources. Others, notably libertarian socialists, seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production in favor of their common or cooperative ownership and management. An additional line of division is between minarchists and anarchists. While minarchists think that a minimal centralized government is necessary, anarchists propose to completely eliminate the state." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: religious libertarian libertarian ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#libertarianism
Tag: cwrc:libertarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Libertarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Maoism

"Mao Zedong Thought (simplified Chinese: 毛泽东思想; traditional Chinese: 毛澤東思想; pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), or Maoism, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976). Its followers, known as Maoists, consider it an anti-Revisionist form of Marxism–Leninism. Developed from the 1950s until the Deng Xiaoping reforms in the 1970s, it was widely applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. The essential difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism is that Mao claimed that peasants should be the essential revolutionary class in China, because, contrary to their industrial working "comrades," they were more suited to establishing a successful revolution and socialist society in China." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: chinese communism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maoism
Tag: cwrc:maoism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Maoism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

marriage law reform

Advocacy or activism related to the reform of laws related to marriage and divorce, including education, marital rape, wages for housework and childrearing, property law, child custody, and civil rights.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: marriage law reformer divorce reformer married women's property supporter divorce reform activist maternal wage activist custody rights marriage reformer ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#marriageLawReform
Tag: cwrc:marriageLawReform
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Marxism

"Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist methodology originally used a method of economic and sociopolitical inquiry known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. According to Marxist perspective, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between the highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat, and the private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product (profit) by a small minority of the population who are private owners called the bourgeoisie. As the contradiction becomes apparent to the proletariat through the alienation of labor, social unrest between the two antagonistic classes will intensify, until it culminates in social revolution. The eventual long-term outcome of this revolution would be the establishment of socialism – a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution, and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces and technology continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would eventually give way to a communist stage of social development, which would be a classless, stateless, humane society erected on common ownership and the principle of "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has since developed into different branches and schools of thought, and there is now no single definitive Marxist theory. Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while de-emphasising or rejecting other aspects, and sometimes combine Marxist analysis with non-Marxian concepts; as a result, they might reach contradictory conclusions from each other. Lately, however, there is movement towards the recognition that the main aspect of Marxism is philosophy of dialectical materialism and historicism, which should result to more agreement between different schools. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements, and Marxist understandings of history and society have been adopted by some academics in the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, media studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, critical psychology, and philosophy." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: marxist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#marxism
Tag: cwrc:marxism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Marxism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:revolutionaryPolitics

[back to top]

monarchism

"Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism. Depending on the country, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: royalist monarchist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#monarchism
Tag: cwrc:monarchism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Monarchism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Monarchism

[back to top]

multiculturalism

"Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, and/or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. This can happen when a jurisdiction is created or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures (e.g. French Canada and English Canada) or through immigration from different jurisdictions around the world (e.g. Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and many other countries). Multicultural ideologies and policies vary widely, ranging from the advocacy of equal respect to the various cultures in a society, to a policy of promoting the maintenance of cultural diversity, to policies in which people of various ethnic and religious groups are addressed by the authorities as defined by the group to which they belong. Multiculturalism that promotes maintaining the distinctiveness of multiple cultures is often contrasted to other settlement policies such as social integration, cultural assimilation, and racial segregation. Multiculturalism has been described as a "salad bowl" and "cultural mosaic". Two different and seemingly inconsistent strategies have developed through different government policies and strategies. The first focuses on interaction and communication between different cultures; this approach is also often known as interculturalism. The second centers on diversity and cultural uniqueness which can sometimes result in intercultural competition over jobs among other things and may lead to ethnic conflict. Cultural isolation can protect the uniqueness of the local culture of a nation or area and also contribute to global cultural diversity. A common aspect of many policies following the second approach is that they avoid presenting any specific ethnic, religious, or cultural community values as central." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: multiculturalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#multiculturalism
Tag: cwrc:multiculturalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Multiculturalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

multiracialism

"Multiracialism is a concept or ideology that promotes a society composed of various races, while accepting and respecting different cultural backgrounds. It is a society that consists of a diverse mix of people, whether it be relative to their ethnicity, language, culture, religion, or traditions." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: multi-racialist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#multiracialism
Tag: cwrc:multiracialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Multiracialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

nationalism

"Nationalism is a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture or ethnicity that holds that group together. This can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with or becoming attached to one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related concept of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviours that support a state's decisions and actions. From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism. One is the primordialist perspective that describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct groupings based on an affinity of birth. The other is the modernist perspective that describes nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society in order to exist. An alternative perspective to both of these lineages comes out of engaged theory, and argues that while the form of nationalism is modern, the content and subjective reach of nationalism depends upon "primordial" sentiments. There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has commonly been the result of a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to inconsistency between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in a situation of anomie that nationalists seek to resolve. This anomie results in a society or societies reinterpreting identity, retaining elements that are deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, in order to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are or are deemed to be controlling them. National flags, national anthems and other symbols of national identity are commonly considered highly important symbols of the national community." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nationalism
Tag: cwrc:nationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:patriotism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anarchism

[back to top]

Nazism

"National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (/ˈnɑːtsɪzəm, ˈnæ-/), is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state, as well as other far-right groups. Usually characterized as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism, Nazism developed out of the influences of Pan-Germanism, the Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic after German defeat in World War I. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of "racial purity" (Volksgemeinschaft). The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum, while excluding those deemed either to be community aliens or belonging to an "inferior" race. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class struggle, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, and sought to convince all parts of a new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good" and to accept the priority of political interests in economic organisation. The Nazi Party was founded as the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP) to broaden its appeal. The National Socialist Program, adopted in 1920, called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, written in 1924, Hitler outlined the antisemitism and anti-communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for parliamentary democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion. In 1933, with the support of traditional conservative nationalists, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany and the Nazis gradually established a one-party state, under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, with several millions eventually imprisoned and killed. Hitler purged the party's more socially and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives and, after the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in his hands, as Führer or "leader". Following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: nazi pro-nazi ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nazism
Tag: cwrc:nazism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Nazism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:antisemitism cwrc:fascism

[back to top]

neo-conservatism

"Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among conservative leaning Democrats who became disenchanted with the party's foreign policy. Many of its adherents became politically famous during the Republican presidential administrations of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Neoconservatives peaked in influence during the administration of George W. Bush, when they played a major role in promoting and planning the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Prominent neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration included Paul Wolfowitz, John Bolton, Elliott Abrams, Richard Perle, and Paul Bremer. Senior officials Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, while not identifying as neoconservatives, listened closely to neoconservative advisers regarding foreign policy, especially the defense of Israel and the promotion of democracy in the Middle East. The term "neoconservative" refers to those who made the ideological journey from the anti-Stalinist Left to the camp of American conservatism. Neoconservatives typically advocate the promotion of democracy and promotion of American national interest in international affairs, including by means of military force, and are known for espousing disdain for communism and for political radicalism. The movement had its intellectual roots in the Jewish monthly review magazine Commentary, published by the American Jewish Committee. They spoke out against the New Left and in that way helped define the movement. C. Bradley Thompson, a professor at Clemson University, claims that most influential neoconservatives refer explicitly to the theoretical ideas in the philosophy of Leo Strauss (1899–1973),though in doing so they may draw upon meaning that Strauss himself did not endorse." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-Conservatism
Tag: cwrc:neo-Conservatism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Neoconservatism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:conservatism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

new dealer

Supporter of New Deal policies. See New Deal - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#newDealer
Tag: cwrc:newDealer
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:New_Deal
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

