CWRC Ontology Specification - 0.99.5

The CWRC Ontology is the ontology of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory.

Working Draft — 06 August 2017 (Version Française)

Previous version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc-2017-08-04 (owl - rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
This version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc-2017-08-06.html (owl-rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
Latest version:
http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc.html (owl-rdf/xml, ttl, nt)
Last Update: 0.99.5
Date: 06 August 2017
Authors:
Susan Brown
Colin Faulkner
Abigel Lemak
Kim Martin
Alliyya Mo
Jade Penancier
John Simpson
Robert Warren
Contributors:
Constance Crompton
Original Orlando Project Authors
Subject Headings:
Canadian literature, English literature, Bibliography, Literature--History and criticism, Humanities literature--Editing

Abstract

The Ontology of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory (cwrc.ca) brings together various linked data materials produced within the Collaboratory related to the writers, writing, and culture.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Although it contains quite general components for activities such as annotation and citation, the focus of the CWRC ontology is on describing and relating aspects of literary studies and literary history, with a strong emphasis on gender and intersectional analysis indebted to its roots in The Orlando Project, a history of women’s writing in the British Isles. It links to a number of standards while attempting to indicate the complexity of the relationship between representation and provenance in the production of linked data, and to convey the situatedness (Haraway, 1988) of the knowledge that it represents.

Some of the materials associated with this ontology are produced natively by activities conducted within the Collaboratory. Others are produced through a process of translation from embedded XML markup. In other words, some are the product of human creation or curation, and others are generated by machine.

2. About this Document

This document is a human-readable version of the ontology that cannot document all of its data structures. The ontology itself should be the primary source for understanding how the ontology works.

The intended audience of this document is the scholar that wishes to understand how the ontology tackles concrete data recording problems and the linked open data practitioners that intends to make use of this ontology.

3. Status of this dynamic ontology

This document and the associated ontology will grow iteratively with modifications made over time as data is progressively translated and further ontological concerns identified over time. Continuity is ensured using the OWL ontology annotations for ontological compatibility and for deprecated classes and properties. Deprecated ontology terms remain present but are marked as such.

4. Background on the Orlando source data

The Orlando Project embarked in 1995 on a history of women’s writing in the British Isles from the beginnings to the present (Brown, Clements and Grundy, 2007a;Brown, Clements and Grundy, 2007b). This born-digital collaboration devised a knowledge representation (Brown, Clements et al., 2006) in the form of a bespoke SGML tagset to encode the project’s intellectual priorities and concepts in the text as it was being written. This tagset structures the biocritical, chronological, and bibliographical content of the resulting history of more than 8 million words and 2 million tags. The schema provides the basis of the Canadian Writing Research Collaboratory’s schema for similar content, and provides the foundation of the ontology provided here. Some of the source data is produced via extraction from XML tags embedded in Orlando Project materials and the content of similarly structured content within the Collaboratory (Simpson and Brown, 2013).

Orlando: Women’s Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present (Brown and Clements and et al., 2006) is published by Cambridge University Press: http://orlando.cambridge.org. The scholarly introduction and introduction to the Orlando tagset are available here: http://orlando.cambridge.org/public/svDocumentation?&d_id=ABOUTTHEPROJECT. Contributors to Orlando are listed here: http://orlando.cambridge.org/public/svDocumentation?formname=t&d_id=CREDITSANDACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The Orlando Project’s XML schemas and the CWRC Project’s XML schema are available at https://github.com/cwrc/CWRC-Schema/tree/master/schemas.

5. Basic ontological goals

a. Principles

The schema covers entities, classes, and relationships associated with the domains of literature and literary and cultural history as understood from an intersectional feminist perspective. The ontology design responds to the challenges of shifting from semi-structured to structured data (Smith, 2013). Although linked data triples stand on their own formally, many are derived from discursive prose and are best read in an environment that links back to their original context. The CWRC ontology design avoids representing RDF extractions from Orlando data as positivist assertions, and yet produces machine-readable OWL/RDF-compliant graph structures. It allows references to, without endorsing, external ontological vocabularies that are nevertheless part of documenting cultural processes and identities.

b. Linkages to other ontologies

We employ a number of strategies for linking to other ontologies. Our architecture does not import other ontologies wholesale, but relates to large vocabularies in defined ways. We try not to abuse sameAs predicates (Halpin, Hayes et al., 2010).

We adopt external namespaces and associated classes and terms wherever possible when they are in widespread use and their vocabularies are broadly compatible with ours, as in the case of the FOAF and BIBO vocabularies. For some terms, such as those for religious denominations or genres, we are happy to draw on other vocabularies’ terms and definitions in part or in whole, as in the case of terms from the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (Getty Research Institute). Other terms are referenced, but at a distance. This is particularly common in relation to the vocabulary associated with Cultural Form (see below), which is understood primarily as representational, and within which identity terms are typed as labels and related to other internal narrower instances of labels that indicate the intersection of that term with one or more type of identity categorization. These are in turn related to external ontologies with <rdfs:subClassOf> (or <owl:equivalentClass>, <skos:narrower>, <skos:broader>, etc...) with a view to indicating that, although related, the terms and their definitions are not commensurate with those used in the CWRC vocabulary. By means of this structure, our vocabulary positions all terms associated with processes of Cultural Form as in effect "labels", retaining the ambiguity of terms implicated in the complex social construction of identities within a narrative.

Vocabulary reuse presented some challenges to the CWRC in that the vocabularies used in the markup from which the RDF is derived can be ambiguously employed to an extend that reuse is difficult. A typical example is that of religion, where much ambiguity exists as to whether the term actually represents the religion as a belief system, formal membership in the associated religious organization, the social and often secular behaviours or affiliations associated with the religion, or any combination of the above.

At the top level, the CWRC ontology makes use of the following well known ontologies:

  1. The FOAF ontology for the representation of people and organizations.
  2. The BIBO ontology for the representation of bibliographic data.
  3. The TIME ontology for the representation of events and points in time where ISO8601/XML Schema times are not appropriate.
  4. The NIF-CORE ontology is used to contain and manipulate the text of the original Orlando entries.
  5. The Web Open Annotation data model is used to link the original Orlando text to specific Contexts.
  6. The SKOS vocabulary is used to represent taxonomical relationships within certain Cultural Forms and to fully document ontology terms.
  7. Some Dublin Core vocabulary terms are used for well known documentation tags such as <dc:title>.
  8. The W3C Provenance ontology is used to indicate indebtedness, derivation or provenance of term descriptions as well as Cultural Context source annotations.
  9. Linkages are made to the CRM-CIDOC ontology to cultural instances that are in common with CWRC.

Established ontologies and vocabularies including EuroVoc, Getty Vocabularies, Library of Congress Languages and geonames are used in the definition of numerous classes and instances. For instance, the religious terms of the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus provided suitable definitions for many religions, as does DBPedia and other scholarly sources. Quotation marks around the text of the description indicate wholesale adoption of the source definition. Where the description is surrounded by quotation marks, the term has been defined by the CWRC team, but links to may be provided to external resources such as a scholarly article or closely related DBpedia entry.

c. Provenance and contexts

As noted above, some data associated with this ontology has been generated from XML structures (Simpson and Brown, 2013). Provenance is thus particularly important, given that such data was not produced natively in RDF but rather in the form of tags embedded in a discursive context. In such cases, the relevant portions of the text are provided in the form of snippets, which within the dataset become instances of contextual notes or human-readable annotations to which the data set nodes are directly tied.

The wholesale import of entire vocabularies within the CWRC ontology was likely to cause logical and ontological problems. To this end, we opted not to use the <owl:import> construct and instead either to link to vocabularies externally or to clone specific sets of terms from selected vocabularies. Similarly, not all vocabularies are well-defined from an ontological standpoint, but drawing from their narrative or some of their properties proved useful. To this end, we avoided the use of <owl:sameAs> so as not to bring unintended properties or ontological structures into the CWRC ontology. In other cases, the Provenance ontology property <prov:derivedFrom> is used to indicate that the term was constructed using information from other terms without necessarily being equivalent. Direct linkages to other ontologies are usually made through the use of subClasses or <owl:equivalentClass>.

d. Labels and values

As noted above, label terms are not only used here to indicate the particular terms associated with an element of the ontology, but to indicate, when used to type a class, its representationality or discursivity.

e. Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity has been an increasing source of debate beyond and within the digital humanities community. The concentration within the Debates in Digital Humanities series (Gold, 2012; Gold and Klein, 2016) of pieces reflecting the increasing prominence of matters related to race, gender, cultural diversity, and difference is but one marker of the extent to which diversity matters. This ontology seeks to convey an intersectional understanding of identity categories, as instantiated in The Orlando Project’s XML Biography schema. The Cultural Form portion of the ontology recognizes categorization as endemic to social experience, while incorporating variation in terminology and the contextualization of identity categories. It understands social classification as culturally produced, intersecting, and discursively embedded. We invoke categories as the grounds for cultural investigation rather than fixed classifications, since such categories have never been stable or mutually exclusive (Algee-Hewitt, Porter, and Walser, 2016). For a more detailed explication of cultural formation, see Brown et al 2017.

6. CWRC ontological structures

Source data from CWRC spans multiple types of data including annotations on source texts, metadata, granular material such as bibliography, and discursive and analytical content about specific life events and literary phenomena. The CWRC linked open data set represents such information as series of assertions, frequently associated with particular contexts.

While full, integrated traceability has always been a core need of repeatable experiments, this comes as a complexity cost within a linked open data set in that the queries required to retrieve basic information become unwieldy. To this end, the CWRC ontology records information in two different ways: through a series of Contexts that link the information to its associated source text in Orlando or other materials, and through a series of granular properties that simply link individuals to their personal attributes. In this way, both rapid retrieval and deep provenance tracking are enabled.

Two basic structures are used within the ontology to achieve this: Contexts and Cultural Form. A cultural formation represent elements of lived social subjectivities and/or classification of people through categories such as race, gender, language, sexuality, or religion. Contexts are used to link a fragment of Orlando prose to the individual whom it references as well as to the specific cultural formation that is being assigned to the person. In addition, properties are separated in two categories: reported and self-reported, allowing for the qualification of individual statements.

a. Cultural Form

The Cultural Form classes recognize categorization as endemic to social experience, while incorporating variation in terminology and contextualization of identity categories by employing instances at different discursive levels.

Cultural Form sub-classes and instances describe the subject positions of individuals through both Contexts and granular properties. This arrangements has its roots in the Orlando arrangement of Cultural Form encodings that pointed users towards a framework for raising and debating complex matters for cultural investigation rather than invoking reified categories.

The shift from embedded semantic markup to a linked open data approach presented the challenge of making this approach compatible with linkages to other ontologies and data sets outside of the Orlando frame of reference. The move from "strings to links" or "strings to things" was in some sense at odds with the former embrace of the ambiguity of strings such as white, black, English, etc.: white and black can represent race or ethnicity, while English can also be invoked as an ethnicity, nationality, or a national heritage. Orlando marks these strings using its Cultural Forms tagset as specific to, for example, the context of race or ethnicity, mandating a similar association, within the linked data representation, with a specific instance of Cultural Form. Thus, there exist Cultural Form instances that point to the discursive construction of white as a race and white as an ethnicity. Lastly, there also exists a white label that can be instantiated as either race or ethnicity, but not both within the same assertion (although multiple assertions are possible).

