CWRC Ontology Specification - 0.99.2

The CWRC Ontology is the overall ontology that represents all elements of structure within the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory.

Working Draft — 11 May 2017

Previous version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontology/cwrc-2017-03-18 (owl - rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
This version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontology/cwrc-2017-05-11.html (owl-rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
Latest version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontology/cwrc.html (owl-rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
Last Update: 0.99.2
Date: 11 May 2017
Authors:
Susan Brown
Colin Faulkner
Abigel Lemak
Kim Martin
Jade Penancier
John Simpson
Robert Warren
Contributors:
Constance Crompton
Original Orlando Project Authors
Subject Headings:
Canadian literature, English literature, Bibliography, Literature--History and criticism, Humanities literature--Editing

Abstract

The Ontology of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory (cwrc.ca) brings together various linked data materials produced within the Collaboratory related to the writers, writing, and culture.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Although it contains quite general components for activities such as annotation and citation, the focus of the CWRC ontology is on describing and relating aspects literary studies and literary history, with a strong emphasis on gender and intersectional analysis indebted to its roots in The Orlando Project, a history of women’s writing in the British Isles. It links to a number of standards while attempting to indicate the complexity of the relationship between representation and provenance in the production of linked data, and to convey the situatedness (Haraway, 1988) of the knowledge that it represents.

Some of the materials associated with this ontology are produced natively by activities conducted within the Collaboratory. Others are produced through a process of translation from embedded XML markup. In other words, some are the product of human creation or curation, and others are generated by machine.

2. About this Document

This document is a human-readable version of the ontology that cannot document all of its data structures. The ontology itself should be the primary source for understanding how the ontology works.

The intended audience of this document is the scholar that wishes to understand how the ontology tackles concrete data recording problems and the linked open data practitioners that intends to make use of this ontology.

3. Status of this dynamic ontology

This document and the associated ontology will grow iteratively with modifications made over time as data is progressively translated and further ontological concerns identified over time. Continuity is ensured using the OWL ontology annotations for ontological compatibility and for deprecated classes and properties. Deprecated ontology terms remain present but are marked as such.

4. Background on the Orlando source data

The Orlando Project embarked in 1995 on a history of women’s writing in the British Isles from the beginnings to the present (Brown, Clements and Grundy, 2007a;Brown, Clements and Grundy, 2007b). This born-digital collaboration devised a knowledge representation (Brown, Clements et al., 2006) in the form of a bespoke SGML tagset to encode the priorities and concepts in the text as it was being written. This tagset structures the biocritical, chronological, and bibliographical content of the resulting history of more than 8 million words and 2 million tags. The schema provides the basis of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory’s schema for similar content, and provides the foundation of the ontology provided here. Some of the source data is produced via extraction from XML tags embedded in Orlando Project materials and the content of similarly structured content within the Collaboratory (Simpson and Brown, 2013).

Orlando: Women’s Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present (Brown and Clements and et al., 2006) is published by Cambridge University Press:
http://orlando.cambridge.org.

The scholarly introduction and introduction to the Orlando tagset are available here:
http://orlando.cambridge.org/public/svDocumentation?&d_id=ABOUTTHEPROJECT.

Contributors to Orlando are listed here:
http://orlando.cambridge.org/public/svDocumentation?formname=t&d_id=CREDITSANDACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

The Orlando Project’s XML schemas and the CWRC Project’s XML schema are available at
https://github.com/cwrc/CWRC-Schema/tree/master/schemas.

5. Basic ontological goals

a. Principles

The schema covers entities, classes, and relationships associated with the domains of literature and literary and cultural history as understood from an intersectional feminist perspective. The ontology design responds to the challenges of shifting from semi-structured to structured data (Smith, 2013). Although linked data triples stand on their own formally, many are derived from discursive prose and are best read in an environment that links back to their original context. The CWRC ontology design avoids representing RDF extractions from Orlando data as positivist assertions, and yet produces machine-readable OWL/RDF-compliant graph structures. It allows references to, without endorsing, external ontological vocabularies that are nevertheless part of documenting cultural processes and identities.

b. Linkages to other ontologies

We employ a number of strategies for linking to other ontologies. Our architecture does not import other ontologies wholesale, but relates to large vocabularies in defined ways. We try not to abuse sameAs predicates (Halpin, Hayes et al., 2010). We adopt external namespaces and associated classes and terms wherever possible when they are in widespread use and their vocabularies are broadly compatible with ours, as in the case of the FOAF and BIBO vocabularies. For some terms, such as those for religious denominations or genres, we are happy to draw on other vocabularies’ terms and definitions in part or in whole, as in the case of terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (Getty Research Institute). Other terms are referenced but at one remove. This is particularly common in relation to the vocabulary associated with Cultural Form (see below), which is understood primarily as representational, and within which identity terms are typed as labels and related to other internal narrower instances of labels that indicate the intersection of that term with one or more type of identity categorization. These are in turn related to external ontologies as subclasses, with a view to indicating that, although related, the terms and their definitions are not commensurate with those used in the CWRC vocabulary. By means of this structure, our vocabulary positions all terms associated with processes of Cultural Form as in effect labels, retaining the ambiguity of terms implicated in the complex social construction of identities.

Vocabulary reuse presented some challenges to the CWRC in that the vocabularies employed in the markup from which the RDF is derived can be ambiguously employed to an extend that reuse is difficult. A typical example is that of religion, where much ambiguity exists as to whether the term actually represents the religion as a belief system, formal membership in the associated religious organization, the social and often secular behaviours or affiliations associated with the religion, or any combination of the above.

At the top level, the CWRC ontology makes use of the following well know ontologies:

  1. The FOAF ontology for the representation of people and organizations.
  2. The BIBO ontology for the representation of bibliographic data.
  3. The TIME ontology for the representation of events and points in time where ISO8601/XML Schema times are not appropriate.
  4. The NIF-CORE ontology is used to contain and manipulate the text of the original Orlando entries.
  5. The Open Annotation data model is used to link the original Orlando text to specific Contexts.
  6. The SKOS vocabulary is use to represent taxonomical relationships within certain Cultural Forms and to fully document ontology terms.
  7. Some Dublin Core vocabulary terms are used for well known documentation tags such as <dc:title>.

c. Provenance and contexts

As noted above, some data associated with this ontology has been generated from XML structures (Simpson and Brown, 2013). Provenance is thus particularly important, given that such data was not produced natively in RDF but rather in the form of tags embedded in a discursive context. In such cases, the relevant portions of the text are provided in the form of snippets, which within the dataset become instances of contextual notes or human-readable annotations to which the ontological classes are directly tied.

The wholesale import of entire vocabularies within the CWRC ontology was likely to cause logical and ontological problems. To this end, we opted not to use the <owl:import> construct and instead either to link to vocabularies externally or to clone specific sets of terms from selected vocabularies. Similarly, not all vocabularies are well-defined from an ontological standpoint, but drawing from their narrative or some of their properties proved useful. To this end, we avoided the use of <owl:sameAs> so as not to bring unintended properties or ontological structures into the CWRC ontology. In other cases, the Provenance ontology property <prov:derivedFrom> is used to indicate that the term was constructed using information from other terms without necessarily being equivalent. Direct linkages to other ontologies are usually made through the use of subClasses or <owl:equivalentClass>.

d. Labels and values

As noted above, labels are not only used here to indicate the particular terms associated with an element of the ontology, but to indicate, when used to type a class, its representationality or discursivity.

e. Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity has been an increasing source of debate beyond and within the digital humanities community. The concentration within the Debates in Digital Humanities series (Gold, 2012; Gold and Klein, 2016) of pieces reflecting the increasing prominence of matters related to race, gender, cultural diversity, and difference is but one marker of the extent to which diversity matters. This ontology seeks to convey an intersectional understanding of identity categories, as instantiated in The Orlando Project’s XML Biography schema. The Cultural Form portion of the ontology recognizes categorization as endemic to social experience, while incorporating variation in terminology and the contextualization of identity categories. It understands social classification as culturally produced, intersecting, and discursively embedded. We invoke categories as the grounds for cultural investigation rather than fixed classifications, since such categories have never been stable or mutually exclusive (Algee-Hewitt, Porter, and Walser, 2016). For a more detailed explication of cultural formation, see Brown et al 2017.

6. CWRC ontological structures

Source data from CWRC spans multiple types of data including annotations on source texts, metadata, granular material such as bibliography, and discursive and analytical content about specific life events and literary phenomena. The CWRC linked open data set represents such information as series of assertions, frequently associated with particular contexts.

While full, integrated traceability has always been a core need of repeatable experiments, this comes as a complexity cost within a linked open data set in that the queries required to retrieve basic information become unwieldy. To this end, the CWRC ontology records information in two different ways: through a series of Contexts that link the information to its associated source text in Orlando or other materials, and through a series of granular properties that simply link individuals to their personal attributes. In this way, both rapid retrieval and deep provenance tracking are enabled.

Two basic structures are used within the ontology to achieve this: Contexts and Cultural Form. A cultural formation represent elements of lived social subjectivities and/or classification of people through categories such as race, gender, language, sexuality, or religion. Contexts are used to link a fragment of Orlando prose to the individual whom it references as well as to the specific cultural formation that is being assigned to the person. In addition, properties are separated in two categories: reported and self-reported, allowing for the qualification of individual statements.

a. Cultural Form

The Cultural Form classes recognize categorization as endemic to social experience, while incorporating variation in terminology and contextualization of identity categories by employing instances at different discursive levels.

Cultural Form sub-classes and instances describe the subject positions of individuals through both Contexts and granular properties. This arrangements has its roots in the Orlando arrangement of Cultural Form encodings that pointed users towards a framework for raising and debating complex matters for cultural investigation rather than invoking reified categories.

The shift from embedded semantic markup to a linked open data approach presented the challenge of making this approach compatible with linkages to other ontologies and data sets outside of the Orlando frame of reference. The move from "strings to links" or "strings to things" was in some sense at odds with the former embrace of the ambiguity of strings such as white, black, English, etc.: white and black can represent race or ethnicity, while English can also be invoked as an ethnicity, nationality, or a national heritage. Orlando marks these strings using its Cultural Forms tagset as specific to, for example, the context of race or ethnicity, mandating a similar association, within the linked data representation, with a specific instance of Cultural Form. Thus, there exist Cultural Form instances that point to the discursive construction of white as a race and white as an ethnicity. Lastly, there also exists a white label that can be instantiated as either race or ethnicity, but not both within the same assertion (although multiple assertions are possible).

This is a departure from previous (non-linked open data) controlled vocabularies, in that the appearance of the term or label (in this case "white") does not indicate the specific cultural formation being invoked, the specific instance does. This also means that linkages to other data sets or vocabularies can be made appropriately, since multiple representations of the same label are present within the CWRC ontology. As a last resort, or for data mining purposes, the term is also available as an concept whose actual Cultural Form is undecided amongst the CWRC-defined options. This allows for linkages to an external ontology, such as can be required by text mining, without endorsing the corresponding definition or interpretation of the term.

b. Contexts

c. Granular Properties

Granular properties provide as a simple means of reporting information about individuals and their personal properties, some of which are self-reported. Some of the properties are associations inherited from forebears.

d. Built-in Taxonomies

i. Religion

The original Orlando data makes religious reporting a challenge in that the original contexts did not differentiation between religious belief, membership in a religious organization, and absence of any religious belief combined with adherence to values or practices.

We use a taxonomy for enumerating the categories associated with this spectrum. The taxonomy in itself is SKOS-based and represents a loose mixture of the shared beliefs and historical offshoots. The religion class is also an SKOS concept scheme that has multiple topConcepts.

Some religious movements are organized and thus are also marked as FOAF organizations

The taxonomy attempts to trace the theological and/or organizational foundation of the belief system. Like applying the labels to an individual, this is an interpretive process.

The specific taxonomy is:

ii. Literary Genre

The CWRC ontology contains over 240 genres.

The specific taxonomy is:

iii. Gender, Sex and Orientation

The Orlando tags may reference any combination of sex, gender and/or sexual orientation for a particular individual.

7. Global Cross-Reference

Classes: Actor, Address, Androgynous, Context, CulturalForm, Ethnicity, EthnicityContext, Event, Gender, GenderContext, GenderQueer, Genre, GeographicalHeritage, Language, LanguageContext, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, NationalityContext, Place, PoliticalAffiliation, PoliticalContext, RaceColour, RaceEthnicity, RaceEthnicityContext, Religion, ReligionContext, SexIdentity, SexualIdentity, SexualityContext, SocialClassContext, SocialClassIdentity,

Properties: hasActor, hasCulturalForms, hasEthnicity, hasEthnicitySelfDefined, hasGender, hasGenderSelfDeclared, hasGenre, hasGeographicHeritage, hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared, hasLinguisticAbility, hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared, hasNationality, hasNationalitySelfDeclared, hasNativeLinguisticAbility, hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared, hasRaceColour, hasRaceColourSelfDeclared, hasReligion, hasReligionSelfDefined, hasSexuality, hasSexualitySelfDeclared, hasSocialClass, hasSocialClassSelfDefined, identity, inRole, personalProperty, personalPropertySelfDeclared,

Instances: abrahamicReligions, abrahamicReligions, agnosticism, agnosticism, anglicanChurch, anglicanChurch, atheism, atheism, baptistChurch, baptistChurch, black, black, blackLabel, buddhism, buddhism, catholicChurch, catholicChurch, christianity, christianity, churchOfChristianScience, churchOfChristianScience, churchOfEngland, churchOfEngland, churchOfIreland, churchOfIreland, congregationalChurch, congregationalChurch, CulturalFormation, datasetdefinition, dissenters, dissenters, dissentingChurches, dissentingChurches, england, england, englandLabel, englishLabel, EnglishLanguage, EnglishLanguage, EnglishNationalHeritage, EnglishNationalHeritage, EnglishNationalIdentity, EnglishNationalIdentity, entrepreneurial-industrialism, entrepreneurial-industrialism, entrepreneurial-industrialist, entrepreneurial-industrialist, eurasianRace, eurasianRace, FemaleLabel, femaleSex, femaleSex, fifthMonarchists, fifthMonarchists, FrenchLanguage, FrenchLanguage, genderManMale, genderManMale, genderTransMan, genderTransMan, genderTransWoman, genderTransWoman, genderWomanFemale, genderWomanFemale, genreAbridgement, genreAclef, genreAcrostic, genreAdaptation, genreAdventurewriting, genreAdvertisingcopy, genreAfterpiece, genreAfterword, genreAgitprop, genreAllegory, genreAnagram, genreAnnotation, genreAnswer, genreAnthem, genreAnthology, genreAntiromance, genreAphorism, genreApology, genreArtcriticism, genreAutobiography, genreBallade, genreBalladopera, genreBallet, genreBergamasque, genreBestiary, genreBiblicalparaphrase, genreBildungsroman, genreBiographicaldictionary, genreBiography, genreBisexualfiction, genreBlackcomedy, genreBoutsrimes, genreBroadside, genreBurletta, genreCabaret, genreCaptivitynarrative, genreCatechism, genreChapbook, genreCharacter, genreCharade, genreChildrensLiterature, genreClerihew, genreClosetdrama, genreColouringbook, genreComedy, genreComedyofintrigue, genreComedyofmanners, genreComedyofmenace, genreComicbook, genreComingout, genreCommonplacebook, genreCompanion, genreComputerprogram, genreConditionofenglandnovel, genreConductliterature, genreCookbook, genreCourtshipfiction, genreCriminology, genreDedication, genreDetective, genreDevotional, genreDialogueofthedead, genreDialogueordebate, genreDiary, genreDictionary, genreDidactic, genreDirectory, genreDissertation, genreDocumentary, genreDomestic, genreDrama, genreDramaticmonologue, genreDreamvision, genreDystopia, genreEclogue, genreElegy, genreEncyclopaedia, genreEpic, genreEpigram, genreEpilogue, genreEpistle, genreEpistolary, genreEpitaph, genreEpithalamium, genreEpyllion, genreEroticapornography, genreEssay, genreEulogy, genreExhibitioncatalogue, genreFable, genreFabliau, genreFairytale, genreFantasy, genreFarce, genreFeminist, genreFeministtheory, genreFiction, genreFilmtvscript, genreFolksong, genreGardeningbook, genreGenealogy, genreGeorgic, genreGhoststory, genreGiftbook, genreGothic, genreGovernmentreport, genreGrammar, genreGraveyardpoetry, genreGuidebook, genreHagiography, genreHaiku, genreHarlequinade, genreHeroic, genreHistorical, genreHistory, genreHymn, genreImitation, genreIndustrialnovel, genreIntroduction, genreJournalism, genreJuvenilia, genreKitchensinkdrama, genreKunstlerroman, genreLais, genreLampoon, genreLegalwriting, genreLegendFolktale, genreLesbian, genreLetter, genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving, genreLibretto, genreLiteraryCriticism, genreLiturgy, genreLove, genreLyric, genreMagicrealist, genreManifesto, genreManual, genreMap, genreMasque, genreMedicalwriting, genreMelodrama, genreMixedmedia, genreMockforms, genreMonologue, genreMoralitymysteryplay, genreMultimedia, genreMusicology, genreMystery, genreMyth, genreNarrativepoetry, genreNationaltale, genreNotebook, genreNovel, genreNovella, genreNurseryrhyme, genreObituary, genreOccasionalpoetry, genreOde, genreOneactplay, genreOpera, genreOratorio, genreOriental, genrePageant, genrePanegyric, genrePantomime, genreParable, genreParatexts, genreParody, genrePastoral, genrePedagogy, genrePerformancepoetry, genrePeriodical, genrePetition, genrePhilosophical, genrePhilosophy, genrePicaresque, genrePindaric, genrePoetry, genrePolemic, genrePoliticalwriting, genrePopular, genrePrayer, genrePrefatorypiece, genreProletarianwriting, genrePrologue, genrePropaganda, genreProphecy, genrePsalm, genrePsychoanalytical, genreQuiz, genreRadiodrama, genreRealist, genreRegional, genreReligious, genreReview, genreRevue, genreRiddle, genreRomance, genreSagewriting, genreSatire, genreScholarship, genreSchoolfiction, genreSciencefiction, genreScientificwriting, genreScrapbook, genreSensationnovel, genreSentimental, genreSequel, genreSermon, genreSexualawakeningfiction, genreShortstory, genreSilverforknovel, genreSketch, genreSketchbook, genreSlavenarrative, genreSocialscience, genreSong, genreSonnet, genreSpeech, genreTestimony, genreTextbook, genreTheatreofcruelty, genreTheatreoftheabsurd, genreTheology, genreThesaurus, genreThriller, genreTopographicalpoetry, genreTractpamphlet, genreTragedy, genreTragicomedy, genreTranslation, genreTravelwriting, genreTreatise, genreUtopia, genreVersenovel, genreVignette, genreVillanelle, genreYoungadultwriting, gentry, gentry, hasCulturalForms, hasEthnicity, hasEthnicitySelfDefined, hasGender, hasGenderSelfDeclared, hasGenre, hasGeographicHeritage, hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared, hasLinguisticAbility, hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared, hasNationality, hasNationalitySelfDeclared, hasNativeLinguisticAbility, hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared, hasRaceColour, hasRaceColourSelfDeclared, hasReligion, hasReligionSelfDefined, hasSexuality, hasSexualitySelfDeclared, hasSocialClass, hasSocialClassSelfDefined, heterosexual, heterosexual, hinduism, hinduism, homosexual, homosexual, indigent, indigent, islam, islam, jewishLabel, jewishReligion, jewishReligion, lesbian, lesbian, lollards, lollards, lowerMiddleClass, lowerMiddleClass, maleLabel, maleSex, maleSex, managerial, managerial, manLabel, methodistChurch, methodistChurch, millenarianism, millenarianism, neo-thomism, neo-thomism, nobility, nobility, occultism, occultism, originalOrlandoAuthor, pagan, pagan, personalProperty, personalPropertySelfDeclared, plymouthBrethren, plymouthBrethren, presbyterianism, presbyterianism, professional, professional, protestantism, protestantism, quakers, quakers, rationalDissenter, rationalDissenter, rural-unskilled, rural-unskilled, servants, servants, shopkeepers, shopkeepers, skilledCraftpersonArtisan, skilledCraftpersonArtisan, societyOfFriends, societyOfFriends, spiritualism, spiritualism, TextLabels, tractarianMovement, tractarianMovement, unitarianChurch, unitarianChurch, unitarianism, unitarianism, unknownSex, unknownSex, upper-middleClass, upper-middleClass, urban-industrialUnskilled, urban-industrialUnskilled, whiteEthnicity, whiteEthnicity, whiteLabel, whiteRace, whiteRace, womanLabel, yeoman-farmer, yeoman-farmer,