nihilism

"Nihilism is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Moral nihilists assert that morality does not inherently exist, and that any established moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism can also take epistemological, ontological, or metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or that reality does not actually exist. The term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence that one may develop upon realising there are no necessary norms, rules, or laws. Movements such as Futurism and deconstruction, among others, have been identified by commentators as "nihilistic". Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch, and some Christian theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity and many aspects of modernity represent a rejection of theism, and that such rejection of their theistic doctrine entails nihilism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: nihilist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nihilism
Tag: cwrc:nihilism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Nihilism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

nonjurors movement

"The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William III and Mary II could legally be recognised as sovereigns. The word "nonjuring" means "not swearing [an oath]", from the Latin word iuro or juro meaning "to swear an oath". Many of the Anglican clergy felt legally bound by their previous oaths of allegiance to James II and, though they could accept William as regent, they could not accept him as king. It was not necessarily a split on matters of religious doctrine, but more of a political issue and a matter of conscience, though most of the nonjurors were high church Anglicans. Thus, latitudinarian Anglicans were handed control of the Church of England, while Presbyterians took control of the Church of Scotland. The nonjurors thus were nominally Jacobite, although they generally did not actively support the Jacobite rebellions in 1715 or 1745." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nonjurorsMovement
Tag: cwrc:nonjurorsMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Nonjuring_schism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:jacobitism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

pacifism

"Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In Christianity, Jesus Christ's injunction to "love your enemies" and asking for forgiveness for his crucifiers "for they know not what they do" have been interpreted as calling for pacifism. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, particularly in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr., James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the Civil Rights Movement. Pacifism was widely associated with the much publicized image of Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 with the "Tank Man", where one protester stood in nonviolent opposition to a column of tanks." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pacifist supporter pacifist peace movement ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pacifism
Tag: cwrc:pacifism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Pacifism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Conscriptionism cwrc:anti-War
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Pacifism

[back to top]

parliamentarianism

Advocacy for parliamentary systems in government. See: Parliamentary system - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: parliamentarian pro-parliamentarian parliamentarianism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parliamentarianism
Tag: cwrc:parliamentarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Parliamentary_system
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

parliamentary reform

Support for reform of the parliamentary system of the United Kingdom. See Reform Bills - Wikipedia; Category:Representation of the People Acts - Wikipedia; Electoral reform - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-reform parliamentary reformer ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parliamentaryReform
Tag: cwrc:parliamentaryReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Representation_of_the_People_Acts dbpedia:Electoral_reform dbpedia:Reform_Bills
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

patriotism

"Patriotism is an emotional attachment to a nation which an individual recognizes as their homeland. This attachment, also known as national feeling or national pride, can be viewed in terms of different features relating to one's own nation, including ethnic, cultural, political, or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to those of nationalism. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; another related term is jingoism. The English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era, via Middle French from Late Latin (6th century) patriota, meaning "countryman", ultimately from Greek πατριώτης (patriōtēs), meaning "from the same country", from πατρίς (patris), meaning "fatherland". The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: patriotism patriot patriotic ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#patriotism
Tag: cwrc:patriotism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Patriotism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Polish nationalism

"Polish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Poles are a Polish nation, and promotes the cultural unity of Poles. Norman Davies, in the context of Polish nationalism, defined nationalism in general as "a doctrine ... to create a nation by arousing people's awareness of their nationality, and to mobilize their feelings into a vehicle for political action". The old Polish protonationalism of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth based on the Polish-Lithuanian identity was multi-ethnic and multi-religious. The nationalist ideology developed soon after the Partitions was initially free of "ethnic nationalism" of any kind. It was a Romantic movement for the restoration of the Polish sovereign state. Polish Romantic nationalism was described by Maurycy Mochnacki as "the essence of the nation" no longer defined by borders but by ideas, feelings, and thoughts resulting from the past. The birth of modern nationalism under foreign rule coincided with the November Uprising of 1830 and the subsequent Spring of Nations. However, the defeat suffered by the Poles also broke the Polish revolutionary spirit. Many intellectuals turned to social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer, blaming the Romantic philosophy for the loss of their property, mass destruction, and ultimately the loss of the nation. With the advent of Positivism between 1860 and 1890 Polish nationalism became an elitist cause. Because the partitioning powers could not have identified themselves with the Polish nation, therefore the ideology became more restrictive in terms of ethnicity and religion." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: polish nationalist Polish nationalism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#polishNationalism
Tag: cwrc:polishNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Polish_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

poor advocacy

Advocacy for the poor.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: advocate for the poor ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#poorAdvocacy
Tag: cwrc:poorAdvocacy
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

poor law reform

"From the reign of Elizabeth I until the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 relief of the poor in England was administered on the basis of a Poor Law enacted in 1601. From the start of the nineteenth century the basic concept of providing poor relief was criticised as misguided by leading political economists and in southern agricultural counties the burden of poor-rates was felt to be excessive (especially where poor-rates were used to supplement low wages (the "allowance" or Speenhamland system)). Opposition to the Elizabethan Poor Law led to a Royal Commission on poor relief, which recommended that poor relief could not in the short term be abolished; however it should be curtailed, and administered on such terms that none but the desperate would claim it. Relief should only be administered in workhouses, whose inhabitants were to be confined, "classified" (men, women, boys, girls) and segregated. The Poor Law Amendment Act allowed these changes to be implemented by a Poor Law Commission largely unaccountable to Parliament. The Act was passed by large majorities in Parliament, but the regime it was intended to bring about was denounced by its critics as (variously) un-Christian, un-English, unconstitutional, and impracticable for the great manufacturing districts of Northern England. The Act itself did not introduce the regime, but introduced a framework by which it might easily be brought in. Opposition to the New Poor Law strictly speaking was resistance to the introduction of the New Poor Law administrative framework; this was chiefly encountered in the industrial North in 1837–9 and overcome after a few riots by a judicious mixture of legal threats and deployment of the military. Opposition to the New Poor Law in the looser sense of resistance to (and criticism of) key features of the regime recommended by the Royal Commission persisted and eventually became orthodoxy: for example outdoor relief was never abolished in much of the industrial North. When a prominent West Riding opponent of the New Poor Law died in 1858, the Huddersfield Chronicle wrote " ...the controversy closed and English common sense has settled down on the poor-law question somewhat nearer to the views of Oastler and Pitkethly than those of their opponents."" (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: Poor Law reform ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#poorLawReform
Tag: cwrc:poorLawReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Opposition_to_the_English_Poor_Laws
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

prison reform

"Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: prison reform ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#prisonReform
Tag: cwrc:prisonReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Prison_reform
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

pro-American

A pro-American or "Americanophile" stance favours the policies, actions, or culture of the United States of America.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-American
Tag: cwrc:pro-American
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:nationalism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-American

[back to top]

pro-Boer War

Support of the First or Second Boer War. See First Boer War - Wikipedia; Second Boer War - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-BoerWar
Tag: cwrc:pro-BoerWar
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:First_Boer_War dbpedia:Second_Boer_War
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Boer

[back to top]

pro-Catholicism

Favouring the political re-establishment of Catholicism as a component of the state or the extension of civil rights to Catholics. See Category:Catholicism-related controversies - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: catholic roman catholic non-compounder ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Catholicism
Tag: cwrc:pro-Catholicism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Catholicism-related_controversies
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:catholicism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Catholicism