This is a departure from previous (non-linked open data) controlled vocabularies, in that the appearance of the term or label (in this case "white") does not indicate the specific cultural formation being invoked, the specific instance does. This also means that linkages to other data sets or vocabularies can be made appropriately, since multiple representations of the same label are present within the CWRC ontology. As a last resort, or for data mining purposes, the term is also available as an concept whose actual Cultural Form is undecided amongst the CWRC-defined options. This allows for linkages to an external ontology, such as can be required by text mining, without endorsing the corresponding definition or interpretation of the term.

b. Contexts

c. Granular Properties

Granular properties provide a simple means of indicating cultural categories as as presumed, perceived, or otherwise assigned to a person according to cultural conventions, or as self-reported by the person themselves. . Some of the properties are associations inherited from forebears.

d. Built-in Taxonomies

i. Religion

The original Orlando data makes religious reporting a challenge in that the original contexts did not differentiation between religious belief, membership in a religious organization, and absence of any religious belief combined with adherence to values or practices.

We use a taxonomy for enumerating the categories associated with this spectrum. The taxonomy in itself is SKOS-based and represents a loose mixture of the shared beliefs and historical offshoots.

The taxonomy attempts to trace in a subjective way the theological and/or historical lineage of the belief system. Like applying the labels to an individual, this is an interpretive process.

The specific taxonomy is:

7. Global Cross-Reference

Dictionaries:Ethnicity,Gender,GeographicalHeritage,NationalHeritage,NationalIdentity,PoliticalAffiliation,RaceColour,Religion,Sexuality,SocialClass,

Classes:Actor,Address,Androgynous,Context,CulturalForm,CulturalFormContext,Ethnicity,EthnicityContext,Event,Gender,GenderContext,GenderQueer,GeographicalHeritage,Language,LanguageContext,LinguisticAbility,NationalHeritage,NationalIdentity,NationalityContext,Place,PoliticalAffiliation,PoliticalContext,RaceColour,RaceEthnicity,RaceEthnicityContext,Religion,ReligionContext,Sexuality,SexualityContext,SocialClass,SocialClassContext,TextLabels,

Properties:auntOf,bloodRelativeOf,brotherOf,childOf,contraryTo,cousinOf,daughterOf,fatherOf,forebearOf,grandChildOf,grandDaughterOf,grandFatherOf,grandMotherOf,grandParentOf,grandSonOf,guardianOf,hasActor,hasCulturalForm,hasEthnicity,hasEthnicitySelfReported,hasGender,hasGenderSelfReported,hasGeographicHeritage,hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported,hasLinguisticAbility,hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported,hasNationality,hasNationalitySelfReported,hasNativeLinguisticAbility,hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported,hasRaceColour,hasRaceColourSelfReported,hasReligion,hasReligionSelfReported,hasSexuality,hasSexualitySelfReported,hasSocialClass,hasSocialClassSelfReported,husbandOf,identity,inRole,interpersonalRelationship,literalForm,motherOf,nephewOf,nieceOf,parentOf,partnerOf,personalProperty,personalPropertySelfReported,relativeOf,sibling,sisterOf,sonOf,stepBrotherOf,stepChildOf,stepDaughterOf,stepFatherOf,stepMotherOf,stepParentOf,stepSisterOf,stepSonOf,uncleOf,wifeOf,

Instances:FemaleLabel,abolitionism,abrahamicReligions,agnosticism,aidsActivism,americanNationalism,anarchism,anglicanism,animalWelfareAdvocacy,anti-American,anti-Antisemitism,anti-Apartheid,anti-Boer,anti-Bolshevism,anti-Bonapartism,anti-British,anti-CapitalPunishment,anti-Capitalism,anti-Caste,anti-Catholicism,anti-Censorship,anti-Communism,anti-Conscriptionism,anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct,anti-CorporalPunishment,anti-European,anti-Fascism,anti-Federalism,anti-Feminism,anti-Globalism,anti-Imperialism,anti-Jacobin,anti-Jacobite,anti-LandLeague,anti-Monarchism,anti-NuclearMovement,anti-Pacifism,anti-PovertyMovement,anti-Racism,anti-Socialism,anti-Suffrage,anti-Trade-Unionism,anti-Urbanism,anti-Vaccination,anti-Vivisection,anti-War,anti-Zionism,antidisestablishmentarianism,antisemitism,artsAdvocacy,atheism,baptistChristianity,birthControlActivism,black,blackAnti-Oppression,blackLabel,bolshevism,bonapartism,boulangism,britishNationalism,buddhism,catholicism,childrensWelfare,christianPacifism,christianScience,christianSocialism,christianity,churchOfIreland,civilLibertarianism,civilRights,co-operativeMovement,communalism,communism,congregationalism,conscientiousObjection,conservatism,conservativeFeminism,conservativePartyUk,constitutionalism,covenanters,disestablismentarianism,dissentProtestant,dissentingChristianity,dressReform,dreyfusard,educationReform,egalitarianism,egyptianNationalism,elderRights,england,englandLabel,englishLabel,englishNationalHeritage,englishNationalIdentity,entrepreneurial-industrialist,environmentalism,eugenics,eurasianLabel,eurasianRace,existentialism,fascism,feminism,feministAnti-ViolenceActivism,feministInternationalism,feministPacifism,fifthMonarchists,freeTradeMovement,frenchNationalism,gayRights,gentry,germanNationalism,girondin,greekNationalist,guelphPartyFlorence,hanoverian,heterosexual,hinduism,homosexual,housingMovement,humanRights,humanism,imperialism,indianIndependence,indigenousRights,indigent,individualism,internationalism,irishHomeRuleMovement,irishNationalism,irishRepublicanism,irishUnionism,islam,italianNationalism,jacobism,jacobitism,jewishEmancipation,jewishEthnicity,jewishGeographicalHeritage,jewishLabel,jewishNationalIdentity,judaism,labourMovement,left-Wing,lesbian,liberalUnionistParty,liberalism,libertarianism,lollardy,lowerMiddleClass,maleLabel,man,manLabel,managerial,maoism,marriageLawReform,marxism,methodism,millenarianism,monarchism,multiculturalism,multiracialism,nationalism,nazism,neo-Conservatism,neo-thomism,newDealer,nihilism,nobility,nonjurorsMovement,occultism,pacifism,paganism,parliamentarianism,parliamentaryReform,patriotism,plymouthBrethren,polishNationalism,poorAdvocacy,poorLawReform,presbyterianism,prisonReform,pro-American,pro-BoerWar,pro-Catholicism,pro-Choice,pro-European,pro-Slavery,professional,propertyLawReform,protestantRule,protestantism,quakerism,racialEquality,racism,radicalism,rationalism,republicanism,revolutionaryPolitics,rural-unskilled,sabbatarianism,sanitaryMovement,scottishNationalism,secularism,servants,sexualReform,sexualityBisexuality,sexualityCelibacy,sexualityFrigidity,sexualityLibertinism,sexualityPromiscuity,shopkeepers,skilledCraftpersonArtisan,socialPurity,socialReform,socialism,societyOfFriends,spanishRepublicanism,spiritualism,stalinism,suffrage,taxResistance,temperanceMovement,toryPartyBritain,tractarianMovement,tradeUnionism,transMan,transWoman,unitarianism,upper-middleClass,urban-industrialUnskilled,urbanReform,vegetarianism,welshNationalHeritage,welshNationalism,whiggism,whiteEthnicity,whiteLabel,whiteRaceColour,wilkite,woman,womanLabel,womanism,womensEducationReform,womensEmploymentReform,yeoman-farmer,zionism,

8. Detailed references for all terms, classes and properties

Dictionaries

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Dictionary: cwrc:Ethnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Ethnicity

ethnicity

Ethnicity is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about a person's ethnic position. Ethnicity is a sub-element within culturalFormation and raceAndEthnicity. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this discursive construction and the social practices surrounding it.

Concepts:

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Dictionary: cwrc:Gender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Gender

gender

A subclass of culturalForms for noting a person's gender whether attributed or self-defined. Although in popular culture gender and biological sex are conflated and understood to be binary, the concept of gender stresses the relationality, constructedness, and performativity of gendered identities and gendered behaviour, whose categories are historically contingent and shifting, and the boundaries between them blurry. Cf. Simone de Beauvoir: "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," along with many other theorists of gender including Judith Butler, 1990. Gender is understood as fluid, situational, and sometimes plural, and it is related to though not commensurate with sexual identity and orientation. It is related to but not defined by specific forms of embodiment. Rather than seeing biological sex as a pre-social or natural given, the body is understood as a site of inscription (cf. Elizabeth Grosz 1994) which is also socially constructed and indeed epigenetically shaped by environmental factors (N. Katherine Hayles 2012). This ontology therefore does not provide separate terms for sex as distinct from gender. Instead, the slashes conjoining terms associated with gender and those conventionally associated with sex indicate the constant slippage between gender and sex in the way that these categories circulate through discourses, actions, and institutions. Far from indicating a universal facet of experience, gender intersects with other identity categories and axes of oppression such as class, race or colour, or geographical heritage to produced quite different interests and experiences among people of the same gender, as with the intersection of religion and white masculine identity in the Muscular Christianity movement in nineteenth-century Britain. Being a woman of colour may thus compound the impacts of gender oppression (Kimberlé Crenshaw, 1989).

Concepts:transWoman,woman,man,transMan,GenderQueer,

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Dictionary: cwrc:GeographicalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GeographicalHeritage

geographical heritage

A subclass of culturalForm, this property indicates a person's geographic heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. Geographic heritage involves the geographical origins of a person's family, which often contributes to an understanding of their racial and ethnic background. It offers a way to capture individuals identified as "South-Asian," for example, when no more precise national heritage is indicated. See raceEthnicityContext for a detailed description of the complexities of this class. It can be multiple and it can be different from a person’s national identity or national heritage, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context excerpts or annotations, if available.

Concepts:jewishGeographicalHeritage,england,

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Dictionary: cwrc:NationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalHeritage

national heritage

A subclass of Cultural Form, this property indicates a person's national heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. National Heritage is composed of various elements related to national identity, often transmitted from previous generations and influenced by a subject’s national historical background or geographical heritage. It can be multiple and can be different from a person’s national identity, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context excerpts or annotations, if available.

Concepts:

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Dictionary: cwrc:NationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalIdentity

nationality

A subclass of Cultural Form, this property indicates a person's nationality, either as self-reported or as assigned by others, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. It is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Like other identity categories, nationality may be plural, fluid, or contingent, and it can intersect with national Heritage or Geographical Heritage as well as other identity categories. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context annotations, if available.

Concepts:jewishNationalIdentity,englishNationalIdentity,

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Dictionary: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalAffiliation

political affiliation

This subclass of CulturalForm tracks the affiliations, connections and associations which designate a person's political involvement. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organization and informal political positions held by the writer. We hope to point our readers towards women writers associated with different political positions and help researchers make links between political beliefs and writing. For this reason, we are defining political affiliations broadly and include things like "against capital punishment" or "strong supporter of the Empire" in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as "marxist" or "conservative."