Dictionaries: Religion, SocialClassIdentity, TextLabels, Genre,

8. Detailed references for all terms, classes and properties

Concept: cwrc:genreAbridgement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAbridgement

abridgement - Versions of written works produced by condensation and omission but with retention of the general meaning and manner of presentation of the original, often prepared by someone other than the author of the original.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAclef

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAclef

aclef -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAcrostic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAcrostic

acrostic - Short poems or prose compositions in which text is arranged so that the first letters of each line form a word, phrase, or motto.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAdaptation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdaptation

adaptation - Written works or works derived from written works, where the second work is an alteration or amendment a text to make it suitable for another purpose. An example of an adaptation is a version of an earlier text made to better agree with a philosophy other than that intended by the original. Other examples are written works adapted for another medium, such as film, broadcasting, or stage production. For visual works adapted from another work, use "adaptations (derivative objects)."

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAdventurewriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdventurewriting

adventure writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAdvertisingcopy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdvertisingcopy

advertising copy -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAfterpiece

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAfterpiece

afterpiece -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAfterword

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAfterword

afterword -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAgitprop

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAgitprop

agitprop -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAllegory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAllegory

allegory - Literary works, art works, or other creative works that employ allegory to express complex abstract ideas, for example works that employ symbolic, fictional figures and actions to express truths or generalizations about human conduct or experience.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAnagram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnagram

anagram - Anagrammatic poetry is poetry with the constrained form that either each line or each verse is an anagram of all other lines or verses in the poem. A poet that specializes in anagrams is an anagrammarian. Writing anagrammatic poetry is a form of a constrained writing similar to writing pangrams or long alliterations.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAnnotation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnnotation

annotation - Notes added as comment or explanation, such as those accompanying an entry in a bibliography, reading list, or catalogue intended to describe, explain, or evaluate the publication referred to.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAnswer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnswer

answer -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAnthem

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnthem

anthem -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAnthology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnthology

anthology -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAntiromance

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAntiromance

antiromance -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAphorism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAphorism

aphorism - Short, pithy statements of principle or precepts, often of known authorship; distinguished from "proverbs" which are statements repeated colloquially and which often embody the folk wisdom of a group or nation.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreApology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreApology

apology -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreArtcriticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreArtcriticism

art criticism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreAutobiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAutobiography

autobiography - Documents of any type that are biographies of individuals written by themselves. For the overall genre, use "autobiography (genre)."

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBallade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBallade

ballade - A ballade (from French ballade, [baˈlad], and German Ballade, [baˈlaːdə], both being words for "ballad"), in classical music since the late 18th century, refers to a setting of a literary ballad, a narrative poem, in the musical tradition of the Lied, or to a one-movement instrumental piece with lyrical and dramatic narrative qualities reminiscent of such a song setting, especially a piano ballad.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBalladopera

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBalladopera

ballad opera -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBallet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBallet

ballet -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBergamasque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBergamasque

bergamasque -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBestiary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBestiary

bestiary - Collections of moralized fables, especially as written in the Middle Ages, about actual or mythical animals.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBiblicalparaphrase

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiblicalparaphrase

biblical paraphrase -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBildungsroman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBildungsroman

bildungsroman - Novels of a traditional German genre that focuses on the spiritual development or formative years of an individual. Now in broad use to refer to this type of novel written in any language or in any culture.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBiographicaldictionary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiographicaldictionary

biographical dictionary -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiography

biography - Brief profiles of a people's life or work.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBisexualfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBisexualfiction

bisexual fiction -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBlackcomedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBlackcomedy

black comedy - A black comedy (or dark comedy) is a comic work that employs morbid humor, which, in its simplest form, is humor that makes light of subject matter usually considered taboo. Black humor corresponds to the earlier concept of gallows humor. Black comedy is often controversial due to its subject matter.[citation needed]

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBoutsrimes

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBoutsrimes

boutsrimes -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBroadside

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBroadside

broadside -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreBurletta

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBurletta

burletta -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCabaret

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCabaret

cabaret -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCaptivitynarrative

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCaptivitynarrative

captivity narrative - Captivity narratives are usually stories of people captured by enemies whom they consider uncivilized, or whose beliefs and customs they oppose. The best-known captivity narratives are those concerning the indigenous peoples of North America. These narratives (and questions about their accuracy) have an enduring place in literature, history, ethnography, and the study of Native peoples. However, captivity narratives have also come to play a major role in the study of contemporary religious movements, thanks to scholars of religion like David G. Bromley and James R. Lewis. In this article, both main types of captivity narratives are considered. Traditionally, historians have made limited use of certain captivity narratives. They have regarded the genre with suspicion because of its ideological underpinnings. As a result of new scholarly approaches, historians with a more certain grasp of Native American cultures are distinguishing between plausible statements of fact and value-laden judgements in order to study the narratives as rare sources from "inside" Native societies. Contemporary historians such as Linda Colley and anthropologists such as Pauline Turner Strong have also found the narratives useful in analyzing how the colonists constructed the "other", as well as what the narratives reveal about the settlers' sense of themselves and their culture, and the experience of crossing the line to another. Colley has studied the long history of English captivity in other cultures, both the Barbary pirate captives who preceded those in North America, and British captives in cultures such as India, after the North American experience. Certain North American captivity narratives involving Native peoples were published from the 18th through the 19th centuries, but they reflected a well-established genre in English literature. There had already been English accounts of captivity by Barbary pirates, or in the Middle East, which established some of the major elements of the form. Following the American experience, additional accounts were written after British people were captured during exploration and settlement in India and East Asia. Other types of captivity narratives, such as those recounted by apostates from religious movements (i.e. "cult survivor" tales), have remained an enduring feature of modern media, and currently appear in books, periodicals, film, and television. The unifying factor in most captivity narratives, whether they stem from geopolitical or religious conflicts, is that the captive portrays the captors' way of life as alien, undesirable, and incompatible with the captive's own (typically dominant) culture. This underscores the utility of captivity narratives in garnering support for social control measures, such as removing Native Americans to "reservations", or stigmatizing participation in religious movements – whether Catholicism in the nineteenth century, or ISKCON in the twentieth. Captivity narratives tend to be culturally chauvinistic, viewing an "alien" culture through the lens of the narrator's preferred culture, thus making (possibly unfair) value judgements like "Puritans good, Indians bad."

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCatechism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCatechism

catechism - A catechism (/ˈkætəˌkizəm/; from Greek: κατηχέω, to teach orally), is a summary or exposition of doctrine and served as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals - often in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised - a format in non-religious or secular contexts as well. The term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical work or instruction. In the Catholic Church, catachumens were usually placed separately during Holy Mass from those who received the Sacrament of Baptism. Early catecheticals emerged from Graeco-Roman mystery religions, especially the late cult of Mithras meant to educate their members into the secretive teachings, which competed with the Christian Church as an underground religion in the 1st to 4th centuries CE and allegedly shared its many ritual practices. Today, they are characteristic of Western Christianity but are also present in Eastern Christianity.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreChapbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreChapbook

chapbook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCharacter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCharacter

character -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCharade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCharade

charade -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreChildrensLiterature

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreChildrensLiterature

childrens literature -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreClerihew

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreClerihew

clerihew - A clerihew is a whimsical, four-line biographical poem invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley. The first line is the name of the poem's subject, usually a famous person put in an absurd light. The rhyme scheme is AABB, and the rhymes are often forced. The line length and metre are irregular. Bentley invented the clerihew in school and then popularized it in books. One of his best known is this (1905):

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreClosetdrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreClosetdrama

closetdrama -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreColouringbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreColouringbook

colouring book - Books containing outline drawings, for coloring in with crayons, watercolor, colored pencils, or other media, usually intended for use by children.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedy

comedy - Light and amusing stories.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComedyofintrigue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofintrigue

comedy of intrigue -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComedyofmanners

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofmanners

comedy of manners - The comedy of manners is an entertainment form which satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class or of multiple classes, often represented by stereotypical stock characters. For example, the miles gloriosus ("boastful soldier") in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the English Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. Restoration comedy is used as a synonym for "comedy of manners". The plot of the comedy, often concerned with scandal, is generally less important than its witty dialogue. A great writer of comedies of manners was Oscar Wilde, his most famous play being The Importance of Being Earnest. The comedy of manners was first developed in the new comedy of the Ancient Greek playwright Menander. His style, elaborate plots, and stock characters were imitated by the Roman playwrights Plautus and Terence, whose comedies were widely known and copied during the Renaissance. The best-known comedies of manners, however, may well be those of the French playwright Molière, who satirized the hypocrisy and pretension of the ancien régime in such plays as L'École des femmes (The School for Wives, 1662), Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope, 1666), and most famously Tartuffe (1664).

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComedyofmenace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofmenace

comedy of menace -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComicbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComicbook

comicbook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComingout

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComingout

coming out -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCommonplacebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCommonplacebook

common place book -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCompanion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCompanion

companion -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreComputerprogram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComputerprogram

computer program -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreConditionofenglandnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreConditionofenglandnovel

condition of england novel -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreConductliterature

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreConductliterature

conduct literature -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCookbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCookbook

cookbook - A cookbook (sometimes cookery book in Commonwealth English or cook book) is a kitchen reference publication that typically contains a collection of recipes. Modern versions may also include colorful illustrations and advice on purchasing quality ingredients or making substitutions. Cookbooks can also cover a wide variety of topics, including cooking techniques for the home, recipes and commentary from famous chefs, institutional kitchen manuals, and cultural commentary.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCourtshipfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCourtshipfiction

courtshipfiction -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreCriminology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCriminology

criminology -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDedication

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDedication

dedication -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDetective

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDetective

detective - Detective Comics is the title used for two American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first, published from 1937 to 2011, was best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27 (cover dated May 1939). A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011. The original series is the source of its publishing company's name and with Action Comics, the comic book launched with the debut of Superman, one of the medium's signature series. The original series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and was the longest continuously published comic book in the United States.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDevotional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDevotional

devotional - Christian devotional literature (also called devotionals or Christian living literature) is religious writing that is neither doctrinal nor theological, but designed for individuals to read for their personal edification and spiritual formation. Theologian Karl Holl has suggested that devotional literature came into full development at the time of Pietism during the second half of the 17th century.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDialogueofthedead

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDialogueofthedead

dialogue of the dead -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDialogueordebate

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDialogueordebate

dialogue or debate -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDiary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDiary

diary - Refers to books containing the daily, personal accounts of the writer's own experiences, attitudes, and observations. Use "journals (accounts)" when referring to an individual's or an organization's account of occurrences or transactions.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDictionary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDictionary

dictionary - Library catalog in which the entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence, regardless of their type, so that authors, titles, and other indexing terms are all alphabetized together alphabetically instead of in separate groupings by type.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDidactic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDidactic

didactic -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDirectory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDirectory

directory -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDissertation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDissertation

dissertation -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDocumentary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDocumentary

documentary -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDomestic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDomestic

domestic - Domestic realism normally refers to the genre of nineteenth-century novels popular with women readers. This body of writing is also known as "sentimental fiction" or "woman's fiction". The genre is mainly reflected in the novel though short-stories and non-fiction works such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Our Country Neighbors" and The New Housekeeper's Manual written by Stowe and her sister-in-law Catharine Beecher are works of domestic realism. The style's particular characteristics are: "1. Plot focuses on a heroine who embodies one of two types of exemplar: the angel and the practical woman (Reynolds) who sometimes exist in the same work. Baym says that this heroine is contrasted with the passive woman (incompetent, cowardly, ignorant; often the heroine's mother is this type) and the "belle," who is deprived of a proper education. 2. The heroine struggles for self-mastery, learning the pain of conquering her own passions (Tompkins, Sensational Designs, 172). 3. The heroine learns to balance society's demands for self-denial with her own desire for autonomy, a struggle often addressed in terms of religion. 4. She suffers at the hands of abusers of power before establishing a network of surrogate kin. 5. The plots "repeatedly identify immersion in feeling as one of the great temptations and dangers for a developing woman. They show that feeling must be controlled. . . " (Baym 25). Frances Cogan notes that the heroines thus undergo a full education within which to realize feminine obligations (The All-American Girl). 6. The tales generally end with marriage, usually one of two possible kinds: A. Reforming the bad or "wild" male, as in Augusta Evans's St. Elmo (1867) B. Marrying the solid male who already meets her qualifications.Examples: Maria Cummins, The Lamplighter (1854) and Susan Warner, The Wide, Wide World (1850) 7. The novels may use a "language of tears" that evokes sympathy from the readers. 8. Richard Brodhead (Cultures of Letters) sees class as an important issue, as the ideal family or heroine is poised between a lower-class family exemplifying poverty and domestic disorganization and upper-class characters exemplifying an idle, frivolous existence (94)." An example of this style of novel is Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres in which the main character's confinement is emphasized in such a way. Some early exponents of the genre of domestic realism were Jane Austen and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDrama

drama -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDramaticmonologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDramaticmonologue

dramatic monologue - Dramatic monologue, also known as a persona poem, is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character. M.H. Abrams notes the following three features of the dramatic monologue as it applies to poetry

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDreamvision

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDreamvision

dreamvision -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreDystopia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDystopia

dystopia -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEclogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEclogue

eclogue - An eclogue is a poem in a classical style on a pastoral subject. Poems in the genre are sometimes also called bucolics.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreElegy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreElegy

elegy - Mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poems, especially funeral songs or laments for the dead.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEncyclopaedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEncyclopaedia

encyclopaedia -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpic

epic - Meaning extended from "epic poetry," in modern usage refers to literary art forms, such as prose, poetry, plays, films, and other works where the story has a theme of grandeur and heroism.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpigram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpigram

epigram - Refers to short satiric poems or any similar pointed sayings.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpilogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpilogue

epilogue -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpistle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpistle

epistle - Literary genre taking the form of letters, usually of a literary, formal, or public nature. Examples are the epistles in the Biblical New Testament.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpistolary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpistolary

epistolary - Novels written by using the device of a series of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, or other documents.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpitaph

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpitaph

epitaph - Inscriptions on sepulchral monuments in the memory of those buried in the tomb or grave.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpithalamium

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpithalamium

epithalamium - An epithalamiumLatin form of Greek ἐπιθαλάμιον epithalamion from ἐπί epi "upon," and θάλαμος thalamos nuptial chamber) is a poem written specifically for the bride on the way to her marital chamber. This form continued in popularity through the history of the classical world; the Roman poet Catullus wrote a famous epithalamium, which was translated from or at least inspired by a now-lost work of Sappho. According to Origen, Song of Songs, might be an epithalamium on the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh’s daughter.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEpyllion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpyllion

epyllion - Brief narrative poems in dactylic hexameter of ancient Greece, imitated by Romans and others. Usually dealing with mythological and romantic themes. They are characterized by lively description, miniaturistic attitude, scholarly allusion, and an elevated tone similar to that of the elegy.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEroticapornography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEroticapornography

erotica pornography -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEssay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEssay

essay - Short literary compositions on single subjects, often presenting the personal view of the author.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreEulogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEulogy

eulogy - A eulogy (from εὐλογία, eulogia, Classical Greek for "praise") is a speech or writing in praise of a person(s) or thing(s), especially one who recently died or retired or as a term of endearment. Eulogies may be given as part of funeral services. They take place in a funeral home during or after a wake. However, some denominations either discourage or do not permit eulogies at services to maintain respect for traditions. Eulogies can also praise people who are still alive. This normally takes place on special occasions like birthdays, office parties, retirement celebrations, etc. Eulogies should not be confused with elegies, which are poems written in tribute to the dead; nor with obituaries, which are published biographies recounting the lives of those who have recently died; nor with obsequies, which refer generally to the rituals surrounding funerals. Catholic priests are prohibited by the rubrics of the Mass from presenting a eulogy for the deceased in place of a homily during a funeral Mass. The modern use of the word eulogy was first documented in the 15th century and came from the Medieval Latin term “eulogium” (Merriam-Webster 2012). “Eulogium” at that time has since turned into the shorter “eulogy” of today. Eulogies are usually delivered by a family member or a close family friend in the case of a dead person. For a living eulogy given in such cases as a retirement, a senior colleague could perhaps deliver it. On occasions, eulogies are given to those who are severely ill or elderly in order to express words of love and gratitude before they die. Eulogies are not limited to merely people, however; Places or things can also be given eulogies (which anyone can deliver), but these are less common than those delivered to people, whether living or deceased.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreExhibitioncatalogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreExhibitioncatalogue

exhibition catalogue - Publications that document the works displayed in an exhibition.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFable

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFable

fable - Fictitious narratives usually with animals or inanimate objects as protagonists, intended to convey a hidden meaning regarding human conduct.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFabliau

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFabliau

fabliau -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFairytale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFairytale

fairytale - Fairytale fantasy is distinguished from other subgenres of fantasy by the works' heavy use of motifs, and often plots, from folklore.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFantasy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFantasy

fantasy - Literary genre in which works are of a whimsical or visionary nature, having suppositions that are speculation or resting on no solid grounds.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFarce

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFarce

farce -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFeminist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFeminist

feminist -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFeministtheory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFeministtheory

feminist theory -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFiction

fiction - Poetic or prosaic literary forms derived from medieval narratives of love, legendary or heroic adventures, and chivalry. Extends to narratives about important religious figures, or fantastic or supernatural events.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFilmtvscript

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFilmtvscript

film tv script -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreFolksong

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFolksong

folksong -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGardeningbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGardeningbook

gardening book -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGenealogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGenealogy

genealogy - Accounts or histories of the descent of persons, families, or other groups, from an ancestor or ancestors; enumerations of ancestors and their descendants in the natural order of succession.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGeorgic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGeorgic

georgic -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGhoststory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGhoststory

ghost story - Prose tales of the supernatural in which the living encounter manifestations of the spirits of the dead.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGiftbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGiftbook

giftbook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGothic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGothic

gothic - Romantic fictions having a prevailing atmosphere of mystery and terror, often combined with a love story. The genre was introduced in England ca. 1765, but soon became popular elsewhere in Europe, reaching its heyday in the 1790s. The genre has undergone frequent revivals in subsequent centuries. It is called "Gothic" because the early examples were often set in part among medieval buildings and ruins, such as castles or monasteries.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGovernmentreport

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGovernmentreport

government report -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGrammar

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGrammar

grammar -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGraveyardpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGraveyardpoetry

graveyard poetry -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreGuidebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGuidebook

guidebook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHagiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHagiography

hagiography - Biographies of saints, usually written, but includes oral or visual works as well.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHaiku

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHaiku

haiku -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHarlequinade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHarlequinade

harlequinade -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHeroic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHeroic

heroic -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHistorical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHistorical

historical -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHistory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHistory

history - Accounts of the chronological development of cases of disease or conditions of individuals, with details of symptoms.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreHymn

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHymn

hymn -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreImitation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreImitation

imitation -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreIndustrialnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreIndustrialnovel

industrial novel -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreIntroduction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreIntroduction

introduction -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreJournalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreJournalism

journalism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreJuvenilia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreJuvenilia

juvenilia -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreKitchensinkdrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreKitchensinkdrama

kitchensink drama -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreKunstlerroman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreKunstlerroman

kunstlerroman -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLais

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLais

lais - A laisse is a type of stanza, of varying length, found in medieval French literature, specifically medieval French epic poetry (the chanson de geste), such as The Song of Roland. In early works, each laisse was made up of (mono) assonanced verses, although the appearance of (mono) rhymed laisses was increasingly common in later poems. Within a poem, the length of each separate laisse is variable (whereas the metric length of the verses is invariable, each verse having the same syllable length, typically decasyllables or, occasionally, alexandrines. The laisse is characterized by stereotyped phrases and formulas and frequently repeated themes and motifs, including repetitions of material from one laisse to another. Such repetitions and formulaic structures are common of orality and oral-formulaic composition. When medieval poets repeated content (with different wording or assonance/rhyme) from one laisse to another, such "similar" laisses are called laisses similaires in French.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLampoon

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLampoon

lampoon -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLegalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLegalwriting

legal writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLegendFolktale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLegendFolktale

legend folktale -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLesbian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLesbian

lesbian - Azalea: A Magazine by Third World Lesbians was a quarterly periodical for black, Asian, Latina, and Native American lesbians published between 1977 and 1983 by the Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective. The Collective also published the Salsa Soul Sisters/Third World Women's Gay-zette (c. 1982).

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLetter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLetter

letter - Letters written to a newspaper or magazine to present a position, make a correction, or respond to another story or letter.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving

letters from the dead to the living -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLibretto

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLibretto

libretto -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLiteraryCriticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLiteraryCriticism

literary criticism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLiturgy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLiturgy

liturgy -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLove

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLove

love -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreLyric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLyric

lyric - Lyric Essay is a subgenre of essay writing, which combines qualities of poetry, essay, memoir, and research writing. The lyric essay is considered high art, and often requires work and association on behalf of the reader. Proponents of the lyric essay classification insist it differs from prose poetry in its reliance on association rather than line breaks and juxtaposition.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMagicrealist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMagicrealist

magic realist -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreManifesto

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreManifesto

manifesto -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreManual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreManual

manual -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMap

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMap

map -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMasque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMasque

masque -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMedicalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMedicalwriting

medical writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMelodrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMelodrama

melodrama -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMixedmedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMixedmedia

mixed media -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMockforms

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMockforms

mockforms -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMonologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMonologue

monologue - In theatre, a monologue (from Greek μονόλογος from μόνος mónos, "alone, solitary" and λόγος lógos, "speech") is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media (plays, films, etc.), as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry. Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies, apostrophes, and aside. There are, however, distinctions between each of these devices.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMoralitymysteryplay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMoralitymysteryplay

morality mystery play -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMultimedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMultimedia

multimedia -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMusicology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMusicology

musicology -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMystery

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMystery

mystery -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreMyth

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMyth

myth - Legendary stories without a determinable basis of fact or natural explanation, typically concerning a being, hero, deity, or event and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNarrativepoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNarrativepoetry

narrative poetry - Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making use of the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metred verse. Narrative poems do not have to follow rhythmic patterns. The poems that make up this genre may be short or long, and the story it relates to may be complex. It is usually well it normally dramatic, with objectives, diverse characters, and metre. Narrative poems include epics, ballads, idylls, and lays. Some narrative poetry takes the form of a novel in verse. An example of this is The Ring and the Book by Robert Browning. In terms of narrative poetry, a romance is a narrative poem that tells a story of chivalry. Examples include the Romance of the Rose or Tennyson's Idylls of the King. Although these examples use medieval and Arthurian materials, romances may also tell stories from classical mythology. Shorter narrative poems are often similar in style to the short story. Sometimes these short narratives are collected into interrelated groups, as with Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Some literatures contain prose naose narratives, and the Old Norse sagas include both incidental poetry and the biographies of poets. An example is "The Cremation of Sam McGee" by Robert Service.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNationaltale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNationaltale

national tale -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNotebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNotebook

notebook - Notebook is a style of writing where people jot down what they have thought or heard at the spur of moment. The contents of a notebook are unorganized, and the number of subjects covered in a notebook are unlimited: a paragraph of autobiography can be followed immediately by one on astronomy or one on history. Some famous authors are also famous for the notebooks they left. The Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi kept a notebook, called Zibaldone, from 1817 to 1832. The idea of keeping that, which contains no fewer than 4,526 pages, was possibly suggested by a priest who fled from the French Revolution and came to live in the poet's hometown. The priest suggested that "every literary man should have a written chaos such as this: notebook containing sottiseries, adrersa, excerpta, pugillares, commentaria... the store-house out of which fine literature of every kind may come, as the sun, moon, and stars issued out of chaos." There are writers who earned their posthumous fame solely by their notebooks, such as the German scientist and humorous writer Georg Lichtenberg. He called his notebooks "waste book," using the English book-keeping term. He explains the purpose of his "waste book" in his notebook E: The notebooks of scientists, such as those of Michael Faraday and Charles Darwin, can reveal the development of their scientific theories. On the other hand, the notebooks used by scientists for recording their experiments are called lab notebooks. The notebooks used by artists are usually referred as sketchbooks, which may contain more than sketches. Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks contain his writings on painting, sculpture, architecture, anatomy, mining, inventions and music, as well as his sketches, his grocery lists and the names of people who owed him money. In Chinese literature, "notebook" or biji is a distinct genre, and has a broader meaning.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNovel

novel - Invented prose narratives of considerable length and a certain complexity that deal imaginatively with human experience through a connected sequence of events involving a group of persons in a specific setting.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNovella

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNovella

novella - Short prose tales popular in the Renaissance and for later prose narratives intermediate between novels and short stories.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreNurseryrhyme

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNurseryrhyme

nurseryrhyme -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreObituary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreObituary

obituary - Obituary poetry, in the broad sense, includes any poem that commemorates a person or group of people's death: an elegy. In its stricter sense, though, it refers to a genre of popular verse or folk poetry that had its greatest popularity in the nineteenth century, especially in the United States of America. The genre consists largely of sentimental narrative verse that tells the story of the demise of its typically named subjects, and seeks to console their mourners with descriptions of their happy afterlife. The genre achieved its peak of popularity in the decade of the 1870s. While usually full chiefly of conventional pious sentiments, the obituary poets in one sense continue the program of meditations on death begun by the eighteenth-century graveyard poets, such as Edward Young's Night Thoughts, and as such continue one of the themes that went into literary Romanticism.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOccasionalpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOccasionalpoetry

occasional poetry - Occasional poetry is poetry composed for a particular occasion. In the history of literature, it is often studied in connection with orality, performance, and patronage.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOde

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOde

ode - Lyric poems of exalted emotion devoted to the praise or celebration of its subject; often employing complex or irregular metrical form.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOneactplay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOneactplay

one act play -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOpera

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOpera

opera -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOratorio

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOratorio

oratorio -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreOriental

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOriental

oriental -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePageant

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePageant

pageant -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePanegyric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePanegyric

panegyric -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePantomime

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePantomime

pantomime -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreParable

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParable

parable - Short, fictitious stories that illustrate a moral attitude or religious principle.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreParatexts

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParatexts

paratexts -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreParody

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParody

parody - A parody (/ˈpærədi/; also called spoof, send-up, take-off or lampoon), in use, is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody … is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice."Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music (although "parody" in music has an earlier, somewhat different meaning than for other art forms), animation, gaming and film. The writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche ("a composition in another artist's manner, without satirical intent") and burlesque (which "fools around with the material of high literature and adapts it to low ends"). Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; the burlesque is a miserable buffoonery which can only please the populace." Historically, when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. In his 1960 anthology of parody from the 14th through 20th centuries, critic Dwight Macdonald offered this metaphor: "Parody is making a new wine that tastes like the old but has a slightly lethal effect."

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePastoral

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePastoral

pastoral -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePedagogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePedagogy

pedagogy -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePerformancepoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePerformancepoetry

performance poetry - Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience. During the 1980s, the term came into popular usage to describe poetry written or composed for performance rather than print distribution.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePeriodical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePeriodical

periodical -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePetition

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePetition

petition -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePhilosophical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePhilosophical

philosophical -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePhilosophy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePhilosophy

philosophy -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePicaresque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePicaresque

picaresque - The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca," from "pícaro," for "rogue" or "rascal") is a genre of prose fiction which depicts the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his wits in a corrupt society. Picaresque novels typically adopt a realistic style, with elements of comedy and satire. This style of novel originated in 16th-century Spain and flourished throughout Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It continues to influence modern literature. According to the traditional view of Thrall and Hibbard (first published in 1936), seven qualities distinguish the picaresque novel or narrative form, all or some of which may be employed for effect by the author. (1) A picaresque narrative is usually written in first person as an autobiographical account. (2) The main character is often of low character or social class. He or she gets by with wit and rarely deigns to hold a job. (3) There is no plot. The story is told in a series of loosely connected adventures or episodes. (4) There is little if any character development in the main character. Once a picaro, always a picaro. His or her circumstances may change but they rarely result in a change of heart. (5) The picaro's story is told with a plainness of language or realism. (6) Satire might sometimes be a prominent element. (7) The behavior of a picaresque hero or heroine stops just short of criminality. Carefree or immoral rascality positions the picaresque hero as a sympathetic outsider, untouched by the false rules of society. However, Trall and Hibbert's thesis has been questioned by scholars[specify] interested in how genre functions, rather than how it looks on the surface.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePindaric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePindaric

pindaric -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePoetry

poetry - Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePolemic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePolemic

polemic - Aggressive, forcefully presented arguments, often disputing a policy or opinion.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePoliticalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePoliticalwriting

political writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePopular

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePopular

popular -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePrayer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrayer

prayer - Documents containing prayers that are associated with donning official priestly vestments or transfer of vestments, most commonly in Christian contexts.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePrefatorypiece

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrefatorypiece

prefatory piece -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreProletarianwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreProletarianwriting

proletarianwriting -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePrologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrologue

prologue -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePropaganda

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePropaganda

propaganda -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreProphecy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreProphecy

prophecy - Prophecy involves a process in which one or more messages allegedly communicated to a prophet are then communicated to other people. Such messages typically involve] inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of events to come (compare divine knowledge). Historically, clairvoyance has been used[by whom?] as an adjunct to prophecy.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePsalm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePsalm

psalm -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genrePsychoanalytical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePsychoanalytical

psychoanalytical -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreQuiz

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreQuiz

quiz -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRadiodrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRadiodrama

radio drama -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRealist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRealist

realist -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRegional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRegional

regional -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreReligious

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreReligious

religious -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreReview

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreReview

review -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRevue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRevue

revue -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRiddle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRiddle

riddle -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreRomance

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRomance

romance - Poetic or prosaic literary forms derived from medieval narratives of love, legendary or heroic adventures, and chivalry. Extends to narratives about important religious figures, or fantastic or supernatural events.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSagewriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSagewriting

sage writing - Sage writing was a genre of creative nonfiction popular in the Victorian era. The concept originates with John Holloway's 1953 book The Victorian Sage: Studies in Argument. Sage writing is a development from ancient wisdom literature in which the writer chastises and instructs the reader about contemporary social issues, often utilizing discourses of philosophy, history, politics, and economics in non-technical ways. Prominent examples of the genre include writings by Thomas Carlyle, Matthew Arnold, John Ruskin, and Henry David Thoreau. Some 20th-century writers, such as Joan Didion and New Journalists such as Norman Mailer and Tom Wolfe, have also been identified as sage writers.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSatire

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSatire

satire - Literary compositions in verse or prose, or ideas expressed as the subjects of art works, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreScholarship

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScholarship

scholarship -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSchoolfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSchoolfiction

school fiction -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSciencefiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSciencefiction

science fiction - Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative concepts such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life. Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a "literature of ideas." It usually eschews the supernatural, and unlike the related genre of fantasy, historically science fiction stories were intended to have at least a faint grounding in science-based fact or theory at the time the story was created, but this connection has become tenuous or non-existent in much of science fiction.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreScientificwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScientificwriting

scientific writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreScrapbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScrapbook

scrapbook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSensationnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSensationnovel

sensation novel - The sensation novel was a literary genre of fiction popular in Great Britain in the 1860s and 1870s, following on from earlier melodramatic novels and the Newgate novels, which focused on tales woven around criminal biographies. It also drew on the gothic and romantic genres of fiction. The sensation novel's appearance notably follows the Industrial Revolution, which made books available on a mass scale for people of all social standings and increased the sensation novel's popularity. Sensation novels used both modes of romance and realism to the extreme where in the past they had traditionally been contradictory modes of literature. The sensation novelists commonly wrote stories that were allegorical and abstract; the abstract nature of the stories gave the authors room to explore scenarios that wrestled with the social anxieties of the Victorian Era. The loss of identity is seen in many sensation fiction stories because this was a common social anxiety; in Britain, there was an increased use in record keeping and therefore people questioned the meaning and permanence of identity. The social anxiety regarding identity is reflected in stories, such as, The Woman in White and Lady Audley's Secret. The genre of sensation fiction was established by the publications of the following novels The Woman in White by Wilkie Collins in 1859; East Lynne by Ellen Wood in 1861; Lady Audley's Secret by Mary Elizabeth Braddon in 1862. Perhaps the earliest use of the term, sensation fiction, as a name for such novels appears in the 1861 edition of the Saunders, Otley, & co.'s Literary Budget. The neo-Victorian novel of New Zealand author Eleanor Catton, The Luminaries, which won the 2013 Man Booker Prize, has been described as being heavily based on sensation literature, with its plot devices of "suspect wills and forged documents, secret marriages, illegitimacy and opium"

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSentimental

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSentimental

sentimental - The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th-century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. Sentimentalism, which is to be distinguished from sensibility, was a fashion in both poetry and prose fiction beginning in the eighteenth century in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age. Sentimental novels relied on emotional response, both from their readers and characters. They feature scenes of distress and tenderness, and the plot is arranged to advance both emotions and actions. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling," displaying the characters as a model for refined, sensitive emotional effect. The ability to display feelings was thought to show character and experience, and to shape social life and relations.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSequel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSequel

sequel -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSermon

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSermon

sermon - A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon (also known as a homily within some churches) is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit, a lectern, or an ambo. The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue. However, the Bible contains many speeches without interlocution, which some take to be sermons: Moses in Deuteronomy 1-33 ; Jesus' sermon on the mount in Matthew 5-7 (though the gospel writers do not specifically call it a sermon; the popular descriptor for Christ's speech there came much later); Peter after Pentecost in Acts 2:14-40 (though this speech was delivered to nonbelievers and as such is not quite parallel to the popular definition of a sermon). In modern language, the word "sermon" is used in secular terms, pejoratively, to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon (usually associated with television broadcasting, as stations would present a sermonette before signing off for the night).