[back to top]

pro-choice

"Abortion-rights movements advocate for legal access to induced abortion services. The issue of induced abortion remains divisive in public life, with recurring arguments to liberalize or to restrict access to legal abortion services. Abortion-rights supporters themselves are frequently divided as to the types of abortion services that should be available and to the circumstances, for example different periods in the pregnancy such as late term abortions, in which access may be restricted." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Choice
Tag: cwrc:pro-Choice
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Abortion-rights_movements
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

pro-European

Supportive of the existence, policies, or influence of the European Union. See Pro-Europeanism - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-European
Tag: cwrc:pro-European
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Pro-Europeanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-European

[back to top]

pro-slavery

"Proslavery is an ideology that perceives slavery as a positive good." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Slavery
Tag: cwrc:pro-Slavery
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Racism cwrc:blackAnti-Oppression
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Proslavery
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:racism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:abolitionism

[back to top]

property law reform

Support for reform of the laws regarding real or personal property. See Property law - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: property reform illegitimacy reformer land reformer land reform ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#propertyLawReform
Tag: cwrc:propertyLawReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Property_law
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:socialReform

[back to top]

Protestant rule

Support for protestant rule in the United Kingdom. See English Reformation - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: protestantism protestant ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantRule
Tag: cwrc:protestantRule
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:English_Reformation
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

racial equality

"Racial equality is an equal regard to all races. It can refer to a belief in biological equality of all human races, and it can also refer to social equality for people of different races. Racial equality is a stated goal of most current political movements. The divergence of any particular society from a state of racial equality is often contested by members of that society of different races. In today's society, there is more diversity and more integration among races. However, attaining equality has been difficult for African Americans, Asians, and Latinos, especially in schools." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: race equality racial integrationist racial integration racial equality activist activist for racial equality ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#racialEquality
Tag: cwrc:racialEquality
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:racism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Racial_equality
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

racism

"Racism is a product of the complex interaction in a given society of a race-based worldview with prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems (e.g., apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as inferior or superior. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life. Associated social actions may include xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena. While race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior). Racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. The UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition. It is usually found in, but usage is not limited to, law, the social and behavioral sciences, humanities, and popular culture." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: racist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#racism
Tag: cwrc:racism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:abolitionism cwrc:blackAnti-Oppression
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Racism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:racialEquality

[back to top]

radicalism

"The term political radicalism (or simply, in political science, radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways. Derived from the Latin radix (root), the denotation of radical has changed since its eighteenth-century coinage to comprehend the entire political spectrum—yet retains the "change at the root" connotation fundamental to revolutionary societal change. Historically, radicalism has referred exclusively to the radical left (under the single category of far-left politics) and rarely incorporating far-right politics, though these may have revolutionary elements; the prominent exception is in the United States where some consider radicalism to include both political extremes of the radical left and the radical right. In traditional labels of the spectrum of political thought, the opposite of radical on the "right" of the political spectrum is termed reactionary. The nineteenth-century Cyclopaedia of Political Science (1881, 1889) reports that "radicalism is characterized less by its principles than by the manner of their application". Conservatives often used the term radical pejoratively, whereas contemporary left radicals used the term conservative derogatorily; thus contemporary denotations of radical, radicalism, and political radicalism comprehend far left (hard left, radical left), and far right (hard right, radical right). The Encyclopædia Britannica records the first political usage of radical as ascribed to the British Whig Party parliamentarian Charles James Fox, who, in 1797, proposed a "radical reform" of the electoral system, franchise to provide universal manhood suffrage, thereby, idiomatically establishing radical to denote supporters of the reformation of the British Parliament. Throughout the nineteenth century, the term was combined with political notions and doctrines, thus working class radicalism, middle class-, philosophic-, democratic- bourgeois-, Tory-, and plebeian radicalism. In the event, politically influential radical leaders give rise to their own trend of political radicalism, e.g. Spencean radicalism and Carlilean radicalism. Philosophically, the French political scientist Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–78), is the principal theoretician proposing political radicalism as feasible in republican political philosophy, viz the French Revolution (1789–99), and other modern revolutions—the antithesis to the liberalism of John Locke." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: radical ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#radicalism
Tag: cwrc:radicalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Political_radicalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

rationalism

"In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction. The rationalists had such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence were regarded as unnecessary to ascertain certain truths – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience". Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic (skeptical) clear interpretation of authority (open to the underlying or essential cause of things as they appear to our sense of certainty). In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. In politics, Rationalism, since the Enlightenment, historically emphasised a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism, secularism, and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism later ameliorated by utilitarian adoption of pluralistic rationalist methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology. In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became socially conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term 'rationalist' was often used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, and for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force (thus in 1670 Sanderson spoke disparagingly of "a mere rationalist, that is to say in plain English an atheist of the late edition..."). The use of the label "rationalist" to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today; terms like "humanist" or "materialist" seem largely to have taken its place. But the old usage still survives." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: rationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalism
Tag: cwrc:rationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Rationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

republicanism

"Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. However, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word, "republic", derives from the Latin, res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BCE following the expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus. This form of government collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics revived subsequently, with, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain. The concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#republicanism
Tag: cwrc:republicanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Republicanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

revolutionary

"A revolutionary is a person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-revolutionary ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#revolutionaryPolitics
Tag: cwrc:revolutionaryPolitics
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Revolutionary
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Sabbatarianism

"Sabbatarianism is a movement within Protestantism whose proponents advocate that certain observances, specifically enumerated in a code of behavior or law, are required for Christians to properly observe the Sabbath or Sabbath principles. Its historical origins lie in Puritan Sabbatarianism, which delineated precepts for keeping Sunday holy in observance of Sabbath commandment principles. This observance of Sunday is the purest form of first-day Sabbatarianism, a movement which diminished and largely disappeared in the 18th century, though traces and influences remain today. Today, seventh-day Sabbatarianism is the most prominent type, a movement that generally embraces a literal reading of the Sabbath commandment that provides for both worship and rest on the seventh day of the week. Seventh-day Baptists leave most other Sabbath considerations of observance to individual conscience. The Seventh-day Adventist Church and Church of God (Seventh Day) have similar views, but maintain the original, scriptural duration as Friday sunset through Saturday sunset. Non-Sabbatarianism is the view opposing all Sabbatarianism, declaring Christians to be free of mandates to follow such specific observances. It upholds the principle in Christian church doctrine that the church is not bound by such law or code, but is free to set in place and time such observances as uphold Sabbath principles according to its doctrine: to establish a day of rest, or not, and to establish a day of worship, or not, whether on Saturday or on Sunday or on some other day. It includes all Catholics and Orthodox, and most Protestant denominations." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sabbatarianism
Tag: cwrc:sabbatarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Sabbatarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:catholicism

[back to top]

sanitary movement

Promotion of sanitary practices and conditions, often directed at the poor or the reform of urban sanitation, through charitable or political activities. See Sanitation - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sanitaryMovement
Tag: cwrc:sanitaryMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sanitation#History
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:urbanReform

[back to top]