Concepts:pro-Slavery,irishHomeRuleMovement,scottishNationalism,jacobism,poorAdvocacy,monarchism,whiggism,anti-Jacobin,marriageLawReform,revolutionaryPolitics,anti-Federalism,antidisestablishmentarianism,greekNationalist,nazism,feminism,christianPacifism,housingMovement,dressReform,labourMovement,protestantRule,artsAdvocacy,propertyLawReform,stalinism,racialEquality,egalitarianism,anti-Bonapartism,anti-Imperialism,abolitionism,anti-American,animalWelfareAdvocacy,dreyfusard,elderRights,anti-Socialism,jacobitism,secularism,pro-Catholicism,wilkite,freeTradeMovement,aidsActivism,anti-Censorship,italianNationalism,multiculturalism,anti-Communism,socialReform,jewishEmancipation,conservatism,irishRepublicanism,guelphPartyFlorence,anti-Boer,anti-CapitalPunishment,anti-Caste,libertarianism,anarchism,anti-British,temperanceMovement,maoism,pacifism,radicalism,left-Wing,anti-NuclearMovement,anti-Jacobite,newDealer,liberalUnionistParty,feministPacifism,anti-Capitalism,nonjurorsMovement,anti-PovertyMovement,pro-European,republicanism,womensEmploymentReform,anti-Antisemitism,anti-European,gayRights,sexualReform,poorLawReform,anti-Urbanism,anti-Trade-Unionism,sabbatarianism,tradeUnionism,childrensWelfare,co-operativeMovement,patriotism,racism,suffrage,individualism,spanishRepublicanism,germanNationalism,bolshevism,humanism,communism,anti-Suffrage,britishNationalism,anti-War,toryPartyBritain,socialPurity,indianIndependence,womensEducationReform,covenanters,egyptianNationalism,anti-Vaccination,feministInternationalism,frenchNationalism,pro-Choice,fascism,antisemitism,eugenics,pro-BoerWar,irishNationalism,girondin,educationReform,marxism,anti-Bolshevism,anti-Vivisection,anti-LandLeague,anti-Zionism,urbanReform,vegetarianism,nihilism,civilRights,irishUnionism,anti-Conscriptionism,nationalism,blackAnti-Oppression,internationalism,prisonReform,anti-Racism,existentialism,neo-Conservatism,anti-CorporalPunishment,womanism,indigenousRights,rationalism,imperialism,societyOfFriends,socialism,anti-Globalism,polishNationalism,anti-Pacifism,anti-Apartheid,welshNationalism,birthControlActivism,feministAnti-ViolenceActivism,conservativePartyUk,constitutionalism,civilLibertarianism,environmentalism,communalism,multiracialism,anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct,americanNationalism,conservativeFeminism,taxResistance,christianSocialism,boulangism,bonapartism,liberalism,parliamentaryReform,conscientiousObjection,disestablismentarianism,anti-Fascism,hanoverian,anti-Feminism,anti-Catholicism,anti-Monarchism,zionism,pro-American,sanitaryMovement,humanRights,parliamentarianism,

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Dictionary: cwrc:RaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceColour

race or colour

Concepts:eurasianRace,whiteRaceColour,whiteEthnicity,jewishEthnicity,

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Dictionary: cwrc:Religion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Religion

religion

A subclass of CulturalForm, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convenience.

Concepts:baptistChristianity,judaism,methodism,presbyterianism,dissentProtestant,christianScience,islam,quakerism,congregationalism,occultism,protestantism,dissentingChurches,lollards,christianity,neo-thomism,catholicChurch,quakers,rationalDissenter,hinduism,societyOfFriends,baptistChurch,churchOfChristianScience,congregationalChurch,buddhism,jewishReligion,dissentingChristianity,abrahamicReligions,agnosticism,spiritualism,unitarianism,dissenters,anglicanism,fifthMonarchists,atheism,churchOfEngland,tractarianMovement,lollardy,paganism,catholicism,churchOfIreland,plymouthBrethren,millenarianism,pagan,

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Dictionary: cwrc:Sexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Sexuality

sexuality

A subclass of Cultural Form and linked to Sexuality Context, Sexuality properties indicate in a word or phrase identifications or aspects of sexuality (i.e., "lesbian," "monogamous," "heterosexual" but also "promiscuous") not as a means of shutting down but advancing investigation and critical analysis of these identifications. The association assumes that sSexual identity does not function in an essentialist manner but can be plural and fluid, so multiple designations can be applied to a single person can be associated with multiple terms. Sexual identity may come from the subject her/himself or be ascribed by others. Terms may be in tension or mutually exclusive, they may reflect different life stages, and they may or may not reflect actual sexual practices. Linking a person to the term "lesbian" as a sexualityIdentity class, for instance, does not necessarily signify that the subject was in any definitive sense a lesbian; such identifications are often impossible for reasons of historical gaps and silences. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan, 2016

Concepts:sexualityPromiscuity,sexualityLibertinism,sexualityBisexuality,sexualityFrigidity,heterosexual,homosexual,sexualityCelibacy,lesbian,

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Dictionary: cwrc:SocialClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClass

social class

A subclass of culturalForm, socialClass terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

Concepts:shopkeepers,gentry,nobility,upper-middleClass,entrepreneurial-industrialist,skilledCraftpersonArtisan,urban-industrialUnskilled,rural-unskilled,professional,servants,lowerMiddleClass,managerial,indigent,yeoman-farmer,

Classes

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Class: cwrc:Actor

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Actor

actor

A person performing a certain role within an event.

same-as:
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E39.Actor
in-domain-of:
cwrc:inRole
cwrc:identity
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasActor

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Class: cwrc:Address

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Address

address

1- A mailling or street address.

2- The postal address is the equivalent of a schema.org address and inherits all of the data from that vocabulary to markup a modern postal address.

same-as:
http://schema.org/PostalAddress
sub-class-of:
cwrc:Place

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Class: cwrc:Androgynous

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Androgynous

androgynous

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Class: cwrc:Context

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Context

context

A context relates....

in-range-of:
prov:derivedFrom

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Class: cwrc:CulturalForm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalForm

cultural form

The Cultural Form class of properties associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject herself or himself or attributed by others. Although cultural forms or social identities circulate around the notion of characteristics, traditions, beliefs, or origins that are shared with others, recent work has stressed the contingency, provisionality, and constructedness of such categories through both complex discourses and social practices. As argued by Stuart Hall, "It seems to be in the attempt to rearticulate the relationship between subjects and discursive practices that the question of identity recurs" ("Introduction"). See Stuart Hall and Paul du Goy’s edited collection Questions of Cultural Identity (1996). Given their highly discursive nature, the concepts and categories classed as cultural forms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually. The same word or label can therefore occur as multiple cultural forms, reflecting the shifting discursive contexts in which it has been used and the diverse situations from which it has emerged. Each specific Cultural Form is understood to interact not only with other cultural forms or identity categories applied to a person, and other instances of the form applied to other people, but also always with Cultural Formation Context annotations, which support the understanding that social identities are always constructions in progress.

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Class: cwrc:CulturalFormContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalFormContext

cultural form context

Cultural Form Context is a significant subclass of Context. Annotations typed as Cultural Formation Context provide information about and discussions of a person's social identity or subjectivity through the use of Cultural Form properties, which when multiple often indicate intersectional identities.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:Context

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Class: cwrc:Ethnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Ethnicity

ethnicity

Ethnicity is a subclass of CulturalForm that captures information about a person's ethnic position. Ethnicity is a sub-element within culturalFormation and raceAndEthnicity. See raceAndEthnicity for a detailed description of the complexities of this discursive construction and the social practices surrounding it.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasEthnicity
cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfDefined
cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfReported

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Class: cwrc:EthnicityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EthnicityContext

racial, colour or ethnicity context

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:Event

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Event

event (historical)

An event that occurs in space and time.

same-as:
dbpedia:Event
http://erlangen-crm.org/current/E5.Event
http://linkedevents.org/ontology/Event
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasActor

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Class: cwrc:Gender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Gender

gender

A subclass of culturalForms for noting a person's gender whether attributed or self-defined. Although in popular culture gender and biological sex are conflated and understood to be binary, the concept of gender stresses the relationality, constructedness, and performativity of gendered identities and gendered behaviour, whose categories are historically contingent and shifting, and the boundaries between them blurry. Cf. Simone de Beauvoir: "One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," along with many other theorists of gender including Judith Butler, 1990. Gender is understood as fluid, situational, and sometimes plural, and it is related to though not commensurate with sexual identity and orientation. It is related to but not defined by specific forms of embodiment. Rather than seeing biological sex as a pre-social or natural given, the body is understood as a site of inscription (cf. Elizabeth Grosz 1994) which is also socially constructed and indeed epigenetically shaped by environmental factors (N. Katherine Hayles 2012). This ontology therefore does not provide separate terms for sex as distinct from gender. Instead, the slashes conjoining terms associated with gender and those conventionally associated with sex indicate the constant slippage between gender and sex in the way that these categories circulate through discourses, actions, and institutions. Far from indicating a universal facet of experience, gender intersects with other identity categories and axes of oppression such as class, race or colour, or geographical heritage to produced quite different interests and experiences among people of the same gender, as with the intersection of religion and white masculine identity in the Muscular Christianity movement in nineteenth-century Britain. Being a woman of colour may thus compound the impacts of gender oppression (Kimberlé Crenshaw, 1989).

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasGender
cwrc:hasGenderSelfReported
cwrc:hasGenderSelfDeclared

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Class: cwrc:GenderContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderContext

Gender Context

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:GenderQueer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GenderQueer

gender queer

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Class: cwrc:GeographicalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#GeographicalHeritage

geographical heritage

A subclass of culturalForm, this property indicates a person's geographic heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. Geographic heritage involves the geographical origins of a person's family, which often contributes to an understanding of their racial and ethnic background. It offers a way to capture individuals identified as "South-Asian," for example, when no more precise national heritage is indicated. See raceEthnicityContext for a detailed description of the complexities of this class. It can be multiple and it can be different from a person’s national identity or national heritage, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context excerpts or annotations, if available.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm

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Class: cwrc:Language

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Language

language

These terms do not differentiate between spoken and/or written. For operational reasons this class is a direct equivalent to ISO639 language code as published by the Library of Congress.

same-as:
http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/iso639-1/iso639-1_Language
sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm

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Class: cwrc:LanguageContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#LanguageContext

language context

Language Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Cultural Formation Context provide information about and discussions of a person's linguistic ability or abilities. Language Context provides depth to more granular indications of linguistic ability indicated through the property Language.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:LinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#LinguisticAbility

linguistic ability (spoken and/or writen)

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared
cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

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Class: cwrc:NationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalHeritage

national heritage

A subclass of Cultural Form, this property indicates a person's national heritage, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. National Heritage is composed of various elements related to national identity, often transmitted from previous generations and influenced by a subject’s national historical background or geographical heritage. It can be multiple and can be different from a person’s national identity, current or official citizenship, or the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context excerpts or annotations, if available.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm

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Class: cwrc:NationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalIdentity

nationality

A subclass of Cultural Form, this property indicates a person's nationality, either as self-reported or as assigned by others, with accompanying context, where present, provided by Nationality Context annotations. It is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. Like other identity categories, nationality may be plural, fluid, or contingent, and it can intersect with national Heritage or Geographical Heritage as well as other identity categories. Those using this class and its subclasses are encouraged to consult associated Nationality Context annotations, if available.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasNationalitySelfDeclared
cwrc:hasNationality
cwrc:hasNationalitySelfReported

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Class: cwrc:NationalityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#NationalityContext

nationality context

Nationality Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Nationality Context provide information about and discussions of a person's cultural formation in relation to their national identity, national heritage, and geographic heritage -- which are not always aligned. Nationality Context provides depth to more granular indications of national identity through the nationality, National Heritage, and Geographic Heritage properties.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:Place

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Place

place

1- Could be a populated place according to Geonames, but not necessarily so. Some places, such as cross-roads are named without having a population or settlement per say. The geonames is inconsistent in this regards in that a populated place can be abandoned.