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSexualawakeningfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSexualawakeningfiction

sexual awakening fiction -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreShortstory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreShortstory

short story - Relatively brief invented prose narratives.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSilverforknovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSilverforknovel

silverfork novel -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSketch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSketch

sketch - Short literary compositions on single subjects, often presenting the personal view of the author.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSketchbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSketchbook

sketch book -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSlavenarrative

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSlavenarrative

slave narrative -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSocialscience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSocialscience

social science -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSong

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSong

song -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSonnet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSonnet

sonnet - Poems consisting of 14 decasyllabic lines, often in a rhyming scheme. The sonnet form is considered to be of Italian origin, appearing in the 13th century in Sicily, after which it spread to Tuscany, where Petrarch perfected the form with his Canzioniere, a series of 317 sonnets to his idealized love, Laura. The Petrarchian sonnet has historically been the most widely used of the form, although the Elizabethan form (3 quatrains, with a final rhyming couplet) is also common.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreSpeech

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSpeech

speech -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTestimony

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTestimony

testimony -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTextbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTextbook

textbook -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTheatreofcruelty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheatreofcruelty

theatre of cruelty -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTheatreoftheabsurd

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheatreoftheabsurd

theatre of the absurd -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTheology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheology

theology -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreThesaurus

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreThesaurus

thesaurus -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreThriller

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreThriller

thriller -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTopographicalpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTopographicalpoetry

topographical poetry - Topographical poetry or loco-descriptive poetry is a genre of poetry that describes, and often praises, a landscape or place. John Denham's 1642 poem "Cooper's Hill" established the genre, which peaked in popularity in 18th-century England. Examples of topographical verse date, however, to the late classical period, and can be found throughout the medieval era and during the Renaissance. Though the earliest examples come mostly from continental Europe, the topographical poetry in the tradition originating with Denham concerns itself with the classics, and many of the various types of topographical verse, such as river, ruin, or hilltop poems were established by the early 17th century. Alexander Pope's "Windsor Forest" (1713) and John Dyer's "Grongar Hill' (1762) are two other oft-mentioned examples. More recently, Matthew Arnold's "The Scholar Gipsy" (1853) praises the Oxfordshire countryside, and W. H. Auden's "In Praise of Limestone" (1948) uses a limestone landscape as an allegory. Subgenres of topographical poetry include the country house poem, written in 17th-century England to compliment a wealthy patron, and the prospect poem, describing the view from a distance or a temporal view into the future, with the sense of opportunity or expectation. When understood broadly as landscape poetry and when assessed from its establishment to the present, topographical poetry can take on many formal situations and types of places. Kenneth Baker identifies 37 varieties and compiles poems from the 16th through the 20th centuries—from Edmund Spenser to Sylvia Plath—correspondent to each type, from "Walks and Surveys," to "Mountains, Hills, and the View from Above," to "Violation of Nature and the Landscape," to "Spirits and Ghosts." Common aesthetic registers of which topographical poetry make use include pastoral imagery, the sublime, and the picturesque. These latter two registers subsume imagery of rivers, ruins, moonlight, birdsong, and clouds, peasants, mountains, caves, and waterscapes.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTractpamphlet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTractpamphlet

tract pamphlet -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTragedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTragedy

tragedy - Literary works of serious and dignified character that reach disastrous or sorrowful conclusions.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTragicomedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTragicomedy

tragicomedy - Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in dramatic literature, the term can variously describe either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTranslation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTranslation

translation - Translated versions of a text.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTravelwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTravelwriting

travel writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreTreatise

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTreatise

treatise - Formal and systematic written expositions of the principles of a subject, generally longer and more detailed than essays.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreUtopia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreUtopia

utopia -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreVersenovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVersenovel

verse novel - A verse novel is a type of narrative poetry in which a novel-length narrative is told through the medium of poetry rather than prose. Either simple or complex stanzaic verse-forms may be used, but there will usually be a large cast, multiple voices, dialogue, narration, description, and action in a novelistic manner.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreVignette

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVignette

vignette - In theatrical script writing, sketch stories, and poetry, a vignette is a short impressionistic scene that focuses on one moment or gives a trenchant impression about a character, idea, setting, or object.[citation needed] This type of scene is more common in recent postmodern theater, where less emphasis is placed on adhering to the conventions of theatrical structure and story development. Vignettes have been particularly influenced by contemporary notions of a scene as shown in film, video and television scripting. It is also a part of something bigger than itself: for example, a vignette about a house belonging to a collection of vignettes or a whole story, such as The House On Mango Street, by Sandra Cisneros. A blog can provide a form of vignette.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreVillanelle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVillanelle

villanelle -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:genreYoungadultwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreYoungadultwriting

young adult writing -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Genre
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:whiteLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteLabel

white -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:blackLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackLabel

black -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:englishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishLabel

english -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:manLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#manLabel

Man -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:womanLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womanLabel

Woman -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:maleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleLabel

Male -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:FemaleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FemaleLabel

Female -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:jewishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishLabel

jewish -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:englandLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englandLabel

england -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:anglicanChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanChurch

Church of England - A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organization of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal."

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:baptistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChurch

Baptist - Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:buddhism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#buddhism

boeddhisme - Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:catholicChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicChurch

Roman Catholic - Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:christianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianity

Christianity - Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:churchOfChristianScience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfChristianScience

Christian Scientist - Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:hinduism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hinduism

Hinduism - General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs , but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:islam

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#islam

Islamism - Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:jewishReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishReligion

Jewish - Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:presbyterianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#presbyterianism

Presbyterian - One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:protestantism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantism

Protestantism - The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:agnosticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#agnosticism

Agnosticism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:atheism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#atheism

Atheism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:churchOfEngland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfEngland

Church of England -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:congregationalChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalChurch

Congregational Church -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:churchOfIreland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfIreland

Church of Ireland -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:dissenters

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissenters

Dissenters -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:dissentingChurches

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChurches

Dissenting Churches -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:fifthMonarchists

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fifthMonarchists

Fifth Monarchists -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:lollards

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollards

Lollards -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:methodistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#methodistChurch

Methodist Church -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:millenarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#millenarianism

Millenarianism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:neo-thomism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-thomism

Neo-thomism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:occultism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#occultism

Occultism/Theosophism - Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:pagan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pagan

Pagan -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:plymouthBrethren

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#plymouthBrethren

Plymouth Brethren -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:quakers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakers

Quaker - Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:rationalDissenter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalDissenter

Rational Dissenter -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:societyOfFriends

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends

Society of Friends -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:spiritualism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spiritualism

Spiritualism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:tractarianMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tractarianMovement

Tractarian Movement -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Concept: cwrc:unitarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism

Unitarianism - The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Dictionary: cwrc:Religion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Religion

Religion - A subclass of CulturalForm, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convinience.

Concepts: agnosticism, anglicanChurch, atheism, baptistChurch, buddhism, catholicChurch, christianity, churchOfChristianScience, churchOfEngland, churchOfIreland, congregationalChurch, dissenters, dissentingChurches, fifthMonarchists, hinduism, islam, jewishReligion, lollards, methodistChurch, millenarianism, neo-thomism, occultism, pagan, plymouthBrethren, presbyterianism, protestantism, quakers, rationalDissenter, societyOfFriends, spiritualism, tractarianMovement, unitarianism,

[back to top]

Dictionary: cwrc:SocialClassIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassIdentity

Social Class Identity - A subclass of culturalForms, Social Class terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

Concepts:

[back to top]

Dictionary: cwrc:TextLabels

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#TextLabels

Collection of all ambiguous labels within the TEI markup. -

Concepts: FemaleLabel, blackLabel, englandLabel, englishLabel, jewishLabel, maleLabel, manLabel, whiteLabel, womanLabel,

[back to top]

Dictionary: cwrc:Genre

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Genre

literary genre -

Concepts: genreAbridgement, genreAclef, genreAcrostic, genreAdaptation, genreAdventurewriting, genreAdvertisingcopy, genreAfterpiece, genreAfterword, genreAgitprop, genreAllegory, genreAnagram, genreAnnotation, genreAnswer, genreAnthem, genreAnthology, genreAntiromance, genreAphorism, genreApology, genreArtcriticism, genreAutobiography, genreBallade, genreBalladopera, genreBallet, genreBergamasque, genreBestiary, genreBiblicalparaphrase, genreBildungsroman, genreBiographicaldictionary, genreBiography, genreBisexualfiction, genreBlackcomedy, genreBoutsrimes, genreBroadside, genreBurletta, genreCabaret, genreCaptivitynarrative, genreCatechism, genreChapbook, genreCharacter, genreCharade, genreChildrensLiterature, genreClerihew, genreClosetdrama, genreColouringbook, genreComedy, genreComedyofintrigue, genreComedyofmanners, genreComedyofmenace, genreComicbook, genreComingout, genreCommonplacebook, genreCompanion, genreComputerprogram, genreConditionofenglandnovel, genreConductliterature, genreCookbook, genreCourtshipfiction, genreCriminology, genreDedication, genreDetective, genreDevotional, genreDialogueofthedead, genreDialogueordebate, genreDiary, genreDictionary, genreDidactic, genreDirectory, genreDissertation, genreDocumentary, genreDomestic, genreDrama, genreDramaticmonologue, genreDreamvision, genreDystopia, genreEclogue, genreElegy, genreEncyclopaedia, genreEpic, genreEpigram, genreEpilogue, genreEpistle, genreEpistolary, genreEpitaph, genreEpithalamium, genreEpyllion, genreEroticapornography, genreEssay, genreEulogy, genreExhibitioncatalogue, genreFable, genreFabliau, genreFairytale, genreFantasy, genreFarce, genreFeminist, genreFeministtheory, genreFiction, genreFilmtvscript, genreFolksong, genreGardeningbook, genreGenealogy, genreGeorgic, genreGhoststory, genreGiftbook, genreGothic, genreGovernmentreport, genreGrammar, genreGraveyardpoetry, genreGuidebook, genreHagiography, genreHaiku, genreHarlequinade, genreHeroic, genreHistorical, genreHistory, genreHymn, genreImitation, genreIndustrialnovel, genreIntroduction, genreJournalism, genreJuvenilia, genreKitchensinkdrama, genreKunstlerroman, genreLais, genreLampoon, genreLegalwriting, genreLegendFolktale, genreLesbian, genreLetter, genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving, genreLibretto, genreLiteraryCriticism, genreLiturgy, genreLove, genreLyric, genreMagicrealist, genreManifesto, genreManual, genreMap, genreMasque, genreMedicalwriting, genreMelodrama, genreMixedmedia, genreMockforms, genreMonologue, genreMoralitymysteryplay, genreMultimedia, genreMusicology, genreMystery, genreMyth, genreNarrativepoetry, genreNationaltale, genreNotebook, genreNovel, genreNovella, genreNurseryrhyme, genreObituary, genreOccasionalpoetry, genreOde, genreOneactplay, genreOpera, genreOratorio, genreOriental, genrePageant, genrePanegyric, genrePantomime, genreParable, genreParatexts, genreParody, genrePastoral, genrePedagogy, genrePerformancepoetry, genrePeriodical, genrePetition, genrePhilosophical, genrePhilosophy, genrePicaresque, genrePindaric, genrePoetry, genrePolemic, genrePoliticalwriting, genrePopular, genrePrayer, genrePrefatorypiece, genreProletarianwriting, genrePrologue, genrePropaganda, genreProphecy, genrePsalm, genrePsychoanalytical, genreQuiz, genreRadiodrama, genreRealist, genreRegional, genreReligious, genreReview, genreRevue, genreRiddle, genreRomance, genreSagewriting, genreSatire, genreScholarship, genreSchoolfiction, genreSciencefiction, genreScientificwriting, genreScrapbook, genreSensationnovel, genreSentimental, genreSequel, genreSermon, genreSexualawakeningfiction, genreShortstory, genreSilverforknovel, genreSketch, genreSketchbook, genreSlavenarrative, genreSocialscience, genreSong, genreSonnet, genreSpeech, genreTestimony, genreTextbook, genreTheatreofcruelty, genreTheatreoftheabsurd, genreTheology, genreThesaurus, genreThriller, genreTopographicalpoetry, genreTractpamphlet, genreTragedy, genreTragicomedy, genreTranslation, genreTravelwriting, genreTreatise, genreUtopia, genreVersenovel, genreVignette, genreVillanelle, genreYoungadultwriting,

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Actor

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Actor

Actor - A person performing a certain role within an event.

Same As:
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39.Actor
,
in-domain-of:
cwrc:identity
cwrc:inRole
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasActor

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Address

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Address

address - A mailling or street address.

Comment: The postal address is the equivalent of a schema.org address and inherits all of the data from that vocabulary to markup a modern postral address.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:Place
Same As:
http://schema.org/PostalAddress
,

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Androgynous

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Androgynous

Androgynous -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Context

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Context

Context - A context relates....

Comment: A context relates....

in-range-of:
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#derivedFrom

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:CulturalForm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalForm

Cultural Form - Cultural forms refers to the processes of lived social subjectivities of people and is often combined with predicates indicating the identity positions as they relate to the following discursive constructions of Class, Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, GeographicalHeritage, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, PoliticalAffiliation, RaceColour, SexualIdentity. These categories are not understood as transhistorical or isolated categories. Rather, they facilitate analysis of how such situationally contingent, changing, and negotiated labels are assigned to or adopted by a particular individual. The tensions endemic to practices of classification demand critical engagement and inquiry into the situatedness of particular cultural identities.

Comment: Cultural forms refers to the processes of lived social subjectivities of people and is often combined with predicates indicating the identity positions as they relate to the following discursive constructions of Class, Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, GeographicalHeritage, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, PoliticalAffiliation, RaceColour, SexualIdentity. These categories are not understood as transhistorical or isolated categories. Rather, they facilitate analysis of how such situationally contingent, changing, and negotiated labels are assigned to or adopted by a particular individual. The tensions endemic to practices of classification demand critical engagement and inquiry into the situatedness of particular cultural identities.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Ethnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Ethnicity

Ethnicity - Ethnicity is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about a person's ethnic position. Ethnicity is a sub-element within culturalFormation and raceAndEthnicity. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this discursive construction and the social practices surrounding it.

Comment: Ethnicity is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about a person's ethnic position. Ethnicity is a sub-element within culturalFormation and raceAndEthnicity. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this discursive construction and the social practices surrounding it.

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasEthnicity
cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfDefined

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:EthnicityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EthnicityContext

Racial, Colour or Ethnicity Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Event

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Event

Event (Historical) - An event that occurs in space and time.

Comment: An event that occurs in space and time.

Same As:
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5.Event
http://linkedevents.org/ontology/Event
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event
,
in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasActor

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Gender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Gender

Gender - A subclass of culturalForms for noting a person's gender whether attributed or self-defined. Although in popular culture gender and biological sex are conflated and understood to be binary, the concept of gender stresses the relationality, constructedness, and performativity of gendered identities and gendered behaviour, whose categories are historically contingent and shifting, and the boundaries between them blurry. Cf. Simone de Beauvoir: "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," along with many other theorists of gender including Judith Butler, 1990. Gender is understood as fluid, situational, and sometimes plural, and it is related to though not commensurate with sexual identity and orientation. It is related to but not defined by specific forms of embodiment. Rather than seeing biological sex as a pre-social or natural given, the body is understood as a site of inscription (cf. Elizabeth Grosz 1994) which is also socially constructed and indeed epigenetically shaped by environmental factors (N. Katherine Hayles 2012). This ontology therefore does not provide separate terms for sex as distinct from gender. Instead, the slashes conjoining terms associated with gender and those conventionally associated with sex indicate the constant slippage between gender and sex in the way that these categories circulate through discourses, actions, and institutions. Far from indicating a universal facet of experience, gender intersects with other identity categories and axes of oppression such as class, race or colour, or geographical heritage to produced quite different interests and experiences among people of the same gender, as with the intersection of religion and white masculine identity in the Muscular Christianity movement in nineteenth-century Britain. Being a woman of colour may thus compound the impacts of gender oppression (Kimberlé Crenshaw 1989).

Comment: A subclass of culturalForms for noting a person's gender whether attributed or self-defined. Although in popular culture gender and biological sex are conflated and understood to be binary, the concept of gender stresses the relationality, constructedness, and performativity of gendered identities and gendered behaviour, whose categories are historically contingent and shifting, and the boundaries between them blurry. Cf. Simone de Beauvoir: "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," along with many other theorists of gender including Judith Butler, 1990. Gender is understood as fluid, situational, and sometimes plural, and it is related to though not commensurate with sexual identity and orientation. It is related to but not defined by specific forms of embodiment. Rather than seeing biological sex as a pre-social or natural given, the body is understood as a site of inscription (cf. Elizabeth Grosz 1994) which is also socially constructed and indeed epigenetically shaped by environmental factors (N. Katherine Hayles 2012). This ontology therefore does not provide separate terms for sex as distinct from gender. Instead, the slashes conjoining terms associated with gender and those conventionally associated with sex indicate the constant slippage between gender and sex in the way that these categories circulate through discourses, actions, and institutions. Far from indicating a universal facet of experience, gender intersects with other identity categories and axes of oppression such as class, race or colour, or geographical heritage to produced quite different interests and experiences among people of the same gender, as with the intersection of religion and white masculine identity in the Muscular Christianity movement in nineteenth-century Britain. Being a woman of colour may thus compound the impacts of gender oppression (Kimberlé Crenshaw 1989).

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasGender
cwrc:hasGenderSelfDeclared

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:GenderContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderContext

Gender Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:GenderQueer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderQueer

GenderQueer -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Genre

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Genre

literary genre -

Same As:
dbpedia:Literary_genre
,

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:GeographicalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GeographicalHeritage

Geographical Heritage - GeographicalHeritage is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about the geographical origins of a person's family which often contributes to an understanding of their racial and ethnic background. It offers a way to capture women identified as "South-Asian," for example, when no more precise national heritage is indicated. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this element.

Comment: GeographicalHeritage is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about the geographical origins of a person's family which often contributes to an understanding of their racial and ethnic background. It offers a way to capture women identified as "South-Asian," for example, when no more precise national heritage is indicated. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this element.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Language

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Language

Linguistic Ability - Does not differentiate between spoken and/or written.

Comment: Does not differentiate between spoken and/or written.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:LanguageContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#LanguageContext

Language Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:LinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#LinguisticAbility

Linguistic Ability (Spoken and/or Writen) -

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared
cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility
cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:NationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalHeritage

National Heritage - A subclass of culturalForms, this descrbes a person's national heritage and is not the same as citizenship.

Comment: A subclass of culturalForms, this descrbes a person's national heritage and is not the same as citizenship.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:NationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalIdentity

National Identity - A subclass of culturalForms, this descrbes a person's nationality/ies and is not the same as citizenship.

Comment: A subclass of culturalForms, this descrbes a person's nationality/ies and is not the same as citizenship.

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasNationality
cwrc:hasNationalitySelfDeclared

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:NationalityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalityContext

Nationality Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Place

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Place

Place - A named place, wheter incorporated, settled or occupied.

Comment: Could be a populated place according to Geonames, but not necessarily so. Some places, such as cross-roads are named without having a population or settlement per say. The geonames is incosistent in this regards in that a populated place can be abandonned.

sub-class-of:
geo:SpatialThing
Same As:
http://geovocab.org/spatial#Feature
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#Feature
,

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalAffiliation

Political Affiliation - This subclass of CulturalForm tracks the affiliations, connections and associations which designate a person's political involvement. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organization and informal political positions held by the writer. We hope to point our readers towards women writers associated with different political positions and help researchers make links between political beliefs and writing. For this reason, we are defining political affiliations broadly and include things like "against capital punishment" or "strong supporter of the Empire" in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as "marxist" or "conservative."