Scottish nationalism

"Scottish nationalism promotes the idea that the Scottish people form a cohesive nation and national identity and is closely linked to the cause of Scottish home rule and Scottish independence: the ideology of the Scottish National Party (the party forming the Scottish Government). It is often described as a form of civic nationalism rather than ethnic nationalism. The Acts of Union merged the independent kingdoms of Scotland and England into Great Britain in 1707, but a separate legal system and distinct Scottish institutions continued to exist. Linguistic independence was an important part of the twentieth century Scottish Renaissance, associated with the nationalist impetus provided by Hugh MacDiarmid." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: scottish nationalist scots nationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#scottishNationalism
Tag: cwrc:scottishNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Scottish_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

secularism

"Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, or, in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from the imposition by government of religion or religious practices upon its people. Another manifestation of secularism is the view that public activities and decisions, especially political ones, should be uninfluenced by religious beliefs and/or practices. Secularism draws its intellectual roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Epicurus and Marcus Aurelius; from Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, Denis Diderot, Voltaire, Baruch Spinoza, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine; and from more recent freethinkers and atheists such as Robert Ingersoll and Bertrand Russell. The purposes and arguments in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism, it has been argued that secularism is a movement towards modernization, and away from traditional religious values (also known as secularization). This type of secularism, on a social or philosophical level, has often occurred while maintaining an official state church or other state support of religion. In the United States, some argue that has served to a greater extent to protect religion and the religious from governmental interference, while secularism on a social level is less prevalent. Within countries as well, differing political movements support secularism for varying reasons." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: secularist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#secularism
Tag: cwrc:secularism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Secularism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

sexual reform

Advocacy or activism related to the reform of attitudes, practices, and laws related to sex, including autonomy, age of consent, trafficking, and sex work.

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: sexual liberationist sex-trade reformer sexual libertarian sex-trade activist sexual reformer ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualReform
Tag: cwrc:sexualReform
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism cwrc:pro-Choice cwrc:socialPurity

[back to top]

social purity

"The social purity movement was a late 19th-century social movement that sought to abolish prostitution and other sexual activities that were considered immoral according to Christian morality. Composed primarily of women, the movement was active in English-speaking nations from the late 1860s to about 1910, exerting an important influence on the contemporaneous feminist, eugenics, and birth control movements. The movement helped to shape feminist views on prostitution. The roots of the social purity movement lay in early 19th-century moral reform movements, such as radical utopianism, abolitionism, and the temperance movement. In the late 19th century, "social" was a euphemism for "sexual"; the movement first formed in opposition to the legalization and regulation of prostitution, and quickly spread to other sex-related issues such as raising the age of consent, sexually segregating prisons, eliminating abortion, opposing contraception, and censoring pornography." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: purity movement ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialPurity
Tag: cwrc:socialPurity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Social_purity_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

social reform

"A reform movement is the kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic) or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self-sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change. Reactionary movements, which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before any successes the new reform movement(s) enjoyed, or to prevent any such successes." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: reformist social reformer reformer progressivism reformers reform social welfare ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialReform
Tag: cwrc:socialReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Reform_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

socialism

"Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these. Although there are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist economic systems can be divided into both non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets, and, in some cases, the profit motive with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The feasibility and exact methods of resource allocation and calculation for a socialist system are the subjects of the socialist calculation debate. The socialist political movement includes a diverse array of political philosophies that originated amid the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 1700s and of a general concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. In addition to the debate over markets and planning, the varieties of socialism differ in their form of social ownership, how management is to be organized within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism. Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include reformism versus revolutionary socialism, and state socialism versus libertarian socialism. Socialist politics has been both centralist and decentralized; internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organized through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent of, and critical of, unions; and present in both industrialized and developing countries. While all tendencies of socialism consider themselves democratic, the term "democratic socialism" is often used to highlight its advocates' high value for democratic processes in the economy and democratic political systems, usually to draw contrast to tendencies they may perceive to be undemocratic in their approach. The term is frequently used to draw contrast to the political system of the Soviet Union, which operated in an authoritarian fashion. By the late 19th century, and after further articulation and advancement by Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels as the culmination of technological development outstripping the economic dynamics of capitalism, "socialism" had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. By the 1920s, social democracy and communism became the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. Socialism proceeded to emerge as the most influential secular political-economic worldview of the twentieth century, and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, many economists and intellectuals have argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence in all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism, and liberalism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: socialist feminist owenite socialism socialist and feminist militant socialist socialist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialism
Tag: cwrc:socialism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Socialism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:communism cwrc:socialReform
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Socialism

[back to top]

Society of Friends

"Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "that of God in every person," and therefore they profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers. In 2012, there were 377,055 adult Quakers. Around 79% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor. Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship (more commonly known today as Meeting for Worship), where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, and may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry. The first Quakers lived in mid-17th century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England. The Quakers, especially the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women. They based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, and a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers. They emphasised a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism. Described as "natural capitalists" by the BBC, some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry's; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: pro-toleration ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends
Tag: cwrc:societyOfFriends
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Quakers
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:humanRights
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:abolitionism cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

Spanish republicanism

"There has existed in the Kingdom of Spain a persistent trend of republican thought, especially throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, that has manifested itself in diverse political parties and movements over the entire course of the history of Spain. While these movements have shared the objective of establishing a republic in Spain, during these three centuries there have surged distinct schools of thought on the form republicans would want to give to the Spanish State: unitary (centralized) or federal. Despite the country's long-lasting schools of republican movements, the government of Spain has been organized as a republic during only two very short periods in its history, which totaled less than 10 years of republican government in the entirety of Spanish history. The First Spanish Republic lasted from February 1873 to December 1874, and the Second Spanish Republic lasted from April 1931 to April 1939. Currently there are movements and political parties throughout the entire political spectrum that advocate for a Third Spanish Republic, including almost all of the Spanish left, as well as liberal, right-winged, and nationalist parties." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: spanish republican supporter spanish republican ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spanishRepublicanism
Tag: cwrc:spanishRepublicanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Republicanism_in_Spain
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:republicanism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Stalinism

"Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented by Joseph Stalin. Stalinist policies in the Soviet Union included state terror, rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a centralized state, collectivization of agriculture, cult of personality in leadership, and subordination of interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—deemed by Stalinism to be the most forefront vanguard party of communist revolution at the time. Stalinism promoted the escalation of class conflict, utilizing state violence to forcibly purge society of claimed supporters of the bourgeoisie, regarding them as threats to the pursuit of the communist revolution that resulted in substantial political violence and persecution of such people. These included not only bourgeois people but also working-class people accused of counter-revolutionary sympathies. Stalinist industrialization was officially designed to accelerate the development towards communism, stressing that such rapid industrialization was needed because the country was previously economically backward in comparison with other countries; and that it was needed in order to face the challenges posed by internal and external enemies of communism. Rapid industrialization was accompanied with mass collectivization of agriculture and rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization converted many small villages into industrial cities. To accelerate the development of industrialization, Stalin pragmatically created joint venture contracts with major American private enterprises, such as Ford Motor Company, that under state supervision assisted in developing the basis of industry of the Soviet economy from the late 1920s to 1930s. After the American private enterprises completed their tasks, Soviet state enterprises took over." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: totalitarian stalinist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stalinism
Tag: cwrc:stalinism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Stalinism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:communism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:bolshevism cwrc:communism cwrc:marxism

[back to top]

suffrage movement

"Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, and the combination of both rights is sometimes called full suffrage. In many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are sometimes called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may also be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums and initiatives; other states have not. The United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision, but most democracies no longer extend differing rights to vote on the basis of sex or race. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries (e.g., Commonwealth citizens and European Union citizens)." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: women's suffrage suffragist non-militant suffragist suffrage female suffrage moderate suffragist christian suffragist suffragism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#suffrage
Tag: cwrc:suffrage
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Feminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Suffrage
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Suffrage