2- A named place, wheter incorporated, settled or occupied.

same-as:
http://geovocab.org/spatial#Feature
http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#Feature
sub-class-of:
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#SpatialThing

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Class: cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalAffiliation

political affiliation

This subclass of CulturalForm tracks the affiliations, connections and associations which designate a person's political involvement. These affiliations can be both formal connections to a party or organization and informal political positions held by the writer. We hope to point our readers towards women writers associated with different political positions and help researchers make links between political beliefs and writing. For this reason, we are defining political affiliations broadly and include things like "against capital punishment" or "strong supporter of the Empire" in addition to more straightforward affiliations such as "marxist" or "conservative."

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm

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Class: cwrc:PoliticalContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#PoliticalContext

political context

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:RaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceColour

race or colour

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasRaceColour

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Class: cwrc:RaceEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicity

race and/or ethnicity

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm

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Class: cwrc:RaceEthnicityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#RaceEthnicityContext

race ethnicity context

raceEthnicityContext is a significant sub-class within culturalFormContext. It indicates the presence of information and discussions of a person's subject position with regards to race and ethnicity by working in conjunction with subject specific sub-elements (raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, ethnicity). The following discussion applies to both the general discursive context of raceAndEthnicity as well as the specific sub-class categories. Despite the ways in which categories of race and ethnicity frequently serve heinous interests, their ideological and material impacts in the formation of identities requires recognition. These are shifting, historically constituted, and interestedly deployed categories whose use must be situated contextually and which are understood here finally as discursive or representational. Because of this this ontology does not try to lay out an exact, fully defined, or mutually exclusive set of categories: this is an impossibility given their shifting use and the overlap among them. Those applying this class and its subclasses are encouraged not to let privileged identities operate as an unspoken given or to use this class solely in relation to the marginalized. Those concerned about "white" and "black" as homogenizing categories are encouraged to reach for specificity through multiplicity and representations of intersectionality. RaceAndEthnicity is a sub-class within culturalFormation. It has four related content sub-classes: raceColour, nationalHeritage, geogHeritage, and ethnicity.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:Religion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Religion

religion

A subclass of CulturalForm, this describes a person's religion(s) or belief system(s). Note that while atheism denotes the absence of religion, we use the Religion label for convenience.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasReligionSelfReported
cwrc:hasReligionSelfDefined
cwrc:hasReligion

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Class: cwrc:ReligionContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#ReligionContext

religious context

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:Sexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#Sexuality

sexuality

A subclass of Cultural Form and linked to Sexuality Context, Sexuality properties indicate in a word or phrase identifications or aspects of sexuality (i.e., "lesbian," "monogamous," "heterosexual" but also "promiscuous") not as a means of shutting down but advancing investigation and critical analysis of these identifications. The association assumes that sSexual identity does not function in an essentialist manner but can be plural and fluid, so multiple designations can be applied to a single person can be associated with multiple terms. Sexual identity may come from the subject her/himself or be ascribed by others. Terms may be in tension or mutually exclusive, they may reflect different life stages, and they may or may not reflect actual sexual practices. Linking a person to the term "lesbian" as a sexualityIdentity class, for instance, does not necessarily signify that the subject was in any definitive sense a lesbian; such identifications are often impossible for reasons of historical gaps and silences. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan, 2016

same-as:
http://homosaurus.org/terms/sexualIdentity
sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasSexuality
cwrc:hasSexualitySelfDeclared
cwrc:hasSexualitySelfReported

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Class: cwrc:SexualityContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexualityContext

sexuality context

Sexuality Context is a significant subclass of context. Annotations typed as Sexuality Context provide information about and discussions of a person's subjectivity with regards to their sexuality and sexual identity. Sexuality Context provides depth to more granular categorizations of a person through the sexuality or Sexuality Self-Reported properties. It does not provide context for individual sexual experiences and relationships, although specific relationships may be invoked to indicate the impact on a subject's life and understanding of her own sexuality. Contextualizations allow recognition of the complicated politics of sexuality, for example, considerations regarding outing, the historical specificity of some categories such as "congenital invert," the appropriation of derogatory terms, and the multiplicity of constructions. There are important politics of privacy with respect to the disclosure of a subject's sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual identity. As far as living persons are concerned, our practice is to draw only on widely circulated public sources or disclosures from the subject her/himself in order to avoid inadvertently outing someone. See Campbell and Cowan, 2016

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:SocialClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClass

social class

A subclass of culturalForm, socialClass terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClass links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalForm
in-range-of:
cwrc:hasSocialClass
cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfDefined
cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfReported

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Class: cwrc:SocialClassContext

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassContext

social class context

sub-class-of:
cwrc:CulturalFormContext

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Class: cwrc:TextLabels

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#TextLabels

textual label

Collection of all ambiguous labels within the Orlando markup.

in-range-of:
cwrc:literalForm

Properties

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Property: cwrc:auntOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#auntOf

aunt of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:bloodRelativeOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bloodRelativeOf

blood relative of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:brotherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#brotherOf

brother of

subproperty:
cwrc:sibling

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Property: cwrc:childOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#childOf

child of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:contraryTo

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#contraryTo

contrary to

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Property: cwrc:cousinOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#cousinOf

cousin of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:daughterOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#daughterOf

daughter of

subproperty:
cwrc:childOf

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Property: cwrc:fatherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fatherOf

father of

subproperty:
cwrc:parentOf

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Property: cwrc:forebearOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#forebearOf

forebear of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:grandChildOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandChildOf

grand child of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:grandDaughterOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandDaughterOf

grand-daughter of

subproperty:
cwrc:grandChildOf

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Property: cwrc:grandFatherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandFatherOf

grand father of

subproperty:
cwrc:grandParentOf

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Property: cwrc:grandMotherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandMotherOf

grand mother of

subproperty:
cwrc:grandParentOf

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Property: cwrc:grandParentOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandParentOf

grand parent of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:grandSonOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#grandSonOf

grand-son of

subproperty:
cwrc:grandChildOf

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Property: cwrc:guardianOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#guardianOf

guardian of

A (young) adult officially placed in charge of the care of a minor. (eg: in loco parentis)

subproperty:
cwrc:interpersonalRelationship

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Property: cwrc:hasActor

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasActor

has actor

An Actor in this event.

range:
cwrc:Actor
cwrc:Event

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Property: cwrc:hasCulturalForm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForm

has a cultural form

This associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

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Property: cwrc:hasEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicity

has ethnicity

range:
cwrc:Ethnicity
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfReported

has ethnicity (self reported)

range:
cwrc:Ethnicity
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasGender

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGender

has gender

range:
cwrc:Gender
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasGenderSelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfReported

has gender (self reported)

range:
cwrc:Gender
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritage

has Geographic Heritage

range:
cwrc:GeographicHeritage
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported

has geographic heritage (self reported)

range:
cwrc:GeographicHeritage
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbility

language known

Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

range:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

language known (self reported)

range:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasNationality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationality

has nationality

range:
cwrc:NationalIdentity
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfReported

has nationality (self reported)

A subproperty of personal property (self-reported), this property indicates a person's self-defined nationality/ies and is neither the same as citizenship nor commensurate with the geographical region or territory in which a person resides. For more information on this property see nationality.

range:
cwrc:NationalIdentity
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbility

natively known language

Knowledge of the language for writing or reading.

range:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility
subproperty:
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbility

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Property: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

natively known language (self reported)

range:
cwrc:LinguisticAbility
subproperty:
cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasRaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColour

has race

A subclass of raceEthnicityContext, this describes a person's racial identity.

range:
cwrc:RaceColour
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourSelfReported

has race or colour self-defined

A subproperty of personal property self reported, this property indicates a person's self-reported race or colour. For further information about this property, see Race or Colour.

range:
cwrc:Race
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligion

has religious affiliation

range:
cwrc:Religion
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasReligionSelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfReported

has religious affiliation (self reported)

A personal property, this indicates a person's self-reported religion(s) or belief system(s).

range:
cwrc:Religion
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasSexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexuality

has sexual orientation

range:
cwrc:Sexuality
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfReported

has sexuality self-reported

A subproperty of Personal Property Self-reported, this describes a person's self-reported sexuality. For more information, see Sexuality and Sexuality Context.

range:
cwrc:Sexuality
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:hasSocialClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClass

has social class

range:
cwrc:SocialClass
subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfReported

has social class (self reported)

1- Une sous-propriété de propriété personnelle autodéclarée qui indique la classe sociale autodéclarée d’une personne.

2- A subproperty of Personal Property Self-Reported indicating a person's self-reported social class.

range:
cwrc:SocialClass
subproperty:
cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

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Property: cwrc:husbandOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#husbandOf

husband of

subproperty:
cwrc:partnerOf

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Property: cwrc:identity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#identity

identity

The identity of the person who committed the act.

range:
cwrc:Person
domain:
cwrc:Actor

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Property: cwrc:inRole

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#inRole

in role

The role taken on by this actor.

range:
cwrc:Role
domain:
cwrc:Actor

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Property: cwrc:interpersonalRelationship

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#interpersonalRelationship

interpersonal relationship

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Property: cwrc:literalForm

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#literalForm

has literal form

range:
cwrc:TextLabels

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Property: cwrc:motherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#motherOf

mother of

subproperty:
cwrc:parentOf

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Property: cwrc:nephewOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nephewOf

nephew of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:nieceOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nieceOf

niece of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:parentOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parentOf

parent of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:partnerOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#partnerOf

partner of

This terms is intended for romantic / emotional / familial relationships and not for business relationships.

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:personalProperty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalProperty

personal property

A property that is ascribed to a person.

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Property: cwrc:personalPropertySelfReported

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalPropertySelfReported

personal property self-reported

This is a personal property that is self-reported.

subproperty:
cwrc:personalProperty

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Property: cwrc:relativeOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#relativeOf

relative of

subproperty:
cwrc:interpersonalRelationship

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Property: cwrc:sibling

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sibling

sibling

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:sisterOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sisterOf

sister of

subproperty:
cwrc:sibling

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Property: cwrc:sonOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sonOf

son of

subproperty:
cwrc:childOf

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:stepBrotherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepBrotherOf

brother of

subproperty:
cwrc:brotherOf

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Property: cwrc:stepChildOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepChildOf

step-child of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:stepDaughterOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepDaughterOf

step-daughter of

subproperty:
cwrc:stepChildOf

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Property: cwrc:stepFatherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepFatherOf

father of

Please be aware of the ambiguous nature of the french label for this term, which means here a person taking on the role of father to a child while not being the child's biological father.

subproperty:
cwrc:stepParentOf

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Property: cwrc:stepMotherOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepMotherOf

step mother of

Please be aware of the ambiguous nature of the french label for this term, which means here a person taking on the role of mother to a child while not being the child's birth mother.

subproperty:
cwrc:stepParentOf

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Property: cwrc:stepParentOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepParentOf

step parent of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:stepSisterOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepSisterOf

sister of

subproperty:
cwrc:sisterOf

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Property: cwrc:stepSonOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stepSonOf

step-son of

subproperty:
cwrc:stepChildOf

[back to top]

Property: cwrc:uncleOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#uncleOf

uncle of

subproperty:
cwrc:relativeOf

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Property: cwrc:wifeOf

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#wifeOf

wife of

subproperty:
cwrc:partnerOf

Instances

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Instance: cwrc:FemaleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FemaleLabel

female

Comment:

Deprecated with no current equivalence.