Comment: This subclass of CulturalForm tracks the affiliations, connections and associations which designate a person's political involvement. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organization and informal political positions held by the writer. We hope to point our readers towards women writers associated with different political positions and help researchers make links between political beliefs and writing. For this reason, we are defining political affiliations broadly and include things like "against capital punishment" or "strong supporter of the Empire" in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as "marxist" or "conservative."

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:PoliticalContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalContext

Political Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:RaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceColour

Race and/or Colour -

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasRaceColour

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:RaceEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicity

Race and/or Ethnicity -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:RaceEthnicityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicityContext

Race Ethnicity Context - raceEthnicityContext is a significant sub-class within culturalForms. It indicates the presence of information and discussions of a person's subject position with regards to race and ethnicity by working in conjunction with subject specific sub-elements (raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, ethnicity). The following discussion applies to both the general discursive context of raceAndEthnicity as well as the specific sub-class categories. Despite the ways in which categories of race and ethnicity frequently serve heinous interests, their ideological and material impacts in the formation of identities requires recognition. These are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and which are understood here finally as discursive or representational. Because of this this ontology does not try to lay out an exact, fully defined, or mutually exclusive set of categories: this is an impossibility given their shifting use and the overlap among them. Those applying this class and its subclasses are encouraged not to let privileged identities operate as an unspoken given or to use this class solely in relation to the marginalized. Those concerned about "white" and "black" as homogenizing categories are encouraged to reach for specificity through multiplicity and representations of intersectionality. RaceAndEthnicity is a sub-class within culturalFormation. It has four related content sub-classes: raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, and ethnicity.

Comment: raceEthnicityContext is a significant sub-class within culturalForms. It indicates the presence of information and discussions of a person's subject position with regards to race and ethnicity by working in conjunction with subject specific sub-elements (raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, ethnicity). The following discussion applies to both the general discursive context of raceAndEthnicity as well as the specific sub-class categories. Despite the ways in which categories of race and ethnicity frequently serve heinous interests, their ideological and material impacts in the formation of identities requires recognition. These are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and which are understood here finally as discursive or representational. Because of this this ontology does not try to lay out an exact, fully defined, or mutually exclusive set of categories: this is an impossibility given their shifting use and the overlap among them. Those applying this class and its subclasses are encouraged not to let privileged identities operate as an unspoken given or to use this class solely in relation to the marginalized. Those concerned about "white" and "black" as homogenizing categories are encouraged to reach for specificity through multiplicity and representations of intersectionality. RaceAndEthnicity is a sub-class within culturalFormation. It has four related content sub-classes: raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, and ethnicity.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:Religion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Religion

Religion - A subclass of CulturalForm, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convinience.

Comment: A subclass of CulturalForm, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convinience.

in-domain-of:
cwrc:hasReligion
cwrc:hasReligionSelfDefined

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:ReligionContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ReligionContext

Religious Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:SexIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexIdentity

Sex Identity - Sex according to birth or census data.

Comment: Sex according to birth or census data.

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:SexualIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexualIdentity

Sexual Identity - These terms capture in a word or phrase identifications of sexuality (i.e., "lesbian," "monogamous," "heterosexual") not as a means of shutting down but advancing investigation and critical analysis of these identifications. The association assumes that sexual identity does not function in an essentialist manner but can be plural and fluid, so multiple designations can be applied to a single person. Assertions of sexual itentity may come from the subject her/himself or from others. They may be in tension or mutually exclusive, and they may reflect different life stages. Linking to the term "lesbian" as a sexualIdentity class, for instance, does not signify that the subject was in any definitive sense a lesbian; such identifications are often impossible for reasons of historical gaps and silences. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan 2016

Comment: These terms capture in a word or phrase identifications of sexuality (i.e., "lesbian," "monogamous," "heterosexual") not as a means of shutting down but advancing investigation and critical analysis of these identifications. The association assumes that sexual identity does not function in an essentialist manner but can be plural and fluid, so multiple designations can be applied to a single person. Assertions of sexual itentity may come from the subject her/himself or from others. They may be in tension or mutually exclusive, and they may reflect different life stages. Linking to the term "lesbian" as a sexualIdentity class, for instance, does not signify that the subject was in any definitive sense a lesbian; such identifications are often impossible for reasons of historical gaps and silences. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan 2016

Same As:
http://homosaurus.org/terms/sexualIdentity
,

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:SexualityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexualityContext

Sexuality Context - hasSexualityContext is a significant sub-class within culturalForms. It indicates the presence of information and discussions of a person's subject position with regards to their sexuality and sexual identity. A subclass of Cultural Formation, hasSexualityContext provides depth to more granual categorizations of a person through hasSexuality or hasSexualIdentity. It is not meant to capture individual sexual experiences and relationships, which are covered by intimateRelationships. Specific relationships may be invoked here to indicate the effect on a subject's life and understanding of her own sexuality. This effort to to contextualize gestures towards some of the complicated issues around sexuality, for example, the politics of outing, the historical specificity of some categories such as "congenital invert," or the multiple forms of relating to one's own sexuality. Capturing discussions of her sexuality within this element, will help users interested in the historical, ideological and gendered constructions of sexuality. There are important politics of privacy with respect to the disclosure of a subject's sexuality, sexual orientation and sexual identity. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan 2016

Comment: hasSexualityContext is a significant sub-class within culturalForms. It indicates the presence of information and discussions of a person's subject position with regards to their sexuality and sexual identity. A subclass of Cultural Formation, hasSexualityContext provides depth to more granual categorizations of a person through hasSexuality or hasSexualIdentity. It is not meant to capture individual sexual experiences and relationships, which are covered by intimateRelationships. Specific relationships may be invoked here to indicate the effect on a subject's life and understanding of her own sexuality. This effort to to contextualize gestures towards some of the complicated issues around sexuality, for example, the politics of outing, the historical specificity of some categories such as "congenital invert," or the multiple forms of relating to one's own sexuality. Capturing discussions of her sexuality within this element, will help users interested in the historical, ideological and gendered constructions of sexuality. There are important politics of privacy with respect to the disclosure of a subject's sexuality, sexual orientation and sexual identity. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan 2016

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:SocialClassContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassContext

Social Class Context -

[back to top]

Class: cwrc:SocialClassIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassIdentity

Social Class Identity - A subclass of culturalForms, Social Class terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

Comment: A subclass of culturalForms, Social Class terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasActor

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasActor

hasActor - An Actor in this event.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Event
Range:
cwrc:Actor

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasCulturalForms

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForms

has a cultural form - This sub-class of culturalFormation associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

Comment: This sub-class of culturalFormation associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicity

has Ethnicity -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfDefined

has Ethnicity (Self Defined) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDefined
Domain:
cwrc:Ethnicity

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasGender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGender

has Gender -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasGenderSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfDeclared

has Gender (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:Gender

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasGenre

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenre

has genre -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritage

has Geographic Heritage -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:GeographicHeritage

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

has Geographic Heritage (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:GeographicHeritage

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbility

Language Known - Knowlege of the language for writing or reading.

Comment: Knowlege of the language for writing or reading.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

Language Known (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasNationality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationality

has Nationality -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:NationalIdentity

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfDeclared

has Nationality (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:NationalIdentity

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbility

Natively Known Language - Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

Comment: Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility
Domain:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

Natively Known Language (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasRaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColour

has Race - A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's racial identity.

Comment: A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's racial identity.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

has Race (Self Declared) - A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's self-reported racial identity.

Comment: A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's self-reported racial identity.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:Race

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligion

has Religious Affiliation -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasReligionSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfDefined

has Religious Affilication (Self Defined) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDefined
Domain:
cwrc:Religion

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasSexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexuality

has Sexual Orientation -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfDeclared

has Sexual Orientation (Self Declared) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared
Domain:
cwrc:Sexuality

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasSocialClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClass

has Social Class -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty
Domain:
cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfDefined

has Social Class (Self Defined) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfDefined
Domain:
cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:identity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#identity

Identity - The identity of the person who committed the act.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Actor
Range:
cwrc:Person

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:inRole

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#inRole

In Role - The role taken on by this actor.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
Domain:
cwrc:Actor
Range:
cwrc:Role

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:personalProperty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalProperty

Personal Property -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalPropertySelfDeclared

Personal Property (Self Reported) -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
cwrc:personalProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:abrahamicReligions

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abrahamicReligions

Abrahamic Religions -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:abrahamicReligions

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abrahamicReligions

Abrahamic Religions -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:agnosticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#agnosticism

Agnosticism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:agnosticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#agnosticism

Agnosticism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anglicanChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanChurch

Church of England - A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organization of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal."

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anglicanChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanChurch

Church of England - A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organization of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal."

Comment: A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organization of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal."

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:atheism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#atheism

Atheism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:atheism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#atheism

Atheism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:baptistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChurch

Baptist - Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:baptistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChurch

Baptist - Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States.

Comment: Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:black

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#black

black (Race) -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:black

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#black

black (Race) -

RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:blackLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackLabel

black -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:buddhism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#buddhism

boeddhisme - Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:buddhism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#buddhism

boeddhisme - Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).

Comment: Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community).

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:catholicChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicChurch

Roman Catholic - Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:catholicChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicChurch

Roman Catholic - Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church.

Comment: Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:christianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianity

Christianity - Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:christianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianity

Christianity - Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership.

Comment: Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfChristianScience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfChristianScience

Christian Scientist - Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfChristianScience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfChristianScience

Christian Scientist - Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there.

Comment: Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfEngland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfEngland

Church of England -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfEngland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfEngland

Church of England -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfIreland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfIreland

Church of Ireland -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:churchOfIreland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfIreland

Church of Ireland -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:congregationalChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalChurch

Congregational Church -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:congregationalChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalChurch

Congregational Church -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:CulturalFormation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalFormation

Cultural Formation - Cultural formation refers to the processes of lived social subjectivities of people and is often combined with predicates indicating the identity positions as they relate to the following discursive constructions of Class, Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, GeographicalHeritage, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, PoliticalAffiliation, RaceColour, SexualIdentity. These categories are not understood as transhistorical or isolated categories. Rather, they facilitate analysis of how such situationally contingent, changing, and negotiated labels are assigned to or adopted by a particular individual. The tensions endemic to practices of classification demand critical engagement and inquiry into the situatedness of particular cultural identities.

Comment: Cultural formation refers to the processes of lived social subjectivities of people and is often combined with predicates indicating the identity positions as they relate to the following discursive constructions of Class, Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, GeographicalHeritage, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, PoliticalAffiliation, RaceColour, SexualIdentity. These categories are not understood as transhistorical or isolated categories. Rather, they facilitate analysis of how such situationally contingent, changing, and negotiated labels are assigned to or adopted by a particular individual. The tensions endemic to practices of classification demand critical engagement and inquiry into the situatedness of particular cultural identities.

RDF Type:
owl:DeprecatedClass
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:datasetdefinition

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#datasetdefinition

The CWRC Ontology - The CWRC Ontology is the overall ontology that represents all elements of structure within the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory.

Comment: The CWRC Ontology is the overall ontology that represents all elements of structure within the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory.

RDF Type:
http://rdfs.org/ns/void#Dataset

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:dissenters

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissenters

Dissenters -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:dissenters

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissenters

Dissenters -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:dissentingChurches

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChurches

Dissenting Churches -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:dissentingChurches

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChurches

Dissenting Churches -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:england

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#england

england -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:england

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#england

england -

RDF Type:
cwrc:GeographicalHeritage
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:englandLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englandLabel

england -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:englishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishLabel

english -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishLanguage

English -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishLanguage

English -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Language
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishNationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalHeritage

English -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishNationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalHeritage

English -

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalHeritage
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishNationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalIdentity

English -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:EnglishNationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalIdentity

English -

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalIdentity
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialism

Entrepreneurial Industrialism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialism

Entrepreneurial Industrialism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialist

entrepreneurial industrialist - Involves larges-scale enterprises such as running factories, or backing such enterprises through investing money, for instance, Elizabeth Montagu or Beatrice Webb.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialist

entrepreneurial industrialist - Involves larges-scale enterprises such as running factories, or backing such enterprises through investing money, for instance, Elizabeth Montagu or Beatrice Webb.

Comment: Involves larges-scale enterprises such as running factories, or backing such enterprises through investing money, for instance, Elizabeth Montagu or Beatrice Webb.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept
cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:eurasianRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eurasianRace

eurasian -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:eurasianRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eurasianRace

eurasian -

RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:FemaleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FemaleLabel

Female -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:femaleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#femaleSex

Female -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:femaleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#femaleSex

Female -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexIdentity
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:fifthMonarchists

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fifthMonarchists

Fifth Monarchists -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:fifthMonarchists

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fifthMonarchists

Fifth Monarchists -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:FrenchLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FrenchLanguage

French -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:FrenchLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FrenchLanguage

French -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Language
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderManMale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderManMale

man/male -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderManMale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderManMale

man/male -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Gender
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderTransMan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransMan

Transman/Transmale -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderTransMan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransMan

Transman/Transmale -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Gender
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderTransWoman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransWoman

Transwoman/Transfemale -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderTransWoman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransWoman

Transwoman/Transfemale -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Gender
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderWomanFemale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderWomanFemale

Woman/Female -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genderWomanFemale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderWomanFemale

Woman/Female -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Gender
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAbridgement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAbridgement

abridgement - Versions of written works produced by condensation and omission but with retention of the general meaning and manner of presentation of the original, often prepared by someone other than the author of the original.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAclef

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAclef

aclef -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAcrostic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAcrostic

acrostic - Short poems or prose compositions in which text is arranged so that the first letters of each line form a word, phrase, or motto.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAdaptation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdaptation

adaptation - Written works or works derived from written works, where the second work is an alteration or amendment a text to make it suitable for another purpose. An example of an adaptation is a version of an earlier text made to better agree with a philosophy other than that intended by the original. Other examples are written works adapted for another medium, such as film, broadcasting, or stage production. For visual works adapted from another work, use "adaptations (derivative objects)."

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAdventurewriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdventurewriting

adventure writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAdvertisingcopy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAdvertisingcopy

advertising copy -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAfterpiece

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAfterpiece

afterpiece -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAfterword

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAfterword

afterword -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAgitprop

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAgitprop

agitprop -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAllegory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAllegory

allegory - Literary works, art works, or other creative works that employ allegory to express complex abstract ideas, for example works that employ symbolic, fictional figures and actions to express truths or generalizations about human conduct or experience.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAnagram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnagram

anagram - Anagrammatic poetry is poetry with the constrained form that either each line or each verse is an anagram of all other lines or verses in the poem. A poet that specializes in anagrams is an anagrammarian. Writing anagrammatic poetry is a form of a constrained writing similar to writing pangrams or long alliterations.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAnnotation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnnotation

annotation - Notes added as comment or explanation, such as those accompanying an entry in a bibliography, reading list, or catalogue intended to describe, explain, or evaluate the publication referred to.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAnswer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnswer

answer -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAnthem

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnthem

anthem -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAnthology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAnthology

anthology -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAntiromance

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAntiromance

antiromance -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAphorism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAphorism

aphorism - Short, pithy statements of principle or precepts, often of known authorship; distinguished from "proverbs" which are statements repeated colloquially and which often embody the folk wisdom of a group or nation.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreApology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreApology

apology -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreArtcriticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreArtcriticism

art criticism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreAutobiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreAutobiography

autobiography - Documents of any type that are biographies of individuals written by themselves. For the overall genre, use "autobiography (genre)."

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBallade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBallade

ballade - A ballade (from French ballade, [baˈlad], and German Ballade, [baˈlaːdə], both being words for "ballad"), in classical music since the late 18th century, refers to a setting of a literary ballad, a narrative poem, in the musical tradition of the Lied, or to a one-movement instrumental piece with lyrical and dramatic narrative qualities reminiscent of such a song setting, especially a piano ballad.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBalladopera

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBalladopera

ballad opera -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBallet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBallet

ballet -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBergamasque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBergamasque

bergamasque -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBestiary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBestiary

bestiary - Collections of moralized fables, especially as written in the Middle Ages, about actual or mythical animals.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBiblicalparaphrase

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiblicalparaphrase

biblical paraphrase -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBildungsroman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBildungsroman

bildungsroman - Novels of a traditional German genre that focuses on the spiritual development or formative years of an individual. Now in broad use to refer to this type of novel written in any language or in any culture.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBiographicaldictionary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiographicaldictionary

biographical dictionary -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBiography

biography - Brief profiles of a people's life or work.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBisexualfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBisexualfiction

bisexual fiction -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBlackcomedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBlackcomedy

black comedy - A black comedy (or dark comedy) is a comic work that employs morbid humor, which, in its simplest form, is humor that makes light of subject matter usually considered taboo. Black humor corresponds to the earlier concept of gallows humor. Black comedy is often controversial due to its subject matter.[citation needed]

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBoutsrimes

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBoutsrimes

boutsrimes -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBroadside

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBroadside

broadside -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreBurletta

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreBurletta

burletta -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCabaret

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCabaret

cabaret -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCaptivitynarrative

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCaptivitynarrative

captivity narrative - Captivity narratives are usually stories of people captured by enemies whom they consider uncivilized, or whose beliefs and customs they oppose. The best-known captivity narratives are those concerning the indigenous peoples of North America. These narratives (and questions about their accuracy) have an enduring place in literature, history, ethnography, and the study of Native peoples. However, captivity narratives have also come to play a major role in the study of contemporary religious movements, thanks to scholars of religion like David G. Bromley and James R. Lewis. In this article, both main types of captivity narratives are considered. Traditionally, historians have made limited use of certain captivity narratives. They have regarded the genre with suspicion because of its ideological underpinnings. As a result of new scholarly approaches, historians with a more certain grasp of Native American cultures are distinguishing between plausible statements of fact and value-laden judgements in order to study the narratives as rare sources from "inside" Native societies. Contemporary historians such as Linda Colley and anthropologists such as Pauline Turner Strong have also found the narratives useful in analyzing how the colonists constructed the "other", as well as what the narratives reveal about the settlers' sense of themselves and their culture, and the experience of crossing the line to another. Colley has studied the long history of English captivity in other cultures, both the Barbary pirate captives who preceded those in North America, and British captives in cultures such as India, after the North American experience. Certain North American captivity narratives involving Native peoples were published from the 18th through the 19th centuries, but they reflected a well-established genre in English literature. There had already been English accounts of captivity by Barbary pirates, or in the Middle East, which established some of the major elements of the form. Following the American experience, additional accounts were written after British people were captured during exploration and settlement in India and East Asia. Other types of captivity narratives, such as those recounted by apostates from religious movements (i.e. "cult survivor" tales), have remained an enduring feature of modern media, and currently appear in books, periodicals, film, and television. The unifying factor in most captivity narratives, whether they stem from geopolitical or religious conflicts, is that the captive portrays the captors' way of life as alien, undesirable, and incompatible with the captive's own (typically dominant) culture. This underscores the utility of captivity narratives in garnering support for social control measures, such as removing Native Americans to "reservations", or stigmatizing participation in religious movements – whether Catholicism in the nineteenth century, or ISKCON in the twentieth. Captivity narratives tend to be culturally chauvinistic, viewing an "alien" culture through the lens of the narrator's preferred culture, thus making (possibly unfair) value judgements like "Puritans good, Indians bad."