[back to top]

tax resistance

"Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax or to government policy or as opposition to the concept of taxation in itself. Tax resistance is a form of direct action and if in violation of the tax regulations, a form of civil disobedience. Examples of tax resistance campaigns include those advocating home rule, such as the Salt March led by Mahatma Gandhi, and those promoting women's suffrage, such as the Women's Tax Resistance League. War tax resistance is the refusal to pay some or all taxes that pay for war and a form of nonviolent resistance. War tax resistance may be practiced by conscientious objectors, pacifists, or those protesting against a particular war. As a percentage of income tax funds military expenditure, war tax resisters may avoid or refuse to pay some or all income tax. For example, war resisters may choose to avoid taxes by living simply below the income tax threshold. Tax resisters are distinct from tax protesters who deny that the legal obligation to pay taxes exists or applies. Tax resisters may accept that some law commands them to pay taxes but they still choose to resist taxation." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: tax withholder tax resister ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#taxResistance
Tag: cwrc:taxResistance
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Tax_resistance
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Monarchism

[back to top]

temperance movement

"The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements typically criticize excessive alcohol consumption, promote complete abstinence (teetotalism), or use its political influence to press the government to enact alcohol laws to regulate the availability of alcohol or even its complete prohibition." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: temperance activist temperance temperance supporter ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#temperanceMovement
Tag: cwrc:temperanceMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Temperance_movement
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:conservatism cwrc:feminism

[back to top]

Tory Party (Britain)

"The Tories were members of two political parties which existed, sequentially, in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York (who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland). This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: tory ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#toryPartyBritain
Tag: cwrc:toryPartyBritain
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:whiggism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Tories_(British_political_party)
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:conservatism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

trade unionism

In support of the formation of a trade union. See Trade union - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: union movement trade unionist unionism ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tradeUnionism
Tag: cwrc:tradeUnionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Trade_union
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

urban reform

Advocacy or activism in support of reforming the urban environment, often in support of alleviating poverty. See Urban renewal - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: urban reformer ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urbanReform
Tag: cwrc:urbanReform
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Urban_renewal
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

vegetarianism

"Vegetarianism /vɛdʒɪˈtɛəriənɪzəm/ is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. Vegetarianism can be adopted for different reasons. Many object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, along with animal rights. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are varieties of the diet as well: an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs, and an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs, dairy, and honey. Some vegans also avoid other animal products such as beeswax, leather or silk clothing, and goose-fat shoe polish. Various packaged or processed foods, including cake, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, and may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. Often, products are reviewed by vegetarians for animal-derived ingredients prior to purchase or consumption. Vegetarians vary in their feelings regarding these ingredients, however. For example, while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the usual production of cheese and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, other vegetarians may not take issue with its consumption. Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish or poultry, or sometimes other meats, on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. This is because earlier dictionaries included fish as part of the definition whereas the current versions do not. A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are also animals." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: vegetarian ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#vegetarianism
Tag: cwrc:vegetarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Vegetarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:animalWelfareAdvocacy

[back to top]

Welsh nationalism

"Welsh nationalism (Welsh: Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: welsh nationalist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#welshNationalism
Tag: cwrc:welshNationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Welsh_nationalism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

whiggism

"Whiggism, sometimes spelled Whigism, is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651). The whigs' key policy positions were the supremacy of Parliament (as opposed to that of the king), tolerance of Protestant dissenters, and opposition to a Catholic (especially a Stuart) on the throne. After the huge success of the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689, Whiggism dominated English and British politics until about 1760, although in practice it splintered into different factions. After 1760 the Whigs lost power, apart from sharing it in a few short-lived coalitions, but Whiggism fashioned itself into a generalized belief system that emphasised innovation and liberty and was strongly held by about half of the leading families in England and Scotland, as well as most merchants, Dissenters and professionals. The opposing Tory position was held by the other great families, the Church of England, and most of the landed gentry and officers of the army and the navy. Whigs who opposed Robert Walpole often called themselves "Old Whigs" and comprised part of the Country Party. Whiggism referred originally to the Whigs of the British Isles, but in its "Old Whig" form was largely adopted by the American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies. American Whiggism was known as republicanism. One meaning of 'whiggism' given by the Oxford English Dictionary is "moderate or antiquated Liberalism"." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: opposition whig dissident whig foxite whig williamite whigs whig pittite whig ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiggism
Tag: cwrc:whiggism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Whiggism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:left-Wing cwrc:liberalism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:toryPartyBritain

[back to top]

Wilkite

A view of the law, in support of John Wilkes. Focused on government accountability and right to trial by jury. See: John Wilkes - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#wilkite
Tag: cwrc:wilkite
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:John_Wilkes
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

womanism

"Womanism is a social theory deeply rooted in the racial and gender-based oppression of black women. There are varying interpretations on what the term "womanist" means, and efforts to provide a concise and all encompassing definition have only been marginally successful. The ambiguity within the theory allows for its continuous expansion of its basic tenets, though this ambiguity is also widely considered its greatest weakness. At its core, womanism is a social change perspective based upon the everyday problems and experiences of black women and other women of minority demographics, but more broadly seeks methods to eradicate inequalities not just for black women, but for all people." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: womanist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womanism
Tag: cwrc:womanism
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Feminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Womanism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Racism

[back to top]

women's education reform

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: campaigner for women's education women's higher education female education women's medical education activist for women's education women's education reformer female education advocate ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womensEducationReform
Tag: cwrc:womensEducationReform
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Feminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Category:Women_and_education dbpedia:Female_education
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:educationReform cwrc:feminism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

women's employment reform

Advocacy or activism related to women's employment including training, opportunities, wages, and working conditions. See Women in the workforce - Wikipedia

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: employment activist equal rights in the work place women's employment reformer female employment ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womensEmploymentReform
Tag: cwrc:womensEmploymentReform
cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Feminism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Women_in_the_workforce
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:feminism cwrc:socialReform
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Zionism

"Zionism is a nationalist political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land). Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in central and eastern Europe as a national revival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles, and liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and address threats to its continued existence and security. A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state. A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha'am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Ha'am strived for Israel to be "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews". Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland. Critics of Zionism view it as a colonialist, racist, and exceptionalist ideology that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Palestine, followed by the forced exodus of Palestinians, and the subsequent denial of their human rights." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: zionist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#zionism
Tag: cwrc:zionism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Zionism
rdf:type: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:nationalism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:related: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism
*cwrc:contraryTo: cwrc:anti-Zionism

[back to top]

Asian

"Asian people or Asiatic people are people who descend from a portion of Asia's population. There are varieties of definition and geographical data presented by organisations and individuals for classifying the ethnic groups in Asia."(DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#asianRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:asianRaceColour
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Asian_people
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

black

"Black people (seen both capitalized and with lowercase 'b') is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, 'black' is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, and as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as 'black', and these social constructs have also changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, and the social criteria for 'blackness' vary. For example, in North America the term black people is not necessarily an indicator of skin color or ethnic origin, but is instead a socially based racial classification related to being African American, with a family history associated with institutionalized slavery. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are generally not classified as 'black'. In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term 'black' or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: blackwoman ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:blackRaceColour
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:blackLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Black_people
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

eurasian

"A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry. In 19th-century British India, Eurasians — later called Anglo-Indians — were of mixed Portuguese, Dutch, British, Indian or, more rarely, French descent, but now their parentage may be from other parts of South, East or Southeast Asia. The term has been used in anthropological literature since the 1960s. It may also be extended to those with Central Asian heritage." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eurasianRace
Tag: cwrc:eurasianRace
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:eurasianLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Eurasian_(mixed_ancestry)
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: cwrc:eurasianLabel
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