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:abolitionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abolitionism

abolitionism

Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, following the example of the Swedish monarch, passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and so was not enforced. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church, taking up a plea by Lourenco da Silva de Mendouca, officially condemned the slave trade, which was affirmed vehemently by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanist grounds, arguing against it in Parliament, and eventually encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. The Somersett Case in 1772, which emancipated a slave in England, helped launch the British movement to abolish slavery. Though anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, the colonies and emerging nations that used slave labour continued to do so: French, English and Portuguese territories in the West Indies; South America; and the Southern United States. After the American Revolution established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal; freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state. Vermont, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. David Brion Davis argues that the main driving force was a new moral consciousness, with an intellectual assist from the Enlightenment, and a powerful impulse from religious Quakers and evangelicals. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315. Revolutionary France abolished slavery in its colonies in 1794, before it was restored by Napoleon in 1802. Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory, establishing the second republic in the New World. The northern states in the U.S. all abolished slavery by 1804. The United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies abolished it in 1848 and the U.S. in 1865 with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia; and to emancipate the serfs in Russia (Emancipation reform of 1861). It was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish legal slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. Today, child and adult slavery and forced labour are illegal in most countries, as well as being against international law, but a high rate of human trafficking for labour and for sexual bondage continues to affect tens of millions of adults and children. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Abolitionism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:abrahamicReligions

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#abrahamicReligions

Abrahamic religions

Abrahamic religions, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to the tribal patriarch Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him, comprising one of the major divisions in comparative religion, along with Indian, Iranian, and East Asian religions. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are the largest Abrahamic religions.The largest Abrahamic religions in chronological order of founding are Judaism (2nd millennium BCE), Christianity (1st century CE) and Islam (7th century CE). (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Abrahamic_religions
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:agnosticism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#agnosticism

Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that, the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable. According to the philosopher William L. Rowe: "In the popular sense of the term, an agnostic is someone who neither believes nor disbelieves in God, whereas an atheist disbelieves in God." Agnosticism is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion as such. Thomas Henry Huxley, an English biologist, coined the word "agnostic" in 1869.Earlier thinkers, however, had written works that promoted agnostic points of view, such as Sanjaya Belatthaputta, a 5th-century BCE Indian philosopher who expressed agnosticism about any afterlife; and Protagoras, a 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher who expressed agnosticism about "the gods". The Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda is agnostic about the origin of the universe. (DBpedia, 2017)

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:aidsActivism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#aidsActivism

AIDS activism

Activism related to HIV/AIDS, ranging from addressing attitudes to changing government policies related to treatment and medication. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:AIDS_activism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Category:AIDS_activism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:americanNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#americanNationalism

American nationalism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anarchism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anarchism

anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all human relations, including, but not limited to, the state system. Anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular world view, instead fluxing and flowing as a philosophy. Many types and traditions of anarchism exist, not all of which are mutually exclusive. Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism or similar dual classifications. Anarchism is usually considered a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anarchism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anglicanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanism

Anglicanism

A Christian denomination having both Protestant and Catholic aspects that originated with Henry VIII's break with the Roman Catholic Church (ca. 1532-34). As the official state Church of England, the monarch of England is still formally considered its head. While at first it remained mainly Catholic in character, reforms came under Edward IV and Elizabeth I who introduced doctrine that was more Protestant in nature, namely new editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-nine Articles. Although an overall attitude of toleration exists in the modern Anglican Church, tension remains between its Protestant and Catholic inclinations as well as with newer liberal and evangelical influences. Anglicanism is based on episcopal authority and parish structure is fundamental to the organization of the church. The term is used with regard to the Church of England; with regard to the Episcopal Church in America, use "Episcopal." (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anglicanism
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153822
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

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Instance: cwrc:animalWelfareAdvocacy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#animalWelfareAdvocacy

animal welfare advocacy

Advocacy, often in the form of activism, for the welfare of animals. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_welfare

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Animal_welfare
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-American

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-American

anti-American politics

Opposed to the policies or influence of the United States of America, often with reference to specific government actions. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/anti-american

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:anti-american
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Antisemitism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Antisemitism

anti-antisemitism

Opposed to anti-semitic attitudes and practices. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antisemitism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Antisemitism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Apartheid

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Apartheid

anti-apartheid

The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing South Africa's system of apartheid and supporting South Africa's non-whites. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-Apartheid_Movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Boer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Boer

anti-Boer politics

Opposition to the Second Boer War in Britain was modest when the war began on 11 October 1899 and was always less widespread than support for it, let alone prevailing indifference. However, influential groups formed immediately and ineffectually against the war, including the South African Conciliation Committee and W. T. Stead's Stop the War Committee. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Opposition_to_the_Second_Boer_War
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Bolshevism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Bolshevism

anti-Bolshevism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when America and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Most modern anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim that the socialist state will "wither away" when it becomes unnecessary in a true communist society. Anti-communists also accuse communists of having caused several famines that occurred in 20th-century communist states, such as the Russian Famine of 1921 and the much more severe famine in China during the Great Leap Forward. Some anti-communists refer to both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Opponents argue that communist parties that have come to power have tended to be rigidly intolerant of political opposition. Communist governments have also been accused of creating a new ruling class (a Nomenklatura), with powers and privileges greater than those previously enjoyed by the upper classes in the non-communist regimes. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-communism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Bonapartism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Bonapartism

anti-Bonapartism

Opposed to the political ideology of Napolean Bonaparte and his followers. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonapartism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Bonapartism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-British

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-British

anti-British politics

Opposed to the policies or influence of the United Kingdom, often with reference to specific government actions. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-British_sentiment

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-British_sentiment
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-CapitalPunishment

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-CapitalPunishment

anti-capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital is derived from the Latin capitalis ("of the head", referring to execution by beheading). Fifty-eight countries retain capital punishment, 102 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 32 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states, and positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region. In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. Also, the Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, prohibits the use of the death penalty by its members. The United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where executions take place, such as China, India, the United States and Indonesia. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Capital_punishment
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Capitalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Capitalism

anti-capitalism

Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism. Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic system. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-capitalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Caste

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Caste

anti-caste movement

Advocacy or activism opposing the caste system in India. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste_system_in_India; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste_politics; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalit

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Dalit
dbpedia:Caste_politics
dbpedia:Caste_system_in_India
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Catholicism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Catholicism

anti-catholicism

Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and adherents. After the Reformation and until at least the late 20th Century, majority Protestant states (especially England, Germany, the United States, and Canada) made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, with anti-Catholic sentiment at times leading to violence and religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists"). Historically, Catholics in Protestant countries were frequently (and almost always baselessly) suspected of conspiring against the state in furtherance of papal interests or to establish a political hegemony under the "Papacy", with Protestants sometimes questioning Catholic individuals' loyalty to the state and suspecting Catholics of ultimately maintaining loyalty to the Vatican rather than their domiciled country. In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, suspicion or discrimination of Catholic immigrants often overlapped or conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, hispanophobia, Anti-Quebec sentiment). In the Early modern period, in the face of rising secular powers in Europe, the Catholic Church struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in primarily Catholic nations. As a result of these struggles, there arose in some majority Catholic countries (especially among those individuals with certain secular political views) a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social, spiritual and religious power of the Pope and the clergy in the form of anti-clericalism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-Catholicism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Censorship

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Censorship

anti-censorship movement

Opposition to censorship. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_speech

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Freedom_of_speech
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Communism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Communism

anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when America and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Most modern anti-communists reject the concept of historical materialism, which is a central idea in Marxism. Anti-communists reject the Marxist belief that capitalism will be followed by socialism and communism, just as feudalism was followed by capitalism. Anti-communists question the validity of the Marxist claim that the socialist state will "wither away" when it becomes unnecessary in a true communist society. Anti-communists also accuse communists of having caused several famines that occurred in 20th-century communist states, such as the Russian Famine of 1921 and the much more severe famine in China during the Great Leap Forward. Some anti-communists refer to both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Opponents argue that communist parties that have come to power have tended to be rigidly intolerant of political opposition. Communist governments have also been accused of creating a new ruling class (a Nomenklatura), with powers and privileges greater than those previously enjoyed by the upper classes in the non-communist regimes. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-communism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:anti-Conscriptionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Conscriptionism

anti-conscriptionism

Opposition to compulsory enlistment of people in either war or peacetime into a national service, usually military service.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-ContagiousDiseasesAct

anti-Contagious Diseases Act

Opposition to government regulation of prostitution including the forced physical examination of suspected prostitutes for venereal disease. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contagious_Diseases_Acts

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Contagious_Diseases_Acts
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-CorporalPunishment

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-CorporalPunishment

anti-corporal punishment

Campaigns against corporal punishment aim to reduce or eliminate corporal punishment of minors by instigating legal and cultural changes in the areas where such punishments are practiced. Such campaigns date mostly from the late 20th century, although occasional voices in opposition to corporal punishment existed from ancient times through to the modern era. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child defines "corporal punishment" as: any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light. Most involves hitting ("smacking", "slapping", "spanking") children, with the hand or with an implement – whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc. But it can also involve, for example, kicking, shaking or throwing children, scratching, pinching, biting, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, burning, scalding or forced ingestion. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Campaigns_against_corporal_punishment
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-European

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-European

anti-European politics

Opposed to the existence, policies, or influence of the European Union. On Euroskepticism, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euroscepticism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Euroscepticism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Fascism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Fascism

anti-fascism

Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals. The anti-fascist movement began in a few European countries in the 1920s, and eventually spread to other countries around the world. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-fascism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Federalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Federalism

anti-federalism

Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-Federalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Feminism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Feminism

anti-feminism

Antifeminism is criticism of some or all feminist ideology, arguing that modern feminism is not practiced in ways that promote true gender equality. This opposition has taken various forms across time and cultures. For example, antifeminists in the late 1800s and early 1900s resisted women's suffrage, while antifeminists in the late 20th century opposed the Equal Rights Amendment. Antifeminism may be motivated by the belief that feminist theories of patriarchy and disadvantages suffered by women in modern society are mischaracterized or exaggerated; that feminism as a movement encourages misandry and results in harm or oppression of men; or driven by general opposition towards women's rights. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Antifeminism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Globalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Globalism

anti-globalism

The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism. The movement is also commonly referred to as the global justice movement, alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, anti-corporate globalization movement, or movement against neoliberal globalization. Participants base their criticisms on a number of related ideas. What is shared is that participants oppose what they see as large, multi-national corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Specifically, corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labor hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, and the integrity of national legislative authority, independence and sovereignty. As of January 2012, some commentators have characterized the unprecedented changes in the global economy as "turbo-capitalism" (Edward Luttwak), "market fundamentalism" (George Soros), "casino capitalism" (Susan Strange), and as "McWorld" (Benjamin Barber). Many anti-globalization activists call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, advancement of human rights, fair trade and sustainable development and therefore feel the term "anti-globalization" is misleading. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-globalization_movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Imperialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Imperialism

anti-imperialism

"Anti-imperialism" in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. A less common usage is by isolationists who oppose an interventionist foreign policy. People who categorise themselves as anti-imperialists, often state that they are opposed to colonialism, colonial empire, hegemony, imperialism, and territorial expansion of a country beyond its established borders. The phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War and at the onset of the Cold War as political movements in colonies of European powers promoted national sovereignty. Some "anti-imperialist" groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism, this was criticized as "social imperialism". In the Arab and Muslim world, the term is often used in the context of Anti-Zionist nationalist and religious movements. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-imperialism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Jacobin