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCatechism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCatechism

catechism - A catechism (/ˈkætəˌkizəm/; from Greek: κατηχέω, to teach orally), is a summary or exposition of doctrine and served as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals - often in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised - a format in non-religious or secular contexts as well. The term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical work or instruction. In the Catholic Church, catachumens were usually placed separately during Holy Mass from those who received the Sacrament of Baptism. Early catecheticals emerged from Graeco-Roman mystery religions, especially the late cult of Mithras meant to educate their members into the secretive teachings, which competed with the Christian Church as an underground religion in the 1st to 4th centuries CE and allegedly shared its many ritual practices. Today, they are characteristic of Western Christianity but are also present in Eastern Christianity.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreChapbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreChapbook

chapbook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCharacter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCharacter

character -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCharade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCharade

charade -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreChildrensLiterature

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreChildrensLiterature

childrens literature -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreClerihew

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreClerihew

clerihew - A clerihew is a whimsical, four-line biographical poem invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley. The first line is the name of the poem's subject, usually a famous person put in an absurd light. The rhyme scheme is AABB, and the rhymes are often forced. The line length and metre are irregular. Bentley invented the clerihew in school and then popularized it in books. One of his best known is this (1905):

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreClosetdrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreClosetdrama

closetdrama -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreColouringbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreColouringbook

colouring book - Books containing outline drawings, for coloring in with crayons, watercolor, colored pencils, or other media, usually intended for use by children.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedy

comedy - Light and amusing stories.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComedyofintrigue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofintrigue

comedy of intrigue -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComedyofmanners

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofmanners

comedy of manners - The comedy of manners is an entertainment form which satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class or of multiple classes, often represented by stereotypical stock characters. For example, the miles gloriosus ("boastful soldier") in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the English Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. Restoration comedy is used as a synonym for "comedy of manners". The plot of the comedy, often concerned with scandal, is generally less important than its witty dialogue. A great writer of comedies of manners was Oscar Wilde, his most famous play being The Importance of Being Earnest. The comedy of manners was first developed in the new comedy of the Ancient Greek playwright Menander. His style, elaborate plots, and stock characters were imitated by the Roman playwrights Plautus and Terence, whose comedies were widely known and copied during the Renaissance. The best-known comedies of manners, however, may well be those of the French playwright Molière, who satirized the hypocrisy and pretension of the ancien régime in such plays as L'École des femmes (The School for Wives, 1662), Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope, 1666), and most famously Tartuffe (1664).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComedyofmenace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComedyofmenace

comedy of menace -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComicbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComicbook

comicbook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComingout

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComingout

coming out -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCommonplacebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCommonplacebook

common place book -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCompanion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCompanion

companion -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreComputerprogram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreComputerprogram

computer program -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreConditionofenglandnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreConditionofenglandnovel

condition of england novel -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreConductliterature

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreConductliterature

conduct literature -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCookbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCookbook

cookbook - A cookbook (sometimes cookery book in Commonwealth English or cook book) is a kitchen reference publication that typically contains a collection of recipes. Modern versions may also include colorful illustrations and advice on purchasing quality ingredients or making substitutions. Cookbooks can also cover a wide variety of topics, including cooking techniques for the home, recipes and commentary from famous chefs, institutional kitchen manuals, and cultural commentary.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCourtshipfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCourtshipfiction

courtshipfiction -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreCriminology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreCriminology

criminology -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDedication

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDedication

dedication -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDetective

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDetective

detective - Detective Comics is the title used for two American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first, published from 1937 to 2011, was best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27 (cover dated May 1939). A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011. The original series is the source of its publishing company's name and with Action Comics, the comic book launched with the debut of Superman, one of the medium's signature series. The original series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and was the longest continuously published comic book in the United States.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDevotional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDevotional

devotional - Christian devotional literature (also called devotionals or Christian living literature) is religious writing that is neither doctrinal nor theological, but designed for individuals to read for their personal edification and spiritual formation. Theologian Karl Holl has suggested that devotional literature came into full development at the time of Pietism during the second half of the 17th century.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDialogueofthedead

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDialogueofthedead

dialogue of the dead -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDialogueordebate

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDialogueordebate

dialogue or debate -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDiary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDiary

diary - Refers to books containing the daily, personal accounts of the writer's own experiences, attitudes, and observations. Use "journals (accounts)" when referring to an individual's or an organization's account of occurrences or transactions.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDictionary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDictionary

dictionary - Library catalog in which the entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence, regardless of their type, so that authors, titles, and other indexing terms are all alphabetized together alphabetically instead of in separate groupings by type.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDidactic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDidactic

didactic -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDirectory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDirectory

directory -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDissertation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDissertation

dissertation -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDocumentary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDocumentary

documentary -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDomestic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDomestic

domestic - Domestic realism normally refers to the genre of nineteenth-century novels popular with women readers. This body of writing is also known as "sentimental fiction" or "woman's fiction". The genre is mainly reflected in the novel though short-stories and non-fiction works such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Our Country Neighbors" and The New Housekeeper's Manual written by Stowe and her sister-in-law Catharine Beecher are works of domestic realism. The style's particular characteristics are: "1. Plot focuses on a heroine who embodies one of two types of exemplar: the angel and the practical woman (Reynolds) who sometimes exist in the same work. Baym says that this heroine is contrasted with the passive woman (incompetent, cowardly, ignorant; often the heroine's mother is this type) and the "belle," who is deprived of a proper education. 2. The heroine struggles for self-mastery, learning the pain of conquering her own passions (Tompkins, Sensational Designs, 172). 3. The heroine learns to balance society's demands for self-denial with her own desire for autonomy, a struggle often addressed in terms of religion. 4. She suffers at the hands of abusers of power before establishing a network of surrogate kin. 5. The plots "repeatedly identify immersion in feeling as one of the great temptations and dangers for a developing woman. They show that feeling must be controlled. . . " (Baym 25). Frances Cogan notes that the heroines thus undergo a full education within which to realize feminine obligations (The All-American Girl). 6. The tales generally end with marriage, usually one of two possible kinds: A. Reforming the bad or "wild" male, as in Augusta Evans's St. Elmo (1867) B. Marrying the solid male who already meets her qualifications.Examples: Maria Cummins, The Lamplighter (1854) and Susan Warner, The Wide, Wide World (1850) 7. The novels may use a "language of tears" that evokes sympathy from the readers. 8. Richard Brodhead (Cultures of Letters) sees class as an important issue, as the ideal family or heroine is poised between a lower-class family exemplifying poverty and domestic disorganization and upper-class characters exemplifying an idle, frivolous existence (94)." An example of this style of novel is Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres in which the main character's confinement is emphasized in such a way. Some early exponents of the genre of domestic realism were Jane Austen and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDrama

drama -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDramaticmonologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDramaticmonologue

dramatic monologue - Dramatic monologue, also known as a persona poem, is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character. M.H. Abrams notes the following three features of the dramatic monologue as it applies to poetry

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDreamvision

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDreamvision

dreamvision -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreDystopia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreDystopia

dystopia -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEclogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEclogue

eclogue - An eclogue is a poem in a classical style on a pastoral subject. Poems in the genre are sometimes also called bucolics.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreElegy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreElegy

elegy - Mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poems, especially funeral songs or laments for the dead.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEncyclopaedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEncyclopaedia

encyclopaedia -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpic

epic - Meaning extended from "epic poetry," in modern usage refers to literary art forms, such as prose, poetry, plays, films, and other works where the story has a theme of grandeur and heroism.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpigram

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpigram

epigram - Refers to short satiric poems or any similar pointed sayings.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpilogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpilogue

epilogue -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpistle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpistle

epistle - Literary genre taking the form of letters, usually of a literary, formal, or public nature. Examples are the epistles in the Biblical New Testament.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpistolary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpistolary

epistolary - Novels written by using the device of a series of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, or other documents.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpitaph

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpitaph

epitaph - Inscriptions on sepulchral monuments in the memory of those buried in the tomb or grave.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpithalamium

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpithalamium

epithalamium - An epithalamiumLatin form of Greek ἐπιθαλάμιον epithalamion from ἐπί epi "upon," and θάλαμος thalamos nuptial chamber) is a poem written specifically for the bride on the way to her marital chamber. This form continued in popularity through the history of the classical world; the Roman poet Catullus wrote a famous epithalamium, which was translated from or at least inspired by a now-lost work of Sappho. According to Origen, Song of Songs, might be an epithalamium on the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh’s daughter.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEpyllion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEpyllion

epyllion - Brief narrative poems in dactylic hexameter of ancient Greece, imitated by Romans and others. Usually dealing with mythological and romantic themes. They are characterized by lively description, miniaturistic attitude, scholarly allusion, and an elevated tone similar to that of the elegy.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEroticapornography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEroticapornography

erotica pornography -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEssay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEssay

essay - Short literary compositions on single subjects, often presenting the personal view of the author.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreEulogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreEulogy

eulogy - A eulogy (from εὐλογία, eulogia, Classical Greek for "praise") is a speech or writing in praise of a person(s) or thing(s), especially one who recently died or retired or as a term of endearment. Eulogies may be given as part of funeral services. They take place in a funeral home during or after a wake. However, some denominations either discourage or do not permit eulogies at services to maintain respect for traditions. Eulogies can also praise people who are still alive. This normally takes place on special occasions like birthdays, office parties, retirement celebrations, etc. Eulogies should not be confused with elegies, which are poems written in tribute to the dead; nor with obituaries, which are published biographies recounting the lives of those who have recently died; nor with obsequies, which refer generally to the rituals surrounding funerals. Catholic priests are prohibited by the rubrics of the Mass from presenting a eulogy for the deceased in place of a homily during a funeral Mass. The modern use of the word eulogy was first documented in the 15th century and came from the Medieval Latin term “eulogium” (Merriam-Webster 2012). “Eulogium” at that time has since turned into the shorter “eulogy” of today. Eulogies are usually delivered by a family member or a close family friend in the case of a dead person. For a living eulogy given in such cases as a retirement, a senior colleague could perhaps deliver it. On occasions, eulogies are given to those who are severely ill or elderly in order to express words of love and gratitude before they die. Eulogies are not limited to merely people, however; Places or things can also be given eulogies (which anyone can deliver), but these are less common than those delivered to people, whether living or deceased.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreExhibitioncatalogue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreExhibitioncatalogue

exhibition catalogue - Publications that document the works displayed in an exhibition.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFable

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFable

fable - Fictitious narratives usually with animals or inanimate objects as protagonists, intended to convey a hidden meaning regarding human conduct.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFabliau

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFabliau

fabliau -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFairytale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFairytale

fairytale - Fairytale fantasy is distinguished from other subgenres of fantasy by the works' heavy use of motifs, and often plots, from folklore.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFantasy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFantasy

fantasy - Literary genre in which works are of a whimsical or visionary nature, having suppositions that are speculation or resting on no solid grounds.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFarce

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFarce

farce -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFeminist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFeminist

feminist -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFeministtheory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFeministtheory

feminist theory -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFiction

fiction - Poetic or prosaic literary forms derived from medieval narratives of love, legendary or heroic adventures, and chivalry. Extends to narratives about important religious figures, or fantastic or supernatural events.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFilmtvscript

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFilmtvscript

film tv script -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreFolksong

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreFolksong

folksong -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGardeningbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGardeningbook

gardening book -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGenealogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGenealogy

genealogy - Accounts or histories of the descent of persons, families, or other groups, from an ancestor or ancestors; enumerations of ancestors and their descendants in the natural order of succession.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGeorgic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGeorgic

georgic -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGhoststory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGhoststory

ghost story - Prose tales of the supernatural in which the living encounter manifestations of the spirits of the dead.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGiftbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGiftbook

giftbook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGothic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGothic

gothic - Romantic fictions having a prevailing atmosphere of mystery and terror, often combined with a love story. The genre was introduced in England ca. 1765, but soon became popular elsewhere in Europe, reaching its heyday in the 1790s. The genre has undergone frequent revivals in subsequent centuries. It is called "Gothic" because the early examples were often set in part among medieval buildings and ruins, such as castles or monasteries.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGovernmentreport

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGovernmentreport

government report -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGrammar

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGrammar

grammar -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGraveyardpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGraveyardpoetry

graveyard poetry -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreGuidebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreGuidebook

guidebook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHagiography

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHagiography

hagiography - Biographies of saints, usually written, but includes oral or visual works as well.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHaiku

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHaiku

haiku -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHarlequinade

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHarlequinade

harlequinade -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHeroic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHeroic

heroic -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHistorical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHistorical

historical -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHistory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHistory

history - Accounts of the chronological development of cases of disease or conditions of individuals, with details of symptoms.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreHymn

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreHymn

hymn -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreImitation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreImitation

imitation -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreIndustrialnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreIndustrialnovel

industrial novel -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreIntroduction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreIntroduction

introduction -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreJournalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreJournalism

journalism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreJuvenilia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreJuvenilia

juvenilia -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreKitchensinkdrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreKitchensinkdrama

kitchensink drama -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreKunstlerroman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreKunstlerroman

kunstlerroman -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLais

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLais

lais - A laisse is a type of stanza, of varying length, found in medieval French literature, specifically medieval French epic poetry (the chanson de geste), such as The Song of Roland. In early works, each laisse was made up of (mono) assonanced verses, although the appearance of (mono) rhymed laisses was increasingly common in later poems. Within a poem, the length of each separate laisse is variable (whereas the metric length of the verses is invariable, each verse having the same syllable length, typically decasyllables or, occasionally, alexandrines. The laisse is characterized by stereotyped phrases and formulas and frequently repeated themes and motifs, including repetitions of material from one laisse to another. Such repetitions and formulaic structures are common of orality and oral-formulaic composition. When medieval poets repeated content (with different wording or assonance/rhyme) from one laisse to another, such "similar" laisses are called laisses similaires in French.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLampoon

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLampoon

lampoon -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLegalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLegalwriting

legal writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLegendFolktale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLegendFolktale

legend folktale -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLesbian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLesbian

lesbian - Azalea: A Magazine by Third World Lesbians was a quarterly periodical for black, Asian, Latina, and Native American lesbians published between 1977 and 1983 by the Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc Collective. The Collective also published the Salsa Soul Sisters/Third World Women's Gay-zette (c. 1982).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLetter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLetter

letter - Letters written to a newspaper or magazine to present a position, make a correction, or respond to another story or letter.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLettersfromthedeadtotheliving

letters from the dead to the living -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLibretto

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLibretto

libretto -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLiteraryCriticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLiteraryCriticism

literary criticism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLiturgy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLiturgy

liturgy -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLove

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLove

love -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreLyric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreLyric

lyric - Lyric Essay is a subgenre of essay writing, which combines qualities of poetry, essay, memoir, and research writing. The lyric essay is considered high art, and often requires work and association on behalf of the reader. Proponents of the lyric essay classification insist it differs from prose poetry in its reliance on association rather than line breaks and juxtaposition.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMagicrealist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMagicrealist

magic realist -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreManifesto

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreManifesto

manifesto -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreManual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreManual

manual -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMap

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMap

map -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMasque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMasque

masque -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMedicalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMedicalwriting

medical writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMelodrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMelodrama

melodrama -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMixedmedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMixedmedia

mixed media -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMockforms

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMockforms

mockforms -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMonologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMonologue

monologue - In theatre, a monologue (from Greek μονόλογος from μόνος mónos, "alone, solitary" and λόγος lógos, "speech") is a speech presented by a single character, most often to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes also to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media (plays, films, etc.), as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry. Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies, apostrophes, and aside. There are, however, distinctions between each of these devices.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMoralitymysteryplay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMoralitymysteryplay

morality mystery play -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMultimedia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMultimedia

multimedia -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMusicology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMusicology

musicology -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMystery

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMystery

mystery -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreMyth

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreMyth

myth - Legendary stories without a determinable basis of fact or natural explanation, typically concerning a being, hero, deity, or event and explains some practice, rite, or phenomenon of nature.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNarrativepoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNarrativepoetry

narrative poetry - Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making use of the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metred verse. Narrative poems do not have to follow rhythmic patterns. The poems that make up this genre may be short or long, and the story it relates to may be complex. It is usually well it normally dramatic, with objectives, diverse characters, and metre. Narrative poems include epics, ballads, idylls, and lays. Some narrative poetry takes the form of a novel in verse. An example of this is The Ring and the Book by Robert Browning. In terms of narrative poetry, a romance is a narrative poem that tells a story of chivalry. Examples include the Romance of the Rose or Tennyson's Idylls of the King. Although these examples use medieval and Arthurian materials, romances may also tell stories from classical mythology. Shorter narrative poems are often similar in style to the short story. Sometimes these short narratives are collected into interrelated groups, as with Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. Some literatures contain prose naose narratives, and the Old Norse sagas include both incidental poetry and the biographies of poets. An example is "The Cremation of Sam McGee" by Robert Service.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNationaltale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNationaltale

national tale -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNotebook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNotebook

notebook - Notebook is a style of writing where people jot down what they have thought or heard at the spur of moment. The contents of a notebook are unorganized, and the number of subjects covered in a notebook are unlimited: a paragraph of autobiography can be followed immediately by one on astronomy or one on history. Some famous authors are also famous for the notebooks they left. The Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi kept a notebook, called Zibaldone, from 1817 to 1832. The idea of keeping that, which contains no fewer than 4,526 pages, was possibly suggested by a priest who fled from the French Revolution and came to live in the poet's hometown. The priest suggested that "every literary man should have a written chaos such as this: notebook containing sottiseries, adrersa, excerpta, pugillares, commentaria... the store-house out of which fine literature of every kind may come, as the sun, moon, and stars issued out of chaos." There are writers who earned their posthumous fame solely by their notebooks, such as the German scientist and humorous writer Georg Lichtenberg. He called his notebooks "waste book," using the English book-keeping term. He explains the purpose of his "waste book" in his notebook E: The notebooks of scientists, such as those of Michael Faraday and Charles Darwin, can reveal the development of their scientific theories. On the other hand, the notebooks used by scientists for recording their experiments are called lab notebooks. The notebooks used by artists are usually referred as sketchbooks, which may contain more than sketches. Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks contain his writings on painting, sculpture, architecture, anatomy, mining, inventions and music, as well as his sketches, his grocery lists and the names of people who owed him money. In Chinese literature, "notebook" or biji is a distinct genre, and has a broader meaning.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNovel

novel - Invented prose narratives of considerable length and a certain complexity that deal imaginatively with human experience through a connected sequence of events involving a group of persons in a specific setting.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNovella

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNovella

novella - Short prose tales popular in the Renaissance and for later prose narratives intermediate between novels and short stories.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreNurseryrhyme

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreNurseryrhyme

nurseryrhyme -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreObituary

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreObituary

obituary - Obituary poetry, in the broad sense, includes any poem that commemorates a person or group of people's death: an elegy. In its stricter sense, though, it refers to a genre of popular verse or folk poetry that had its greatest popularity in the nineteenth century, especially in the United States of America. The genre consists largely of sentimental narrative verse that tells the story of the demise of its typically named subjects, and seeks to console their mourners with descriptions of their happy afterlife. The genre achieved its peak of popularity in the decade of the 1870s. While usually full chiefly of conventional pious sentiments, the obituary poets in one sense continue the program of meditations on death begun by the eighteenth-century graveyard poets, such as Edward Young's Night Thoughts, and as such continue one of the themes that went into literary Romanticism.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOccasionalpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOccasionalpoetry

occasional poetry - Occasional poetry is poetry composed for a particular occasion. In the history of literature, it is often studied in connection with orality, performance, and patronage.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOde

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOde

ode - Lyric poems of exalted emotion devoted to the praise or celebration of its subject; often employing complex or irregular metrical form.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOneactplay

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOneactplay

one act play -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOpera

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOpera

opera -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOratorio

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOratorio

oratorio -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreOriental

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreOriental

oriental -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePageant

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePageant

pageant -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePanegyric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePanegyric

panegyric -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePantomime

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePantomime

pantomime -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreParable

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParable

parable - Short, fictitious stories that illustrate a moral attitude or religious principle.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreParatexts

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParatexts

paratexts -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreParody

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreParody

parody - A parody (/ˈpærədi/; also called spoof, send-up, take-off or lampoon), in use, is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody … is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice."Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music (although "parody" in music has an earlier, somewhat different meaning than for other art forms), animation, gaming and film. The writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche ("a composition in another artist's manner, without satirical intent") and burlesque (which "fools around with the material of high literature and adapts it to low ends"). Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; the burlesque is a miserable buffoonery which can only please the populace." Historically, when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. In his 1960 anthology of parody from the 14th through 20th centuries, critic Dwight Macdonald offered this metaphor: "Parody is making a new wine that tastes like the old but has a slightly lethal effect."

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePastoral

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePastoral

pastoral -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePedagogy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePedagogy

pedagogy -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePerformancepoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePerformancepoetry

performance poetry - Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience. During the 1980s, the term came into popular usage to describe poetry written or composed for performance rather than print distribution.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePeriodical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePeriodical

periodical -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePetition

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePetition

petition -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePhilosophical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePhilosophical

philosophical -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePhilosophy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePhilosophy

philosophy -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePicaresque

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePicaresque

picaresque - The picaresque novel (Spanish: "picaresca," from "pícaro," for "rogue" or "rascal") is a genre of prose fiction which depicts the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his wits in a corrupt society. Picaresque novels typically adopt a realistic style, with elements of comedy and satire. This style of novel originated in 16th-century Spain and flourished throughout Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It continues to influence modern literature. According to the traditional view of Thrall and Hibbard (first published in 1936), seven qualities distinguish the picaresque novel or narrative form, all or some of which may be employed for effect by the author. (1) A picaresque narrative is usually written in first person as an autobiographical account. (2) The main character is often of low character or social class. He or she gets by with wit and rarely deigns to hold a job. (3) There is no plot. The story is told in a series of loosely connected adventures or episodes. (4) There is little if any character development in the main character. Once a picaro, always a picaro. His or her circumstances may change but they rarely result in a change of heart. (5) The picaro's story is told with a plainness of language or realism. (6) Satire might sometimes be a prominent element. (7) The behavior of a picaresque hero or heroine stops just short of criminality. Carefree or immoral rascality positions the picaresque hero as a sympathetic outsider, untouched by the false rules of society. However, Trall and Hibbert's thesis has been questioned by scholars[specify] interested in how genre functions, rather than how it looks on the surface.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePindaric

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePindaric

pindaric -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePoetry

poetry - Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePolemic

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePolemic

polemic - Aggressive, forcefully presented arguments, often disputing a policy or opinion.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePoliticalwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePoliticalwriting

political writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePopular

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePopular

popular -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePrayer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrayer

prayer - Documents containing prayers that are associated with donning official priestly vestments or transfer of vestments, most commonly in Christian contexts.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePrefatorypiece

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrefatorypiece

prefatory piece -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreProletarianwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreProletarianwriting

proletarianwriting -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePrologue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePrologue

prologue -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePropaganda

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePropaganda

propaganda -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreProphecy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreProphecy

prophecy - Prophecy involves a process in which one or more messages allegedly communicated to a prophet are then communicated to other people. Such messages typically involve] inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of events to come (compare divine knowledge). Historically, clairvoyance has been used[by whom?] as an adjunct to prophecy.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePsalm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePsalm

psalm -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genrePsychoanalytical

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genrePsychoanalytical

psychoanalytical -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreQuiz

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreQuiz

quiz -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRadiodrama

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRadiodrama

radio drama -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRealist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRealist

realist -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRegional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRegional

regional -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreReligious

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreReligious

religious -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreReview

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreReview

review -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRevue

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRevue

revue -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRiddle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRiddle

riddle -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreRomance

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreRomance

romance - Poetic or prosaic literary forms derived from medieval narratives of love, legendary or heroic adventures, and chivalry. Extends to narratives about important religious figures, or fantastic or supernatural events.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSagewriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSagewriting

sage writing - Sage writing was a genre of creative nonfiction popular in the Victorian era. The concept originates with John Holloway's 1953 book The Victorian Sage: Studies in Argument. Sage writing is a development from ancient wisdom literature in which the writer chastises and instructs the reader about contemporary social issues, often utilizing discourses of philosophy, history, politics, and economics in non-technical ways. Prominent examples of the genre include writings by Thomas Carlyle, Matthew Arnold, John Ruskin, and Henry David Thoreau. Some 20th-century writers, such as Joan Didion and New Journalists such as Norman Mailer and Tom Wolfe, have also been identified as sage writers.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSatire

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSatire

satire - Literary compositions in verse or prose, or ideas expressed as the subjects of art works, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreScholarship

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScholarship

scholarship -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSchoolfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSchoolfiction

school fiction -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSciencefiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSciencefiction

science fiction - Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative concepts such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life. Science fiction often explores the potential consequences of scientific and other innovations, and has been called a "literature of ideas." It usually eschews the supernatural, and unlike the related genre of fantasy, historically science fiction stories were intended to have at least a faint grounding in science-based fact or theory at the time the story was created, but this connection has become tenuous or non-existent in much of science fiction.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreScientificwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScientificwriting

scientific writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreScrapbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreScrapbook

scrapbook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSensationnovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSensationnovel

sensation novel - The sensation novel was a literary genre of fiction popular in Great Britain in the 1860s and 1870s, following on from earlier melodramatic novels and the Newgate novels, which focused on tales woven around criminal biographies. It also drew on the gothic and romantic genres of fiction. The sensation novel's appearance notably follows the Industrial Revolution, which made books available on a mass scale for people of all social standings and increased the sensation novel's popularity. Sensation novels used both modes of romance and realism to the extreme where in the past they had traditionally been contradictory modes of literature. The sensation novelists commonly wrote stories that were allegorical and abstract; the abstract nature of the stories gave the authors room to explore scenarios that wrestled with the social anxieties of the Victorian Era. The loss of identity is seen in many sensation fiction stories because this was a common social anxiety; in Britain, there was an increased use in record keeping and therefore people questioned the meaning and permanence of identity. The social anxiety regarding identity is reflected in stories, such as, The Woman in White and Lady Audley's Secret. The genre of sensation fiction was established by the publications of the following novels The Woman in White by Wilkie Collins in 1859; East Lynne by Ellen Wood in 1861; Lady Audley's Secret by Mary Elizabeth Braddon in 1862. Perhaps the earliest use of the term, sensation fiction, as a name for such novels appears in the 1861 edition of the Saunders, Otley, & co.'s Literary Budget. The neo-Victorian novel of New Zealand author Eleanor Catton, The Luminaries, which won the 2013 Man Booker Prize, has been described as being heavily based on sensation literature, with its plot devices of "suspect wills and forged documents, secret marriages, illegitimacy and opium"

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSentimental

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSentimental

sentimental - The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th-century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility. Sentimentalism, which is to be distinguished from sensibility, was a fashion in both poetry and prose fiction beginning in the eighteenth century in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age. Sentimental novels relied on emotional response, both from their readers and characters. They feature scenes of distress and tenderness, and the plot is arranged to advance both emotions and actions. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling," displaying the characters as a model for refined, sensitive emotional effect. The ability to display feelings was thought to show character and experience, and to shape social life and relations.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSequel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSequel

sequel -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSermon

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSermon

sermon - A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, religious, or moral topic, usually expounding on a type of belief, law or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon often include exposition, exhortation and practical application. In Christianity, a sermon (also known as a homily within some churches) is usually delivered in a place of worship from an elevated architectural feature, variously known as a pulpit, a lectern, or an ambo. The word "sermon" comes from a Middle English word which was derived from Old French, which in turn came from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". The word can mean "conversation", which could mean that early sermons were delivered in the form of question and answer, and that only later did it come to mean a monologue. However, the Bible contains many speeches without interlocution, which some take to be sermons: Moses in Deuteronomy 1-33 ; Jesus' sermon on the mount in Matthew 5-7 (though the gospel writers do not specifically call it a sermon; the popular descriptor for Christ's speech there came much later); Peter after Pentecost in Acts 2:14-40 (though this speech was delivered to nonbelievers and as such is not quite parallel to the popular definition of a sermon). In modern language, the word "sermon" is used in secular terms, pejoratively, to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience. A sermonette is a short sermon (usually associated with television broadcasting, as stations would present a sermonette before signing off for the night).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSexualawakeningfiction

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSexualawakeningfiction

sexual awakening fiction -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreShortstory

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreShortstory

short story - Relatively brief invented prose narratives.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSilverforknovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSilverforknovel

silverfork novel -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSketch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSketch

sketch - Short literary compositions on single subjects, often presenting the personal view of the author.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSketchbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSketchbook

sketch book -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSlavenarrative

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSlavenarrative

slave narrative -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSocialscience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSocialscience

social science -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSong

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSong

song -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSonnet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSonnet

sonnet - Poems consisting of 14 decasyllabic lines, often in a rhyming scheme. The sonnet form is considered to be of Italian origin, appearing in the 13th century in Sicily, after which it spread to Tuscany, where Petrarch perfected the form with his Canzioniere, a series of 317 sonnets to his idealized love, Laura. The Petrarchian sonnet has historically been the most widely used of the form, although the Elizabethan form (3 quatrains, with a final rhyming couplet) is also common.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreSpeech

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreSpeech

speech -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTestimony

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTestimony

testimony -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTextbook

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTextbook

textbook -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTheatreofcruelty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheatreofcruelty

theatre of cruelty -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTheatreoftheabsurd

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheatreoftheabsurd

theatre of the absurd -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTheology

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTheology

theology -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreThesaurus

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreThesaurus

thesaurus -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreThriller

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreThriller

thriller -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTopographicalpoetry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTopographicalpoetry

topographical poetry - Topographical poetry or loco-descriptive poetry is a genre of poetry that describes, and often praises, a landscape or place. John Denham's 1642 poem "Cooper's Hill" established the genre, which peaked in popularity in 18th-century England. Examples of topographical verse date, however, to the late classical period, and can be found throughout the medieval era and during the Renaissance. Though the earliest examples come mostly from continental Europe, the topographical poetry in the tradition originating with Denham concerns itself with the classics, and many of the various types of topographical verse, such as river, ruin, or hilltop poems were established by the early 17th century. Alexander Pope's "Windsor Forest" (1713) and John Dyer's "Grongar Hill' (1762) are two other oft-mentioned examples. More recently, Matthew Arnold's "The Scholar Gipsy" (1853) praises the Oxfordshire countryside, and W. H. Auden's "In Praise of Limestone" (1948) uses a limestone landscape as an allegory. Subgenres of topographical poetry include the country house poem, written in 17th-century England to compliment a wealthy patron, and the prospect poem, describing the view from a distance or a temporal view into the future, with the sense of opportunity or expectation. When understood broadly as landscape poetry and when assessed from its establishment to the present, topographical poetry can take on many formal situations and types of places. Kenneth Baker identifies 37 varieties and compiles poems from the 16th through the 20th centuries—from Edmund Spenser to Sylvia Plath—correspondent to each type, from "Walks and Surveys," to "Mountains, Hills, and the View from Above," to "Violation of Nature and the Landscape," to "Spirits and Ghosts." Common aesthetic registers of which topographical poetry make use include pastoral imagery, the sublime, and the picturesque. These latter two registers subsume imagery of rivers, ruins, moonlight, birdsong, and clouds, peasants, mountains, caves, and waterscapes.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTractpamphlet

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTractpamphlet

tract pamphlet -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTragedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTragedy

tragedy - Literary works of serious and dignified character that reach disastrous or sorrowful conclusions.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTragicomedy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTragicomedy

tragicomedy - Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in dramatic literature, the term can variously describe either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTranslation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTranslation

translation - Translated versions of a text.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTravelwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTravelwriting

travel writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreTreatise

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreTreatise

treatise - Formal and systematic written expositions of the principles of a subject, generally longer and more detailed than essays.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreUtopia

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreUtopia

utopia -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreVersenovel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVersenovel

verse novel - A verse novel is a type of narrative poetry in which a novel-length narrative is told through the medium of poetry rather than prose. Either simple or complex stanzaic verse-forms may be used, but there will usually be a large cast, multiple voices, dialogue, narration, description, and action in a novelistic manner.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreVignette

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVignette

vignette - In theatrical script writing, sketch stories, and poetry, a vignette is a short impressionistic scene that focuses on one moment or gives a trenchant impression about a character, idea, setting, or object.[citation needed] This type of scene is more common in recent postmodern theater, where less emphasis is placed on adhering to the conventions of theatrical structure and story development. Vignettes have been particularly influenced by contemporary notions of a scene as shown in film, video and television scripting. It is also a part of something bigger than itself: for example, a vignette about a house belonging to a collection of vignettes or a whole story, such as The House On Mango Street, by Sandra Cisneros. A blog can provide a form of vignette.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreVillanelle

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreVillanelle

villanelle -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:genreYoungadultwriting

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genreYoungadultwriting

young adult writing -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:gentry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gentry

gentry - Gentry indicates someone who is property-owning or related to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms. but is distinguished from nobility in so far as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen). Gentlewomen belong to this class, even thought they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:gentry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gentry

gentry - Gentry indicates someone who is property-owning or related to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms. but is distinguished from nobility in so far as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen). Gentlewomen belong to this class, even thought they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax.

Comment: Gentry indicates someone who is property-owning or related to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms. but is distinguished from nobility in so far as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen). Gentlewomen belong to this class, even thought they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept
cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasCulturalForms

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForms

has a cultural form - This sub-class of culturalFormation associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

Comment: This sub-class of culturalFormation associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicity

has Ethnicity -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfDefined

has Ethnicity (Self Defined) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasGender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGender

has Gender -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasGenderSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfDeclared

has Gender (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasGenre

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenre

has genre -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritage

has Geographic Heritage -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

has Geographic Heritage (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbility

Language Known - Knowlege of the language for writing or reading.

Comment: Knowlege of the language for writing or reading.

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

Language Known (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasNationality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationality

has Nationality -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfDeclared

has Nationality (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbility

Natively Known Language - Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

Comment: Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

Natively Known Language (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasRaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColour

has Race - A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's racial identity.

Comment: A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's racial identity.

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

has Race (Self Declared) - A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's self-reported racial identity.

Comment: A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's self-reported racial identity.

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligion

has Religious Affiliation -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasReligionSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfDefined

has Religious Affilication (Self Defined) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasSexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexuality

has Sexual Orientation -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfDeclared

has Sexual Orientation (Self Declared) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasSocialClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClass

has Social Class -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfDefined

has Social Class (Self Defined) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:heterosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#heterosexual

Heterosexual -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:heterosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#heterosexual

Heterosexual -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexualIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hinduism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hinduism

Hinduism - General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs , but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:hinduism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hinduism

Hinduism - General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs , but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential.

Comment: General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs , but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:homosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#homosexual

Homosexual -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:homosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#homosexual

Homosexual -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexualIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:indigent

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigent

indigent - This social group is poor, destitute, unemployed, supported by charity, or on social security.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:indigent

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigent

indigent - This social group is poor, destitute, unemployed, supported by charity, or on social security.

Comment: This social group is poor, destitute, unemployed, supported by charity, or on social security.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept
cwrc:SocialClass

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:islam

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#islam

Islamism - Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:islam

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#islam

Islamism - Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad.

Comment: Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:jewishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishLabel

jewish -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:jewishReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishReligion

Jewish - Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:jewishReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishReligion

Jewish - Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

Comment: Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lesbian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lesbian

Lesbian -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lesbian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lesbian

Lesbian -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexualIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lollards

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollards

Lollards -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lollards

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollards

Lollards -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lowerMiddleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lowerMiddleClass

This includes employees, clerical workers, teachers, and governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professional (Mr. Chips) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professional. - Employees, clerical workers, teachers, governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professional (Mr. Chips) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professional.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:lowerMiddleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lowerMiddleClass

This includes employees, clerical workers, teachers, and governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professional (Mr. Chips) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professional. - Employees, clerical workers, teachers, governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professional (Mr. Chips) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professional.