Jewish

"The Jews (/dʒuːz/; Hebrew: יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites, or Hebrews, of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel. The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel, associated with the god El, somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age). The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel, and the Kingdom of Judah. Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'. Though few sources in the Bible mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian Captivity and Exile, to Babylonian Captivity and Exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation, and the historical relations between Israelites and their homeland, became a major feature of Jewish history, identity and memory. The worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II, but approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since then the population has slowly risen again, and as of 2015 was estimated at 14.3 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, or less than 0.2% of the total world population (roughly one in every 514 people). According to the report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel (6.4 million), and 40% in the United States (5.7 million), with most of the remainder living in Europe (1.4 million) and Canada (0.4 million). These numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as such by a respondent in the same household. The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to issues with census methodology, disputes among proponents of halakhic, secular, political, and ancestral identification factors regarding who is a Jew may affect the figure considerably depending on the source. Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Declaration of Independence and Basic Laws. Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, including philosophy, ethics, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, religion, music, theatre and cinema, medicine, as well as science and technology, both historically and in modern times." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: jew ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:jewishRaceColour
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Jews
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

mixed-race

"Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. While some of the terms used in the past are considered insulting and offensive, there are many socially acceptable modern terms that multiracial people identify with. These include mixed-race, biracial, multiracial, métis, mestizo, pardo and mixed. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found that the multiracial population is continuing to grow. Because of a decline in racial discrimination, multiracial people no longer feel the need to hide their heritage. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, mixed-race people make up the majority of the population. Other areas where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, the Middle East, parts of Africa and Asia, New Zealand, and Fiji." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: red mulatto mixed coloured (mixed-race) mixed-blood mixed-race racially mixed ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#mixedRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:mixedRaceColour
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:whiteLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Multiracial
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
skos:broader: http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorSimpleWhite
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

white

"White people is a racial classification specifier, used for people of Europid ancestry, with the exact implications dependent on context. The contemporary usage of 'white people' or a 'white race' as a large group of (mainly European) populations contrasting with 'black', American Indian, colored' or non-white originates in the 17th century. It is today particularly used as a racial classifier in multiracial societies, such as the United States (White American), the United Kingdom (White British), Brazil (White Brazilian), and South Africa (White South African). Various social constructions of whiteness have been significant to national identity, public policy, religion, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, white privilege, eugenics, racial marginalization and racial quotas. The term 'white race' or 'white people' entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, in the context of racialized slavery and unequal status in European colonies. Description of populations as 'white' in reference to their skin color predates this notion and is found in Greco-Roman ethnography and other ancient sources. Scholarship on race generally distinguishes the modern concept from pre-modern descriptions of collective difference." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

[skos:altLabel: creole (typically caucasian (european settler descendants) ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRaceColour
Tag: cwrc:whiteRaceColour
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:whiteLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:White_people
rdf:type: cwrc:RaceColour skos:Concept
skos:broader: http://rdf.muninn-project.org/ontologies/appearances#SkinColorSimpleWhite
skos:inScheme: cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

Abrahamic religions

"Abrahamic religions, emphasising and tracing their common origin to the tribal patriarch Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him, comprising one of the major divisions in comparative religion, along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the largest Abrahamic religions.The largest Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are Judaism (2nd millennium BCE), Christianity (1st century CE) and Islam (7th century CE)." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abrahamicReligions
Tag: cwrc:abrahamicReligions
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Abrahamic_religions
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

agnosticism

"Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable. According to the philosopher William L. Rowe: "In the popular sense of the term, an agnostic is someone who neither believes nor disbelieves in God, whereas an atheist disbelieves in God." Agnosticism is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion as such. Thomas Henry Huxley, an English biologist, coined the word "agnostic" in 1869. Earlier thinkers, however, had written works that promoted agnostic points of view, such as Sanjaya Belatthaputta, a 5th-century BCE Indian philosopher who expressed agnosticism about any afterlife; and Protagoras, a 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher who expressed agnosticism about "the gods". The Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda is agnostic about the origin of the universe." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#agnosticism
Tag: cwrc:agnosticism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Agnosticism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Anglicanism

"A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organisation of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal."" (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanism
Tag: cwrc:anglicanism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Anglicanism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153822
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept foaf:Organization
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:christianity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

atheism

"Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists. The term "atheism" originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence; the problem of evil; the argument from inconsistent revelations; the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified; and the argument from nonbelief. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies (eg. humanism and skepticism), there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Many atheists hold that atheism is a more parsimonious worldview than theism and therefore that the burden of proof lies not on the atheist to disprove the existence of God but on the theist to provide a rationale for theism. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult. Several comprehensive global polls on the subject have been conducted by Gallup International: their 2015 poll featured over 64,000 respondents and indicated that 11% were "convinced atheists" whereas an earlier 2012 poll found that 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists." An older survey by the BBC, in 2004, recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls, Europe and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61% of people in China reported that they were atheists. The figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union (EU) reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force"." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#atheism
Tag: cwrc:atheism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Atheism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Baptist Christianity

"Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChristianity
Tag: cwrc:baptistChristianity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Baptists http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153825
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Buddhism

"Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community)." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

[skos:altLabel: Buddhist ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#buddhism
Tag: cwrc:buddhism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Buddhism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073738
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Roman Catholicism

"Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organisational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicism
Tag: cwrc:catholicism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Catholic_Church http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073730
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:christianity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Christian Science

"Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianScience
Tag: cwrc:christianScience
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Christian_Science http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300264476
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:christianity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Christianity

"Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianity
Tag: cwrc:christianity
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Christianity http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073711
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:abrahamicReligions
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion
skos:narrowerTransitive: cwrc:buddhism

[back to top]

Church of Ireland

"The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second-largest Christian church on the island after the Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. Nevertheless, in theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those espoused during the English Reformation. The church self identifies as being both Catholic and Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning (high church) and those who are more Protestant-leaning (low church or evangelical). For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is generally identified as a Protestant church. The Church of Ireland is the second-largest in the Republic of Ireland, with around 130,000 members, and the third-largest in Northern Ireland, with around 260,000 members." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfIreland
Tag: cwrc:churchOfIreland
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Church_of_Ireland
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept foaf:Organization
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:anglicanism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Congregationalism

"Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism is often considered to be a part of the wider Reformed tradition. Many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian Robert Browne in 1582. These arose from the ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England. In Great Britain, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the similarly Calvinistic Presbyterians. Congregational churches were widely established in the Plymouth Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony (later New England), and together wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 which described the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York, then into the Old North West, and further. With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is largely split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, which is the most theologically conservative. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5% of the worldwide Protestant population." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalism
Tag: cwrc:congregationalism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Congregational_church
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Dissent (Protestant)

1- "In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England. Broad use of the term was precipitated after the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, when the Act of Uniformity 1662 re-established the opponents of reform within the Church of England. By the late 19th-century the term specifically included the Reformed Christians (Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Calvinist sects), plus the Baptists and Methodists. The English Dissenters such as the Puritans who violated the Act of Uniformity 1559 — typically by practising radical, sometimes separatist, dissent — were retrospectively labelled as nonconformists." (DBpedia, 2017) Dissenting Protestantism and nonconformism are historical phenomena that become less relevant in the United Kingdom from the early twentieth century onwards, and many groups such as Baptists and Presbyterians have significant followings in other parts of the world.