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Jacobin

anti-Jacobin

Opposed to Jacobinism. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobin

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Jacobin
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Jacobite

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Jacobite

anti-Jacobite

Opposed to Jacobitism. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobitism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Jacobitism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-LandLeague

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-LandLeague

anti-Irish National Land League

Opposed to the Irish Land League movement. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_National_Land_League

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Irish_National_Land_League
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Monarchism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Monarchism

anti-monarchism

The abolition of monarchy has occurred throughout history, either through revolutions, coups d'état, wars, or legislative reforms (such as abdications). The founding of the Roman Republic is a noteworthy example and became part of the nation's traditions including as justification for the assassination of Julius Caesar. The twentieth century saw a major acceleration of this process, with many monarchies violently overthrown by revolution or war, or else abolished as part of the process of decolonisation. By contrast, the restoration of monarchies is rare in modern times, with only two major examples, Spain and Cambodia. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Abolition_of_monarchy
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-NuclearMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-NuclearMovement

anti-nuclear movement

The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies. Some direct action groups, environmental groups, and professional organisations have identified themselves with the movement at the local, national, and international level. Major anti-nuclear groups include Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, and the Nuclear Information and Resource Service. The initial objective of the movement was nuclear disarmament, though since the late 1960s opposition has included the use of nuclear power. Many anti-nuclear groups oppose both nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The formation of green parties in the 1970s and 1980s was often a direct result of anti-nuclear politics. Scientists and diplomats have debated nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1963, many countries ratified the Partial Test Ban Treaty which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing. Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, West Germany. The project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s. A protest against nuclear power occurred in July 1977 in Bilbao, Spain, with up to 200,000 people in attendance. Following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, an anti-nuclear protest was held in New York City, involving 200,000 people. In 1981, Germany's largest anti-nuclear power demonstration took place to protest against the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant west of Hamburg; some 100,000 people came face to face with 10,000 police officers. The largest protest was held on June 12, 1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons. A 1983 nuclear weapons protest in West Berlin had about 600,000 participants. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program. In the US, public opposition preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone 1, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, and many other nuclear power plants. For many years after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster nuclear power was off the policy agenda in most countries, and the anti-nuclear power movement seemed to have won its case. Some anti-nuclear groups disbanded. In the 2000s (decade), however, following public relations activities by the nuclear industry, advances in nuclear reactor designs, and concerns about climate change, nuclear power issues came back into energy policy discussions in some countries. The 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents subsequently undermined the nuclear power industry's proposed renaissance and revived nuclear opposition worldwide, putting governments on the defensive. As of 2016, countries such as Australia, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Norway have no nuclear power stations and remain opposed to nuclear power. Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland are phasing-out nuclear power.Globally, more nuclear power reactors have closed than opened in recent years. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-nuclear_movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Pacifism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Pacifism

anti-pacifism

Opposed to pacifism. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacifism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Pacifism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-PovertyMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-PovertyMovement

anti-poverty movement

Advocacy or activism to reduce poverty. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_reduction

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Poverty_reduction
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Racism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Racism

anti-racism

Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. In general, anti-racism is intended to promote an egalitarian society in which people do not face discrimination on the basis of their race, however defined. By its nature, anti-racism tends to promote the view that racism in a particular society is both pernicious and socially pervasive, and that particular changes in political, economic, and/or social life are required to eliminate it. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-racism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Socialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Socialism

anti-socialism

Criticism of socialism refers to any critique of socialist models of economic organization and their feasibility; as well as the political and social implications of adopting such a system. Some criticisms are not directed toward socialism as a system, but are directed toward the socialist movement, socialist political parties or existing socialist states. Some critics consider socialism to be a purely theoretical concept that should be criticized on theoretical grounds (such as in the Socialist calculation debate); others hold that certain historical examples exist and that they can be criticized on practical grounds. Economic liberals and right libertarians view private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty, and view the economic dynamics of capitalism as immutable and absolute. Therefore, they perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty. According to the Austrian school economist Ludwig von Mises, an economic system that does not utilize money, financial calculation and market pricing will be unable to effectively value capital goods and coordinate production, and therefore socialism is impossible because it lacks the necessary information to perform economic calculation in the first place. Another central argument leveled against socialist systems based on economic planning is based on the use of dispersed knowledge. Socialism is unfeasible in this view because information cannot be aggregated by a central body and effectively used to formulate a plan for an entire economy, because doing so would result in distorted or absent price signals. Many economic criticisms of socialism focus on the experiences of Soviet-type planned economies. It is argued that a lack of budget constraints in enterprises operating in a planned economy reduces incentives for enterprises to act on information efficiently, thereby reducing overall welfare for society. Other economists criticize models of socialism based on neoclassical economics for their reliance on the faulty and unrealistic assumptions of economic equilibrium and pareto efficiency. Some philosophers have also criticized the aims of socialism, arguing that equality erodes away at individual diversities, and that the establishment of an equal society would have to entail strong coercion. Critics of the socialist political movement often criticize the internal conflicts of the socialist movement as creating a sort of "responsibility void." Because there are many models of socialism, most critiques are only focused on a specific type of socialism. Therefore, the criticisms presented below may not apply to all forms of socialism, and many will focus on the experience of Soviet-type economies. It is also important to note that different models of socialism conflict with each other over questions of property ownership, economic coordination and how socialism is to be achieved - so critics of specific models of socialism might be advocates of a different type of socialism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Criticisms_of_socialism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Suffrage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Suffrage

anti-suffrage

Anti-suffragism was a political movement composed mainly of women, begun in the late 19th century in order to campaign against women's suffrage in Great Britain and the United States. It was closely associated with "domestic feminism", the belief that women had the right to complete freedom within the home. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-suffragism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Trade-Unionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Trade-Unionism

anti-trade-unionism

Opposed to trade unions or the trade union movement. See. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_union

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Trade_union
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Urbanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Urbanism

anti-urbanism

Anti-urbanism is hostility toward the city as opposed to the country, a simple rejection of the city, or a wish to destroy the city. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-urbanism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Vaccination

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Vaccination

anti-vaccination movement

Opposition to vaccination, usually compulsory vaccination. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine_controversiesAlso see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Vaccine_controversies

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Vaccine_controversies
dbpedia:Category:Vaccine_controversies
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Vivisection

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Vivisection

anti-vivisection

Opposition to experimentation and testing on live animals. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Anti-vivisection_movementAlso see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivisection

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Category:Anti-vivisection_movement
dbpedia:Vivisection
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:anti-War

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-War

anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term can also refer to pacifism, which is the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts. Many activists distinguish between anti-war movements and peace movements. Anti-war activists work through protest and other grassroots means to attempt to pressure a government (or governments) to put an end to a particular war or conflict. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-war_movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:anti-Zionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anti-Zionism

anti-Zionism

Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, broadly defined in the modern era as the opposition to the ethnonationalist and political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the establishment of a Jewish state as a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (also referred to as Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land) or to the modern State of Israel as defined as A Jewish and Democratic State. The term is used to describe various religious, moral and political points of view, but their diversity of motivation and expression is sufficiently different that "anti-Zionism" cannot be seen as having a single ideology or source. According to many notable Jewish and non-Jewish sources, anti-Zionism has become a cover for modern-day antisemitism, a position that critics have challenged as a tactic to silence criticism of Israeli policies. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Anti-Zionism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:antidisestablishmentarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#antidisestablishmentarianism

antidisestablishmentarianism

Antidisestablishmentarianism (/ˌæn.ti.dɪs.ɪs.tæb.lɪʃ.mənˈtɛə.rɪə.nɪ.zᵊm/, /ˌæn.taɪˌdɪs.ɛsˌtæb.lɪʃ.məntˈɛ.ri.ənˌɪ.zm/) is a political position that developed in 19th-century Britain in opposition to Liberal proposals for the disestablishment of the Church of England—meaning the removal of the Anglican Church's status as the state church of England, Ireland, and Wales. The establishment was maintained in England, but in Ireland the Church of Ireland (Anglican) was disestablished in 1871. In Wales, four Church of England dioceses were disestablished in 1920 and became the Church in Wales. Antidisestablishmentarianism is also one of the longest non-scientific words. The word has also come by analogy to refer to any opposition to those who oppose the establishment, whether the government, in whole or part, or the established society. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Antidisestablishmentarianism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:antisemitism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#antisemitism

antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is widely considered to be a form of racism. The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. However, the compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass "Jew-hatred",and that has been its common use since then. Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 1894–1906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Antisemitism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:artsAdvocacy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#artsAdvocacy

arts advocacy

Advocacy for the fine, performing, or liberal arts.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:atheism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#atheism

Atheism

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists. The term "atheism" originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence; the problem of evil; the argument from inconsistent revelations; the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified; and the argument from nonbelief. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies (eg. humanism and skepticism), there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Many atheists hold that atheism is a more parsimonious worldview than theism and therefore that the burden of proof lies not on the atheist to disprove the existence of God but on the theist to provide a rationale for theism. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult. Several comprehensive global polls on the subject have been conducted by Gallup International: their 2015 poll featured over 64,000 respondents and indicated that 11% were "convinced atheists" whereas an earlier 2012 poll found that 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists." An older survey by the BBC, in 2004, recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls, Europe and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61% of people in China reported that they were atheists. The figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union (EU) reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Atheism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:baptistChristianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChristianity

Baptist Christianity

Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Baptists
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153825
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:birthControlActivism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#birthControlActivism

birth control activism

Promotion of birth control awareness, practices, and resources. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_control_movement_in_the_United_States Also see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Birth_control

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Birth_control_movement_in_the_United_States
dbpedia:Category:Birth_control
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:black

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#black

black (race)

RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour

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Instance: cwrc:blackAnti-Oppression

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackAnti-Oppression

black anti-oppression movement

Opposition to the social, institutional, and political oppression of people defined as black, which varies historically and geographically. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism_in_the_United_Kingdom and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_(1954%E2%80%931968)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Racism_in_the_United_Kingdom
dbpedia:African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_(1954%E2%80%931968)
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:blackLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#blackLabel

black

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:bolshevism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bolshevism

Bolshevism

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (Russian: большевики, большевик (singular); IPA: [bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik]; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks or Reds came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). With the Reds defeating the Whites, and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Bolsheviks
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:bonapartism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#bonapartism