Comment: Employees, clerical workers, teachers, governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professional (Mr. Chips) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professional.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:maleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleLabel

Male -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:maleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleSex

Male -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:maleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleSex

Male -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexIdentity
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:managerial

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#managerial

managerial - Someone whose station in life comes from the fact that they are running something but not putting their money into it, e.g. salaried civil service, bankers, hospital administrators.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:managerial

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#managerial

managerial - Someone whose station in life comes from the fact that they are running something but not putting their money into it, e.g. salaried civil service, bankers, hospital administrators.

Comment: Someone whose station in life comes from the fact that they are running something but not putting their money into it, e.g. salaried civil service, bankers, hospital administrators.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:manLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#manLabel

Man -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:methodistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#methodistChurch

Methodist Church -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:methodistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#methodistChurch

Methodist Church -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:millenarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#millenarianism

Millenarianism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:millenarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#millenarianism

Millenarianism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:neo-thomism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-thomism

Neo-thomism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:neo-thomism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-thomism

Neo-thomism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:nobility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nobility

nobility - This group refers to those holding a title or of close family relation to someone holding a title (such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Byron, or Nancy Mitford).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:nobility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nobility

nobility - This group refers to those holding a title or of close family relation to someone holding a title (such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Byron, or Nancy Mitford).

Comment: This group refers to those holding a title or of close family relation to someone holding a title (such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Byron, or Nancy Mitford).

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:occultism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#occultism

Occultism/Theosophism - Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:occultism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#occultism

Occultism/Theosophism - Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism.

Comment: Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:originalOrlandoAuthor

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#originalOrlandoAuthor

Members of the Orlando Project - The collection of all persons having written entries for The Orlando Project.

Comment: The collection of all persons having written entries for The Orlando Project.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
foaf:Group

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:pagan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pagan

Pagan -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:pagan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pagan

Pagan -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:personalProperty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalProperty

Personal Property -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalPropertySelfDeclared

Personal Property (Self Reported) -

RDF Type:
owl:ObjectProperty

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:plymouthBrethren

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#plymouthBrethren

Plymouth Brethren -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:plymouthBrethren

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#plymouthBrethren

Plymouth Brethren -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:presbyterianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#presbyterianism

Presbyterian - One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:presbyterianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#presbyterianism

Presbyterian - One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government.

Comment: One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:professional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#professional

professional - Includes doctors, lawyers, guild members, and those of high calling such as members of the clergy (Church of England). It implies social respect and intellectual requirements. Examples are Ann Hunter, who was married to a surgeon, and Virginia Woolf, daughter of an intellectual.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:professional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#professional

professional - Includes doctors, lawyers, guild members, and those of high calling such as members of the clergy (Church of England). It implies social respect and intellectual requirements. Examples are Ann Hunter, who was married to a surgeon, and Virginia Woolf, daughter of an intellectual.

Comment: Includes doctors, lawyers, guild members, and those of high calling such as members of the clergy (Church of England). It implies social respect and intellectual requirements. Examples are Ann Hunter, who was married to a surgeon, and Virginia Woolf, daughter of an intellectual.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:protestantism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantism

Protestantism - The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:protestantism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantism

Protestantism - The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin.

Comment: The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:quakers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakers

Quaker - Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:quakers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakers

Quaker - Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers.

Comment: Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:rationalDissenter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalDissenter

Rational Dissenter -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:rationalDissenter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalDissenter

Rational Dissenter -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:rural-unskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rural-unskilled

rural-unskilled - This generally indicates farm laborers, mostly male in earlier periods, and includes migrant farm workers.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:rural-unskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rural-unskilled

rural-unskilled - This generally indicates farm laborers, mostly male in earlier periods, and includes migrant farm workers.

Comment: This generally indicates farm laborers, mostly male in earlier periods, and includes migrant farm workers.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:servants

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#servants

servants - Domestic servants typically live in the home with the family or institution that employs them, although the lowest class of servants might work only casually and hence not receive room and board. This type of labour, very common before the twentieth century, is distinct from that of service positions such as shop assistants, flight attendances, and restaurant workers.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:servants

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#servants

servants - Domestic servants typically live in the home with the family or institution that employs them, although the lowest class of servants might work only casually and hence not receive room and board. This type of labour, very common before the twentieth century, is distinct from that of service positions such as shop assistants, flight attendances, and restaurant workers.

Comment: Domestic servants typically live in the home with the family or institution that employs them, although the lowest class of servants might work only casually and hence not receive room and board. This type of labour, very common before the twentieth century, is distinct from that of service positions such as shop assistants, flight attendances, and restaurant workers.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:shopkeepers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#shopkeepers

Typically applied to someone who owns and runs a pub or shop, but not on the scale of an entrepreneur or industrialist. - Owns and runs a pub or shop. Similar to an industrialist but to a lesser degree of magnitude.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:shopkeepers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#shopkeepers

Typically applied to someone who owns and runs a pub or shop, but not on the scale of an entrepreneur or industrialist. - Owns and runs a pub or shop. Similar to an industrialist but to a lesser degree of magnitude.

Comment: Owns and runs a pub or shop. Similar to an industrialist but to a lesser degree of magnitude.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:skilledCraftpersonArtisan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#skilledCraftpersonArtisan

This category includes such trades as goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, and dressmaker. - Goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, dressmaker.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:skilledCraftpersonArtisan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#skilledCraftpersonArtisan

This category includes such trades as goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, and dressmaker. - Goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, dressmaker.

Comment: Goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, dressmaker.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:societyOfFriends

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends

Society of Friends -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:societyOfFriends

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends

Society of Friends -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:spiritualism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spiritualism

Spiritualism -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:spiritualism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spiritualism

Spiritualism -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:TextLabels

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#TextLabels

Collection of all ambiguous labels within the TEI markup. -

RDF Type:
skos:ConceptScheme

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:tractarianMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tractarianMovement

Tractarian Movement -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:tractarianMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tractarianMovement

Tractarian Movement -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unitarianChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianChurch

Unitarian Church -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unitarianChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianChurch

Unitarian Church -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unitarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism

Unitarianism - The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David.

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unitarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism

Unitarianism - The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David.

Comment: The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David.

Note: This term and its definitions are derived from multiple sources. Please see the raw ontology for full provenance.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unknownSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unknownSex

Unknown -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:unknownSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unknownSex

Unknown -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SexIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:upper-middleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#upper-middleClass

upper middle class -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:upper-middleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#upper-middleClass

upper middle class -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:urban-industrialUnskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urban-industrialUnskilled

This category includes factory workers and workers in urban or large-scale industries without defined trades or professional qualifications, and those in low-wage and low-status service sector jobs, such as the restaurant or fast-food industry, in industrial or post-industrial societies. -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:urban-industrialUnskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urban-industrialUnskilled

This category includes factory workers and workers in urban or large-scale industries without defined trades or professional qualifications, and those in low-wage and low-status service sector jobs, such as the restaurant or fast-food industry, in industrial or post-industrial societies. -

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:whiteEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteEthnicity

white -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:whiteEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteEthnicity

white -

RDF Type:
cwrc:Ethnicity
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:whiteLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteLabel

white -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:whiteRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRace

white -

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:whiteRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRace

white -

RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour
skos:Concept
owl:Thing

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:womanLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womanLabel

Woman -

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:yeoman-farmer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#yeoman-farmer

Members of this historica class owned just enough land to support themselves if they did most of the work themselves. Examples include Elizabeth Ham and Mary Webb. - Own just enough land to support themselves if they do most of the work themselves (ie Elizabeth Ham, Mary Webb).

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:yeoman-farmer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#yeoman-farmer

Members of this historica class owned just enough land to support themselves if they did most of the work themselves. Examples include Elizabeth Ham and Mary Webb. - Own just enough land to support themselves if they do most of the work themselves (ie Elizabeth Ham, Mary Webb).

Comment: Own just enough land to support themselves if they do most of the work themselves (ie Elizabeth Ham, Mary Webb).

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClassIdentity
skos:Concept

[back to top]

9. CWRC Ontology Design Rules

Beyond the formalism of [citation on ontology design rules], the CWRC ontology follows the following design rules and styles:

10. Notes on SKOS and OWL

SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) enjoys widespread popularity in the semantic web community as it provides simple terms for taxonomies without requiring reasoner support. Whenever appropriate, SKOS terms are inserted within this ontology to link terms to each other. However, since these terms are not ontologically powered, their scalability is limited since each additional layer of terms within a taxonomy requires another database query.

Some of the constructs within the CWRC ontology are deep and require reasoning support. OWL is the preferred means of using this ontology, though the usage of the terms, SKOS-style, is possible.

11. Notes on CWRC Events

12. Conclusion and Future Work

This is a draft ontology that is very much in progress. It will continue to be developed, expanded, and revised as we discover the implications of how we have structured the ontology through using it to extract and explore our data, data and uses cases that necessitate expansion or refinement, and as new needs, understandings, and debates arise.

13. Version History

14. Bibliography

[wright_feminism_1992] Elizabeth Wright, editor. Feminism and psychoanalysis: a critical dictionary. Blackwell reference. Blackwell, Oxford, UK ; Cambridge, Mass., USA, 1992.
Keywords: Psychoanalysis and feminism
[woolf_room_1929] Virginia Woolf. A Room of One's Own. The Hogarth Press, London, 1929.
[beauvoir_second_2011] Simone de Beauvoir, Constance Borde, and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier. The second sex. Vintage, New York, 2011. OCLC: 705522798.
Newly translated and unabridged in English for the first time, Simone de Beauvoir's masterwork is a powerful analysis of the Western notion of "woman," and a groundbreaking exploration of inequality and otherness. This long-awaited new edition reinstates significant portions of the original French text that were cut in the first English translation. Vital and groundbreaking, Beauvoir's pioneering and impressive text remains as pertinent today as it was sixty years ago, and will continue to provoke and inspire generations of men and women to come. Overview: Newly translated and unabridged in English for the first time, Simone de Beauvoir's masterwork is a powerful analysis of the Western notion of "woman," and a groundbreaking exploration of inequality and otherness. This long-awaited new edition reinstates significant portions of the original French text that were cut in the first English translation. Vital and groundbreaking, Beauvoir's pioneering and impressive text remains as pertinent today as it was sixty years ago, and will continue to provoke and inspire generations of men and women to come.

[crenshaw_demarginalizing_1989] Kimberle Crenshaw. Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine,Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, pages 139–167, 1989.
[grosz_volatile_1994] E. A. Grosz. Volatile bodies: toward a corporeal feminism. Theories of representation and difference. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1994.
Keywords: Feminist theory, Gender identity, Human body, Social aspects
[butler_gender_1990] Judith Butler. Gender Trouble. Routledge, 1990.
[brown_orlando:_2006] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy, editors. Orlando: Women's Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006.
[petersen_art_1990] Toni Petersen. Art & architecture thesaurus. Oxford University Press, 1990. [ http ]
First edition of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a project, started in 1979, of the Getty Art History Information Program. The work presents, in a faceted hierarchical structure, a standard vocabulary for the field of art and architecture. Two displays are provided: the hierarchical, which includes seven facets (associated concepts, physical attributes, styles and periods, agents, activities, materials, objects), and the alphabetical display including all terms.

[simpson_xml_2013] John Simpson and Susan Brown. From XML to RDF in the Orlando Project. pages 194–195. IEEE, September 2013. [ DOI | http ]
[haraway_situated_1988] Donna Haraway. Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective. Feminist Studies, 14(3):575–599, 1988. [ DOI | http ]
[noauthor_getty_2017] Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2017. [ http ]
[halpin_when_2010] Harry Halpin, Patrick J. Hayes, James P. McCusker, Deborah L. McGuinness, and Henry S. Thompson. When owl:sameAs Isn’t the Same: An Analysis of Identity in Linked Data. In International Semantic Web Conference, volume 6496. Springer, 2010. [ DOI ]
[brown_cultural_2017] Susan Brown, Abigel Lemak, Colin Faulkner, and Rob Warren. Cultural (Re-)formations: Structuring a Linked Data Ontology for Intersectional Identities. In The Proceedings of the Digital Humanities Conference, Montreal, Canada, 2017.
[brown_story_2007] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, Sharon Balazs, and Jeffrey Antoniuk. The Story of the Orlando Project: Personal Reflections. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, 26(1):135–143, 2007.
[brown_introduction_2007] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, Sharon Balazs, and Jeffrey Antoniuk. An Introduction to the Orlando Project. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, 26(1):127–134, 2007.
[james_smith_working_2013] James Smith. Working with the Semantic Web. In Constance Crompton, Richard J Lane, and Ray Siemens, editors, Doing Digital Humanities: Practice, Training, Research, page 444. Routledge, 2013. [ http ]
[matthew_k._gold_debates_2012] Matthew K. Gold. Debates in the Digital Humanities 2012. Debates in the Digital Humanities. Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2012.
[jewett_sarah_1931] Sarah Orne Jewett. Sarah Orne Jewett Manuscript Collection. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1931.
[ellis_studies_1897] Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Wilson & Macmillan, London, UK, 1897.
[carpenter_intermediate_1908] Edward Carpenter. The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Swan Sonnenschein and Company, London, UK, 1908.
[crook_complete_1926] G. T. Crook. The Complete Newgate Calendar, volume 2. Navarre Society, London, UK, 1926.
[martin_lesbian/woman_1972] Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon. Lesbian/Woman. Glide P, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1972.
[ross_house_1995] Becki Ross. The House That Jill Built: A Lesbian Nation in Formation. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, On, Canada, 1995.
[noauthor_ladies_1997] Ladies of Llangollen: Letters and Journals of Lady Eleanor Butler (1739-1829) and Sarah Ponsonby (1755-1831) from the National Library of Wales. Adam Matthew Publications, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England, 1997.
[bornstein_gender_2010] Kate Bornstein and S. Bear Bergman, editors. Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation. Seal P, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2010.
[coyote_persistence:_2011] Ivan E Coyote and Zena Sharman. Persistence: All Ways Butch and Femme. Arsenal Pulp Press, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2011.
[fuss_essentially_2013] Diana Fuss. Essentially speaking: Feminism, nature and difference. Routledge, 2013.
[lerman_big_2013] Jonas Lerman. Big data and its exclusions. Stanford Law Review, 66:55–63, September 2013. [ http ]
[treviranus_value_2014] Jutta Treviranus. The value of the statistically insignificant. Educause, January 2014. [ http ]
[scott_description_1762] Sarah Scott. A Description of Millenium Hall. Broadview Press, Peterborough, ON, Canada, 1995 edition, 1762.
[james_bostonians_1886] Henry James. The Bostonians. Macmillan, 1921 edition, 1886.
[krafft-ebing_psychopathia_1892] Richard Krafft-Ebing. Psychopathia Sexualis, with Especial Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Legal Study. F. A. Davis, London, UK, 7th edition, 1892.
[radclyffe_well_1928] Hall Radclyffe. The Well of Loneliness. Jonathan Cape, London, UK, 1928.
[woolf_three_1938] Virginia Woolf. Three Guineas. Hogarth Press, 1938.
[noauthor_woman-identified_1970] The Woman-Identified Woman. Radicalesbians, New York, NY, USA, 1970.
[mayor_ladies_1971] Elizabeth Mayor. The Ladies of Llangollen: A Study in Romantic Friendship. Joseph, London, UK, 1971.
[brown_rubyfruit_1973] Rita Mae Brown. Rubyfruit Jungle. Daughters Inc, Plainfield, VT, USA, 1973.
[johnston_lesbian_1973] Jill Johnston. Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution. Simon and Schuster, 1973.
[grier_lesbian_1976] Barbara Grier and Coletta Reid. Lesbian Lives: Biographies of Women from the Ladder. Diana Press, Baltimore, MD, USA, 1976.
[faderman_surpassing_1981] Lillian Faderman. Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. Morrow, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
[richards_lesbian_1990] Dell Richards. Lesbian Lists: A Look at Lesbian Culture, History, and Personalities. Alyson Publications, Boston, MA, USA, 1990.
[nestle_persistent_1992] Joan Nestle, editor. The Persistent Desire: A Femme-Butch Reader. Alyson Publications, Boston, MA, USA, 1992.
[bornstein_my_1998] Kate Bornstein. My Gender Workbook: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely. Routledge, New York, NY, USA and London, UK, 1998.
[halberstam_female_1998] Jack Halberstam. Female Masculinity. Duke University Press, Durham, NC, USA, 1998.
[munt_sisters_1998] S. Munt. Sisters in exile: The Lesbian Nation. New frontiers of space, bodies and gender, 3(19), 1998.
[nakamura_cybertypes:_2002] Lisa Nakamura. Cybertypes: Race, ethnicity, and identity on the internet. Routledge, London, UK, 2002.
[bergman_butch_2006] S. Bear Bergman. Butch Is a Noun. Suspect Thoughts Press, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006.
[sycamore_nobody_2006] Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore. Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity. Seal P, Emeryville, CA, USA, 2006.
[mcpherson_why_2012] Tara McPherson. Why are the Digital Humanities so white? Or thinking the histories of race and computation. Debates in the digital humanities, pages 139–160, 2012. [ http ]
[brown_curious_2013] Susan Brown and John Simpson. The curious identity of Michael Field and its implications for humanities research with the semantic web. In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, 2013.
[dean-hall_sex_2013] Adriel Dean-Hall and Robert H. Warren. Sex, privary and ontologies. In Workshop on Search and Exploration of XRated Information (SEXI 2013), Rome, Italy, February 2013. [ .pdf ]
[susan_brown_sorting_2006] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy. Sorting things in: Feminist knowledge representation and changing modes of scholarly production. Women's Studies International Forum, pages 317–325, June 2006. [ http ]
[bailey_all_2012] Moya Z. Bailey. All the Digital Humanists Are White, All the Nerds Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave. Journal of Digital Humanities, March 2012. [ http ]
Keywords: Conversations, Vol. 1, No. 1 Winter 2011
[mark_algee-hewitt_representing_2016] Mark Algee-Hewitt, J.D. Porter, and Hannah Walser. Representing race and ethnicity in american fiction, 1789- 1964. Banff, Canada,, October 2016.
[matthew_k._gold_debates_2016] Matthew K. Gold and Lauren F. Klein, editors. Debates in the Digital Humanities 2016. 2016. [ http ]
If the publication of Debates in the Digital Humanities in 2012 marked the “digital humanities moment,” this book—the first in a series of annual volumes—will chart the possibilities and tensions of the field as it grows.