2- "English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters, and founded their own churches, educational establishments, and communities; some emigrated to the New World. They originally agitated for a wide-reaching Protestant Reformation of the Established Church, and triumphed briefly under Oliver Cromwell." (DBpedia, 2017) See also: Nonconformist - Wikipedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentProtestant
Tag: cwrc:dissentProtestant
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:English_Dissenters dbpedia:Nonconformist
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:protestantism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Fifth Monarchists

"The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century. They took their name from a prophecy in the Book of Daniel that four ancient monarchies (Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman) would precede the kingdom of Christ. They also referred to the year 1666 and its relationship to the biblical Number of the Beast indicating the end of earthly rule by carnal human beings. They were one of a number of nonconformist dissenting groups that emerged around this time." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fifthMonarchists
Tag: cwrc:fifthMonarchists
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Fifth_Monarchists
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept foaf:Organization
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant cwrc:millenarianism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Hinduism

"General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs, but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hinduism
Tag: cwrc:hinduism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Hinduism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073727
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Islamism

"Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#islam
Tag: cwrc:islam
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Islam http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073715
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:abrahamicReligions
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Judaism

"Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#judaism
Tag: cwrc:judaism
cwrc:representedBy: cwrc:jewishLabel
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Judaism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073723
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:abrahamicReligions
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Lollardy

"Lollardy (Lollardry, Lollardism) was a political and religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation. It was initially led by John Wycliffe, a prominent theologian who was dismissed from the University of Oxford in 1381 for criticism of the Church, especially in his doctrine on the Eucharist. The Lollards' demands were primarily for reform of Western Christianity." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollardy
Tag: cwrc:lollardy
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Lollardy
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:catholicism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Methodism

"Or United Methodists, an English Nonconformist community formed in 1907 by the union of the Methodist New Connexion (1797), the Bible Christians (1815), and the United Methodist Free Churches (1857). The act of parliament which enabled this amalgamation received the royal assent on the 26th of July 1907, and authorized the union "to deal with real and personal property belonging to the said three churches or denominations, to provide for the vesting of the said property in trust for the United Church so formed and for the assimilation of the trusts thereof, and for other purposes." The union was completed on the 16th of September 1907 in Wesley's Chapel, City Road, London." (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#methodism
Tag: cwrc:methodism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

millenarianism

"Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin mīllēnārius "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed. Millenarianism is a concept or theme that exists in many cultures and religions." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#millenarianism
Tag: cwrc:millenarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Millenarianism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept foaf:Organization
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Neo-thomism

"Neo-Scholasticism (also known as neo-scholastic Thomism or neo-Thomism because of the great influence of the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas on the movement), is a revival and development of medieval scholasticism in Roman Catholic theology and philosophy which began in the second half of the 19th century." (DBpedia, 2017)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-thomism
Tag: cwrc:neo-thomism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Neo-Scholasticism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:catholicism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

occultism/theosophism

"Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism." (Getty, 2017)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#occultism
Tag: cwrc:occultism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300056000
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Paganism

"Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own, Judaism, or Islam–the three Abrahamic religions. Throughout Christendom, it continued to be used, typically in a derogatory sense. In the 19th century, it was re-adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-description by practitioners of contemporary pagan, or neo-pagan, religious movements. There has been much scholarly argument as to the origin of the term paganism. Paganism has also been understood by some to include any non-Abrahamic religions, but this is generally[who?] seen as insulting by adherents of those religions. While paganism is often considered to exclude monotheism and to express a worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, or animistic, there are some monotheistic pagans. Once monotheistic religions, such as Christianity and Islam, started to become more prominent (in processes known as Christianization and Islamization), names to encompass polytheistic worshipers started to develop; some of these include Hellene, pagan, and heathen, and at times these names were used as slurs. Modern knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including: anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, and the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to the classical world. Before the rise of monotheistic religions, most people practiced some type of polytheism. Many of these religions started to die out, and eventually they became extinct. In some cases, elements of polytheistic belief systems continued to exist in folklore. Paganism would later be studied during the Renaissance and Romantic era. Forms of these religions, influenced by various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, exist today and are known as contemporary or modern paganism, also referred to as Neo-paganism." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#paganism
Tag: cwrc:paganism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Paganism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

pantheism

"Pantheism is the belief that all of reality is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god. In the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza (also known as Benedict Spinoza), whose book Ethics was an answer to Descartes' famous dualist theory that the body and spirit are separate. Although the term pantheism was not coined until after his death, Spinoza is regarded as its most celebrated advocate. His work, Ethics was the major source from which Western pantheism spread. Pantheistic concepts may date back thousands of years, and some religions in the East continue to contain pantheistic elements." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pantheism
Tag: cwrc:pantheism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Pantheism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Plymouth Brethren

"The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, Evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism. Among other beliefs, the group emphasises sola scriptura, the belief that the Bible is the supreme authority for church doctrine and practice over and above "the [mere] tradition of men" (Mark 7:8). Brethren generally see themselves not as a denomination but as a network, or even as a collection of overlapping networks, of like-minded independent churches. (The Brethren would generally prefer that their gatherings be referred to as "assemblies" rather than "churches" but, in the interests of simplicity, this article uses both terms interchangeably.) The movement refused for many years to take any denominational name to itself, a stance that some still maintain. The title "The Brethren," however, is one that many of their number are comfortable with, in that the Bible designates all believers as "brethren". ("[O]ne is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren." Matthew 23:8)" (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#plymouthBrethren
Tag: cwrc:plymouthBrethren
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Plymouth_Brethren
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant cwrc:millenarianism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Presbyterianism

"One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#presbyterianism
Tag: cwrc:presbyterianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Presbyterianism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153854
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Protestantism

"The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantism
Tag: cwrc:protestantism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Protestantism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073735
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:christianity
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Quakerism

"Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakerism
Tag: cwrc:quakerism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Quakers
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

spiritualism

"Spiritualism is the belief that the spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or the "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve. These two beliefs: that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits are more advanced than humans, lead spiritualists to a third belief, that spirits are capable of providing useful knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about the nature of God. Some spiritualists will speak of a concept which they refer to as "spirit guides"—specific spirits, often contacted, who are relied upon for spiritual guidance. Spiritism, a branch of spiritualism developed by Allan Kardec and today practiced mostly in Continental Europe and Latin America, especially in Brazil, emphasises reincarnation." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spiritualism
Tag: cwrc:spiritualism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Spiritualism
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: dbpedia:Spiritualism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Tractarian Movement

"The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams, and William Palmer." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tractarianMovement
Tag: cwrc:tractarianMovement
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Oxford_Movement
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: dbpedia:Oxford_Movement
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:anglicanism
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Unitarianism

"The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David." (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

[skos:altLabel: Unitarian Church Unitarian Unitarian Movement unitarianMovement ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism
Tag: cwrc:unitarianism
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Unitarianism http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300263305
rdf:type: cwrc:Religion skos:Concept
rdfs:subClassOf: dbpedia:Unitarianism
skos:broaderTransitive: cwrc:dissentProtestant
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Religion

cwrc:Role (1)

[back to top]

actor

A person performing a certain role within an event.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Actor
Tag: cwrc:Actor
owl:sameAs: http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39.Actor
rdf:type: cwrc:Role skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Role

[back to top]

heterosexuality

Heterosexuality indicates sexual attraction to the so-called "opposite sex," that is, sexual attraction between men and women. This understanding relies, like bisexual, on a binary understanding of sex and gender that also often conflates sex with gender. Adrienne Rich draws on Kathleen Gough in articulating an understanding of heterosexuality as compulsory for women within patriarchy. In her essay "The Straight Mind" (first published in 1980) Monique Wittig understands heterosexuality as a semiotic, linguistic, political, and ontological construct. It constitutes itself as a normative system through the oppression of women by men and the "necessity of the different/other at every level." The straight mind "creates the doctrine of the difference between sexes to justify this oppression."