Bonapartism

Bonapartism is the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors. It was later used to refer to persons who hoped to restore the House of Bonaparte and its style of government. After Napoleon, the term was applied to the French politicians who seized power in the coup of 18 Brumaire, ruling in the French Consulate and subsequently in the First and Second French Empires under the House of Bonaparte (the family of Bonaparte and his nephew Louis). The term was used more generally for a political movement that advocated a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state, with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric, army support, and conservatism. Marxism and Leninism developed a vocabulary of political terms that included Bonapartism, derived from their analysis of the career of Napoleon Bonaparte. Karl Marx was a student of Jacobinism and the French Revolution, and was a contemporary critic of the Second Republic and Second Empire. He used "Bonapartism" to refer to a situation in which counter-revolutionary military officers seize power from revolutionaries, and use selective reforms to co-opt the radicalism of the popular classes. Marx argued that in the process, Bonapartists preserve and mask the power of a narrower ruling class. According to his essay "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon" (1852), Marx believed that both Bonaparte and his nephew Napoleon III had corrupted revolutions in France in this way. In this document, he drew attention to what he calls the phenomenon's repetitive history by saying: "History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce." More generally, "Bonapartism" may be used to describe the replacement of civilian leadership by military leadership within revolutionary movements or governments. Many modern-day Trotskyists and other leftists use the phrase "left Bonapartist" to describe those, such as Stalin and Mao, who controlled 20th-century bureaucratic socialist regimes. In addition, Leon Trotsky was accused of using his position as commander of the Red Army to gain top-level power after Lenin's death. Noted political scientists and historians greatly differ on the definition and interpretation of Bonapartism. Sudhir Hazareesingh's book The Legend of Napoleon explores numerous interpretations of the term. He says that it refers to a "popular national leader confirmed by popular election, above party politics, promoting equality, progress, and social change, with a belief in religion as an adjunct to the State, a belief that the central authority can transform society and a belief in the 'nation' and its glory and a fundamental belief in national unity." Hazareesingh believes that although recent research shows Napoleon used forced conscription of French troops, some men must have fought believing in Napoleon's ideals. He says that to argue Bonapartism co-opted the masses is an example of the Marxist perspective of false consciousness: the idea that the masses can be manipulated by a few determined leaders in the pursuit of ends. Scholar Raymond Hinnebusch has characterized Hafez al-Asad's regime in Syria as Bonapartist. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Bonapartism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:boulangism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#boulangism

boulangism

Followed the three principles of "revenge on Germany", "revision of the constitution", and "the return to monarchy" in frustration with French conservatism. Based on the politics of Georges Ernest Boulanger. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Ernest_Boulanger

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Georges_Ernest_Boulanger
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:britishNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#britishNationalism

British nationalism

British nationalism asserts that the British are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the British, in a definition of Britishness that may include people of English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster Scots and Irish descent. British nationalism is closely associated with British unionism, which seeks to uphold the political union that is the United Kingdom, or strengthen the links between the countries of the United Kingdom. British nationalism's unifying identity descends from the ancient Britons who dwelt on the island of Great Britain. British nationalism grew to include people outside Great Britain, in Ireland, because of the 1542 Crown of Ireland Act, which declared that the crown of Ireland was to be held by the ruling monarch of England as well as Anglo-Irish calls for unity with Britain. It is characterised as a "powerful but ambivalent force in British politics". In its moderate form, British nationalism has been a civic nationalism, emphasizing both cohesion and diversity of the people of the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and its former colonies. Recently however, nativist nationalism has arisen based on fear of Britain being swamped by immigrants; this anti-immigrant nativist nationalism has manifested politically in the British National Party and other nativist nationalist movements. Politicians, such as British Prime Minister David Cameron of the Conservative Party and his direct predecessor Gordon Brown of the Labour Party, have sought to promote British nationalism as a progressive cause. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:British_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:buddhism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#buddhism

Buddhism

Refers to the philosophy and religion based on the enlightenment and teachings of the Buddha Gautama in the early sixth century BCE in the northeastern region of modern India. Playing dominant roles in the art and culture of Southeast Asia and East Asia, this religion is based on the transcendence of human suffering and pain through the acceptance of the limitations of individuality, the surrender of worldly desires and cravings that cause disappointment and sorrow, and the deliverance from the impermanence of living and individual ego based on wealth, social position, or family through the process of enlightenment (nirvana). The religion also centers around 'anatman', or no-self, the idea that the self is in a state of action or a series of changing manifestations rather than in a state of fixed, metaphysical substance. The structure of the religion is based on the Triratna ("Three Jewels" of Buddha), a tripartite schematic for living based on three elements: Buddha (the teacher), dharma (the teaching), and sangha (community). (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073738
dbpedia:Buddhism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:catholicism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicism

Roman Catholicism

Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073730
dbpedia:Catholic_Church
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:childrensWelfare

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#childrensWelfare

children's welfare

Advocacy or activism for the rights or welfare of children. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Child_welfare

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Category:Child_welfare
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:christianPacifism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianPacifism

Christian pacifism

Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith. Christian pacifists state that Jesus himself was a pacifist who taught and practiced pacifism and that his followers must do likewise. Notable Christian pacifists include Martin Luther King, Jr., Leo Tolstoy, and Ammon Hennacy. Hennacy believed that adherence to Christianity required not just pacifism but, because governments inevitably threatened or used force to resolve conflicts, anarchism. However, most Christian pacifists, including the peace churches, Christian Peacemaker Teams and individuals such as John Howard Yoder, make no claim to be anarchists. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Christian_pacifism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:christianScience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianScience

Christian Science

Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Christian_Science
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300264476
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:christianSocialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianSocialism

Christian socialism

Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Many Christian socialists believe capitalism to be idolatrous and rooted in greed, which some Christian denominations consider a mortal sin. Christian socialists identify the cause of inequality to be the greed that they associate with capitalism. Christian socialism became a major movement in the United Kingdom beginning in the 1960s through the Christian Socialist Movement, since 2013 known as Christians on the Left. Other earlier figures are also viewed as Christian socialists, such as the nineteenth century writers Frederick Denison Maurice (The Kingdom of Christ, 1838), John Ruskin (Unto This Last, 1862), Charles Kingsley (The Water-Babies, 1863), Thomas Hughes (Tom Brown's Schooldays, 1857), Frederick James Furnivall (co-creator of the Oxford English Dictionary), Adin Ballou (Practical Christian Socialism, 1854), and Francis Bellamy (a Baptist minister and the author of the United States' Pledge of Allegiance). (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Christian_socialism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:christianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianity

Christianity

Refers to the world religion and culture that developed in the first century CE, driven by the teachings of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Its roots are in the Judaic tradition and the Old Testament. The tenets include a belief in the death and redemptive resurrection of Jesus. The religion incorporates a tradition of faith, ritual, and a form of church authority or leadership. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073711
dbpedia:Christianity
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:churchOfIreland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfIreland

Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second-largest Christian church on the island after the Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. Nevertheless, in theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those espoused during the English Reformation. The church self identifies as being both Catholic and Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning (high church) and those who are more Protestant-leaning (low church or evangelical). For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is generally identified as a Protestant church. The Church of Ireland is the second-largest in the Republic of Ireland, with around 130,000 members, and the third-largest in Northern Ireland, with around 260,000 members. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Church_of_Ireland
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

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Instance: cwrc:civilLibertarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#civilLibertarianism

civil libertarianism

Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure, etc.). Civil libertarianism is not a complete ideology; rather, it is a collection of views on the specific issues of civil liberties and civil rights. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Civil_libertarianism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:civilRights

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#civilRights

civil rights movement

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression. Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life, and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, national origin, colour, age, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion, or disability; and individual rights such as privacy and the freedoms of thought, speech, religion, press, assembly, and movement. Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote. Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights. They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social, and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Civil_and_political_rights
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:co-operativeMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#co-operativeMovement

co-operative movement

Supporter of the co-operative movement. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_cooperative_movement

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:History_of_the_cooperative_movement
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:communalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#communalism

communalism

Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localised independent communities. A prominent libertarian socialist, Murray Bookchin, defines communalism as "a theory of government or a system of government in which independent communes participate in a federation", as well as "the principles and practice of communal ownership". This usage of communalism appears to have emerged during the late 20th century to distinguish commune-based systems from other political movements and/or governments espousing (if not actually practicing) similar ideas. In particular, earlier communities and movements advocating such practices that were often described as "anarchist", "socialist" and/or "communist". Many historical communities practicing utopian socialism or anarchist communism did implement internal rules of communalist property ownership in the context of federated communalism. It is at least theoretically possible for a federation of communes to include communes which do not practice communalist rules of property, which is to say, that the overall national government may be a federation of communes, but that private property rather than communalist property is the order within each such commune. Karl Marx, often viewed as the founder of modern communism, criticized older forms, including primitive communism and/or utopian socialism, as poorly conceived and/or prone to disintegration in practise. Communalism in the form described above is distinct from the predominant usage in South Asian forms of English: allegiance to a particular ethnic and/or religious group rather than to a broader society. As such, this usage is synonymous with sectarianism and associated with communal violence. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Communalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:communism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#communism

communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which isa socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism (anarchist communism), and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism, that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class – who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society – and the capitalist class – a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production (the physical and institutional means with which commodities are produced and distributed), and that political, social and economic conflict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to this analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Communism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:congregationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalism

Congregationalism

Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism is often considered to be a part of the wider Reformed tradition. Many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian Robert Browne in 1582. These arose from the ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England. In Great Britain, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the similarly Calvinistic Presbyterians. Congregational churches were widely established in the Plymouth Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony (later New England), and together wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 which described the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York, then into the Old North West, and further. With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is largely split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, which is the most theologically conservative. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5% of the worldwide Protestant population. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Congregational_church
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:conscientiousObjection

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conscientiousObjection

conscientious objection

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, disability or religion. In general, conscientious objector status is considered only in the context of military conscription and is not applicable to volunteer military forces. In some countries, conscientious objectors are assigned to an alternative civilian service as a substitute for conscription or military service. Some conscientious objectors consider themselves pacifist, non-interventionist, non-resistant, non-aggressionist, or antimilitarist. On March 8, 1995 the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/83 stated that "persons performing military service should not be excluded from the right to have conscientious objections to military service." This was re-affirmed in 1998, when resolution 1998/77 recognized that "persons [already] performing military service may develop conscientious objections.". A number of organizations around the world celebrate the principle on May 15 as International Conscientious Objectors Day. The term has also been extended to objecting to working for the military-industrial complex due to a crisis of conscience. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Conscientious_objector
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:conservatism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservatism

conservatism

Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated with François-René de Chateaubriand in 1818, during the period of Bourbon restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959, "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Conservatism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:conservativeFeminism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservativeFeminism

conservative feminism

Feminism that tends towards social conservativism. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Feminism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:conservativePartyUk

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#conservativePartyUk

Conservative Party (UK)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed, sequentially, in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York (who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland). This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Tories_(British_political_party)
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:constitutionalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#constitutionalism

constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law". Political organizations are constitutional to the extent that they "contain institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry, including those that may be in the minority". As described by political scientist and constitutional scholar David Fellman: Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience, which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher law. Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judgment or mere fiat of public officials…. Throughout the literature dealing with modern public law and the foundations of statecraft the central element of the concept of constitutionalism is that in political society government officials are not free to do anything they please in any manner they choose; they are bound to observe both the limitations on power and the procedures which are set out in the supreme, constitutional law of the community. It may therefore be said that the touchstone of constitutionalism is the concept of limited government under a higher law. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Constitutionalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:covenanters

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#covenanters

Covenanters

The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally. They derive their name from the term covenant after the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. There were two important covenants in Scottish history, the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Covenanter
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:disestablismentarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#disestablismentarianism

disestablismentarianism

Disestablishmentarianism refers to campaigns to sever links between church and state, particularly in relation to the Church of England as an established church. It was initially a movement in the United Kingdom in the 18th century. The established churches in Wales and Ireland could not count on even nominal adherence by a majority of the population of those countries. In Ireland, the predominantly Roman Catholic population campaigned against the position of the established Anglican Church of Ireland - eventually disestablished in Ireland from 1 January 1871. In England there was a campaign by Liberals, dissenters and nonconformists to disestablish the Church of England in the 19th century. The campaigners were called "Liberationists" (the "Liberation Society" was founded by Edward Miall in 1844). This campaign failed, but nearly all of the legal disabilities of nonconformists were gradually dismantled. The campaign for disestablishment was revived in the 20th century when Parliament rejected the 1929 revision of the Book of Common Prayer, leading to calls for separation of Church and State to prevent political interference in matters of worship. In the late 20th century, reform of the House of Lords also brought into question the position of the Lords Spiritual. Nick Clegg, the former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Liberal Democrats, said in April 2014 that he thought the Church of England and the British state should be separated "in the long run". Prime Minister David Cameron, responding to Clegg's comments, said that disestablishmentarianism is "a long-term Liberal idea, but it is not a Conservative one" and that he believed having an established church works well. The Church of England was disestablished in Wales in 1920, becoming the Church in Wales. An Act of the British Parliament enabling the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland was passed in 1869, coming into effect on 1 January 1871. The Church of Scotland was disestablished in 1929 but remains the largest church in Scotland. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Disestablishmentarianism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:dissentProtestant