[skos:altLabel: HETEROSEXUALITY HETEROSEXUAL ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#heterosexual
Tag: cwrc:heterosexual
owl:sameAsconsanguineal: http://homosaurus.org/terms/heterosexualIdentity
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

homosexuality

Homosexuality indicates sexual attraction to subjects of the same gender. Like bisexuality, it draws on a binary understanding of sex and gender that also often conflates sex with gender. Homosexual is often used as an umbrella term for lesbian and gay sexuality.

[skos:altLabel: MALE HOMOSEXUAL HOMOSEXUALITY HOMOSEXUAL ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#homosexual
Tag: cwrc:homosexual
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

lesbianism

Lesbianism indicates the sexual attraction of women to other women. Yet, lesbian feminist thinkers underline that this common definition is reductive. Drawing on Kathleen Gough and within an understanding of heterosexuality as compulsory for women within patriarchy, Adrienne Rich describes a lesbian continuum, the "range—through each woman's life and throughout history—of woman-identified experiences, not simply the fact that a woman has had or consciously desired genital sexual experience with another woman" (Rich, 1983). In a heteronormative context, lesbianism is not only a question of sexuality but also has complex political implications.

[skos:altLabel: LESBIAN LESBIANISM ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lesbian
Tag: cwrc:lesbian
owl:sameAs: http://homosaurus.org/terms/lesbianIdentity
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

bisexuality

Bisexuality indicates sexual attraction to both genders. In terms of binary understandings of sex or gender, bisexuality is often defined as being sexually attracted to "both sexes".

[skos:altLabel: BISEXUALITY BISEXUAL ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityBisexuality
Tag: cwrc:sexualityBisexuality
owl:sameAs: http://homosaurus.org/terms/bisexualIdentity
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

celibacy

Celibacy indicates abstention from sex, and can stem from personal choice, religious prescriptions, or with religious occupations such as being a nun or priest. Celibacy is not the be confused with asexuality, which describes a lack of interest in sex or sexual attraction to other subjects.

[skos:altLabel: CELIBATE ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityCelibacy
Tag: cwrc:sexualityCelibacy
owl:sameAs: http://homosaurus.org/terms/celibacy
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

frigidity

Frigidity labels a female subject as sexually withdrawn or unenthusiastic (read: non-consenting) in relation to the sexual advance, usually of men within a heterosexual framework, and suggests a lack of pleasure from sexual activities. Unlike asexual and celibate, this term is often ascribed to women, as opposed to self-referential. The term "frigid" was coined in the 1920s by sexologists (Sex and Society, Vol. 1, 285). Its use in discourse surrounding female sexuality is waning.

[skos:altLabel: FRIGID ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityFrigidity
Tag: cwrc:sexualityFrigidity
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

libertinism

Libertinism refers to a type of sexual identity (often tied to men) used to describe a subject who subscribes to hedonistic sexual politics.

[skos:altLabel: LIBERTINISM ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityLibertinism
Tag: cwrc:sexualityLibertinism
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

promiscuity

Promiscuity indicates sex with multiple partners in a casual or indiscriminate fashion and in opposition to socially sanctioned sexual behaviour. Promiscuity is differently constructed for women and men in most historical and cultural contexts, being closely connected to the control of female sexuality and reproduction. It includes libertinism, a form of hedonistic sexual politics frequently ascribed to or adopted by men.

[skos:altLabel: PROMISCUOUS ]

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityPromiscuity
Tag: cwrc:sexualityPromiscuity
rdf:type: cwrc:Sexuality skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

entrepreneurial

This class comprises the owners of large-scale enterprises such as factories, those who back such enterprises through investing money, or especially in the earlier historical periods when women were rarely economic agents, the wives and daughters of those who do, for instance, Elizabeth Montagu or Beatrice Webb.(Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialist
Tag: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialist
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

gentry

Membership in the gentry indicates property-ownership or relation to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It "begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms, but is distinguished from nobility insofar as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen)."(Brown, 2006) Gentlewomen belong to this class, even though they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gentry
Tag: cwrc:gentry
owl:sameAs: dbpedia:Gentry
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

indigent

This social class is "poor, destitute, unemployed," supported by charity, or on social security. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigent
Tag: cwrc:indigent
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

lower-middle class

Employees, clerical workers, teachers, governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professions (Mr. Chips from the 1939 film of that name) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professions.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lowerMiddleClass
Tag: cwrc:lowerMiddleClass
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

managerial

This class refers to those whose "station in life comes from the fact that they are running something but not putting their money into it, for instance salaried civil service, bankers, or hospital administrators." (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#managerial
Tag: cwrc:managerial
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

nobility

This group refers to "those holding a title or of close family relation to someone holding a title (such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Byron, or Nancy Mitford)". (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nobility
Tag: cwrc:nobility
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

professional

Doctors, lawyers, guild members, and those of high calling such as members of the clergy (Church of England) belong to this class. It implies social respect and intellectual requirements. Examples are Ann Hunter, who was married to a surgeon, and Virginia Woolf, daughter of an intellectual. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#professional
Tag: cwrc:professional
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass
skos:note: Overlaps with the upper-middle class class.

[back to top]

rural unskilled

This class generally indicates farm laborers, mostly male and in earlier periods, and includes migrant farm workers. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rural-unskilled
Tag: cwrc:rural-unskilled
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

servant

Domestic servants typically live in the home with the family or institution that employs them, although the lowest class of servants might work only casually and hence not receive room and board. This type of labour, very common before the twentieth century, is distinct from that of service positions such as shop assistants, flight attendants, and restaurant workers. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#servants
Tag: cwrc:servants
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

shopkeepers

Typically applied to someone who "owns and runs a pub or shop," but not on the scale of an entrepreneur or industrialist. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#shopkeepers
Tag: cwrc:shopkeepers
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

artisan

This class includes such trades as "goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, and dressmaker." (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#skilledCraftpersonArtisan
Tag: cwrc:skilledCraftpersonArtisan
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

upper-middle class

The upper middle class is a sociological concept referring to the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class. This is in contrast to the term "lower middle class", which is used for the group at the opposite end of the middle class stratum, and to the broader term "middle class". There is considerable debate as to how the upper middle class might be defined. According to sociologist Max Weber the upper middle class consists of well-educated professionals with graduate degrees and comfortable incomes.

Comment: This term is a CWRC specific addition not in the original Orlando tag set.

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#upper-middleClass
Tag: cwrc:upper-middleClass
prov:wasDerivedFrom: dbpedia:Upper_middle_class
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass
skos:note: Overlaps with the professional class.

[back to top]

urban unskilled

This class includes factory workers and workers in urban or large-scale industries without defined trades or professional qualifications, and those in low-wage and low-status service sector jobs, such as the restaurant or fast-food industry, in industrial or post-industrial societies. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urban-industrialUnskilled
Tag: cwrc:urban-industrialUnskilled
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

yeoman farmer

Members of this historic class "own[ed] just enough land to support themselves if they did most of the work themselves." Examples include Elizabeth Ham and Mary Webb. (Brown, 2006)

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#yeoman-farmer
Tag: cwrc:yeoman-farmer
rdf:type: cwrc:SocialClass skos:Concept
skos:inScheme: cwrc:SocialClass