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentProtestant

Dissent (Protestant)

In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England. Broad use of the term was precipitated after the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, when the Act of Uniformity 1662 re-established the opponents of reform within the Church of England. By the late 19th-century the term specifically included the Reformed Christians (Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Calvinist sects), plus the Baptists and Methodists. The English Dissenters such as the Puritans who violated the Act of Uniformity 1559 — typically by practising radical, sometimes separatist, dissent — were retrospectively labelled as nonconformists.(DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:English_Dissenters
dbpedia:Nonconformist
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:dissentingChristianity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChristianity

Dissenting Christianity

"One who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, &c. The term 'dissenter' is, however, practically restricted to the special sense of a member of a religious body in England which has, for one reason or another, separated from the Established Church. Strictly, the term includes the English Roman Catholics, who in the original draft of the Relief Act of 1791 were styled “Protesting Catholic Dissenters.” It is in practice, however, restricted to the “Protestant Dissenters” referred to in sec. ii. of the Toleration Act of 1688."(Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911)

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:dressReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dressReform

dress reform

Victorian dress reform was an objective of the Victorian dress reform movement (also known as the rational dress movement) of the middle and late Victorian era, comprising various reformers who proposed, designed, and wore clothing considered more practical and comfortable than the fashions of the time. Dress reformists were largely middle class women involved in the first wave of feminism in the United States and in Britain, from the 1850s through the 1890s. The movement emerged in the Progressive Era along with calls for temperance, women's education, suffrage and moral purity. Dress reform called for emancipation from the "dictates of fashion", expressed a desire to “cover the limbs as well as the torso adequately,” and promoted "rational dress". The movement had its greatest success in the reform of women's undergarments, which could be modified without exposing the wearer to social ridicule. Dress reformers were also influential in persuading women to adopt simplified garments for athletic activities such as bicycling or swimming. The movement was much less concerned with men's clothing, although it initiated the widespread adoption of knitted wool union suits or long johns. Some proponents of the movement established dress reform parlors, or storefronts, where women could buy sewing patterns for the newfangled garments, or buy them directly. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Victorian_dress_reform
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:dreyfusard

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dreyfusard

Dreyfusard

Supporters of Captain Alfred Dreyfus in his prosecution by the French military. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreyfus_affair

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Dreyfus_affair
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:educationReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#educationReform

education reform

Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Historically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. However, since the 1980s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs (i.e., student achievement). In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the primary source of K-12 education for American youth. Education reformers desire to make public education into a market (in the form of an input-output system), where accountability creates high-stakes from curriculum standards tied to standardized tests.As a result of this input-output system, equality has been conceptualized as an end point, which is often evidenced by an achievement gap among diverse populations. This conceptualization of education reform is based on the market-logic of competition. As a consequence, competition creates inequality which has continued to drive the market-logic of equality at an end point by reproduce the achievement gap among diverse youth. Overall, education reform has and continues to be used as a substitute for needed economic reforms in the United States. The one constant for all forms of education reform includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health, wealth and well-being. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students and society. From ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a highly educated full-time (extremely expensive) personal tutor. Historically, this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education. Related reforms attempted to develop similar classical results by concentrating on "why", and "which" questions neglected by classical education. Abstract, introspective answers to these questions can theoretically compress large amounts of facts into relatively few principles. This path was taken by some Transcendentalist educators, such as Amos Bronson Alcott.In the early modern age, Victorian schools were reformed to teach commercially useful topics, such as modern languages and mathematics, rather than classical subjects, such as Latin and Greek. Many reformers focused on reforming society by reforming education on more scientific, humanistic, pragmatic or democratic principles. John Dewey and Anton Makarenko are prominent examples of such reformers. Some reformers incorporated several motivations, e.g. Maria Montessori, who both "educated for peace" (a social goal), and to "meet the needs of the child" (A humanistic goal). In historic Prussia, an important motivation for the invention of Kindergarten was to foster national unity by teaching a national language while children were young enough that learning a language was easy. Reform has taken many forms and directions. Throughout history and the present day, the meaning and methods of education have changed through debates over what content or experiences result in an educated individual or an educated society. Changes may be implemented by individual educators and/or by broad-based school organization and/or by curriculum changes with performance evaluations. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Education_reform
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:egalitarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#egalitarianism

egalitarianism

Egalitarianism (from French égal, meaning "equal")—or equalitarianism—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people. Egalitarian doctrines maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the term has two distinct definitions in modern English: either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights; or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people, economic egalitarianism, or the decentralization of power. Some sources define egalitarianism as the point of view that equality reflects the natural state of humanity. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Egalitarianism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:egyptianNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#egyptianNationalism

Egyptian nationalism

Egyptian nationalism refers to the nationalism of Egyptians and Egyptian culture. Egyptian nationalism has typically been a civic nationalism that has emphasized the unity of Egyptians regardless of ethnicity or religion. Egyptian nationalism first manifested itself in Pharaonism beginning in the 19th century that identified Egypt as being a unique and independent political unit in the world since the era of the Pharaohs in ancient Egypt. Both the Arabic language spoken in modern Egypt and the ancient Egyptian language are Afroasiatic languages. The rule of Muhammad Ali of Egypt led Egypt into an advanced level of socioeconomic development in comparison with Egypt's neighbours, which along with the discoveries of relics of ancient Egyptian civilization, helped to foster Egyptian identity and Egyptian nationalism. The Urabi movement in the 1870s and 1880s was the first major Egyptian nationalist movement that demanded an end to the alleged despotism of the Muhammed Ali family and demanded curbing the growth of European influence in Egypt, it campaigned under the nationalist slogan of "Egypt for Egyptians". After the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, Egyptian nationalism became focused upon ending British colonial rule. Egyptian nationalism reached its peak in popularity in 1919 when revolution against British rule took place in response to wartime deprivations imposed by the British upon Egypt during World War I. Three years of protest and political turmoil followed until Britain unilaterally declared the independence of Egypt in 1922 that was a monarchy, though Britain reserved several areas for British supervision. During the period of the Kingdom of Egypt, Egyptian nationalists remained determined to terminate the remaining British presence in Egypt. Though Arab nationalism rose as a political force in the 1930s, there remained a strong regional attachment to Egypt by those who advocated cooperation with other Arab or Muslim neighbours. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that overthrew the monarchy and established a republic, Gamal Abdel Nasser rose to power on themes that mixed Arab and Egyptian nationalism. Nasser saw Egypt as the leader of the Arab states and saw Egypt's role as promoting Arab solidarity against both the West and Israel. Egypt was briefly united with Syria from 1958 until 1961 when Syria abandoned the union. Nasser's successors, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak de-emphasized Arab nationalism and re-emphasized Egyptian nationalism based on Egypt's distinctiveness within the Arab world. Sadat and Mubarak also abandoned Nasser's Arab nationalist conflict with Israel and the West. The Arab Spring in Egypt in 2011 that forced the resignation of Mubarak from power and resulted in multiparty elections, has raised questions over the future of Egyptian nationalism. In particular the previous secular regimes of Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak avoided direct religious conflicts between the majority Muslims and the minority Coptic Christians through their emphasis on secular Egyptian nationalist culture, while concerns have been raised on whether this Egyptian nationalist culture will remain with the political changes caused by the Arab Spring. This has especially become an issue after a series of episodes of Muslim-Christian violence erupted in Egypt in 2011. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Egyptian_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:elderRights

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#elderRights

elder rights

Elder rights are the rights of the aged, who in the United States are not recognized as a constitutionally protected class. Common rights issues faced by elders include age-related job discrimination (such as forced age of retirement), lack of access to medical treatments because of age or age-related obstacles, societal perceptions of ability/disability due to age, and vulnerability to abuse, including financial, physical, psychological, social, and sexual because of diminished capacity and lack of access to/ability to use technology. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Elder_rights
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:england

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#england

England

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
skos:Concept
cwrc:GeographicalHeritage

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Instance: cwrc:englandLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englandLabel

England

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:englishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishLabel

english

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:englishNationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalHeritage

English

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalHeritage
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:englishNationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalIdentity

English

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalIdentity
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialist

entrepreneurial

This class comprises the owners of larges-scale enterprises such as factories, those who back such enterprises through investing money, or especially in the earlier historical periods when women were rarely economic agents, the wives and daughters of those who do, for instance, Elizabeth Montagu or Beatrice Webb.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:environmentalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#environmentalism

environmentalism

Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements. Environmentalism advocates the lawful preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity, ecology, and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Environmentalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:eugenics

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eugenics

eugenics

Eugenics (/juːˈdʒɛnɪks/; from Greek εὐγενής eugenes "well-born" from εὖ eu, "good, well" and γένος genos, "race, stock, kin") is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. It is a social philosophy advocating the improvement of human genetic traits through the promotion of higher rates of sexual reproduction for people with desired traits (positive eugenics), or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits (negative eugenics), or both. Alternatively, gene selection rather than "people selection" has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing (e.g. CRISPR). The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined. The definition of it as a "social philosophy"—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order—is not universally accepted, and was taken from Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy". While eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as Ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom and spread to many countries, including the United States, Canada and most European countries. In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies meant to improve the genetic stock of their countries. Such programs often included both "positive" measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and "negative" measures such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. People deemed unfit to reproduce often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges of different IQ tests, criminals and deviants, and members of disfavored minority groups. The eugenics movement became negatively associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the US eugenics programs.In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries gradually abandoned eugenics policies, although some Western countries, among them the United States, continued to carry out forced sterilizations. Since the 1980s and 1990s when new assisted reproductive technology procedures became available, such as gestational surrogacy (available since 1985), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (available since 1989) and cytoplasmic transfer (first performed in 1996), fear about a possible future revival of eugenics and a widening of the gap between the rich and the poor has emerged. A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether "negative" or "positive" policies are used, they are vulnerable to abuse because the criteria of selection are determined by whichever group is in political power. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduction. Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, resulting in inbreeding depression instead due to a low genetic variation. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Eugenics
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:eurasianLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eurasianLabel

eurasian

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:eurasianRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#eurasianRace

eurasian

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Eurasian_(mixed_ancestry)
RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:existentialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#existentialism

existentialism

Existentialism (/ɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/) is a term applied to the work of certain late-19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. While the predominant value of existentialist thought is commonly acknowledged to be freedom, its primary virtue is authenticity. In the view of the existentialist, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher, though he did not use the term existentialism. He proposed that each individual—not society or religion—is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or "authentically". Existentialism became popular in the years following World War II, and strongly influenced many disciplines besides philosophy, including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Existentialism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:fascism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fascism

fascism

Fascism /ˈfæʃɪzəm/ is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism originated in Italy during World War I and spread to other European countries. Fascism opposes liberalism, Marxism and anarchism and is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum. Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes in the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens. Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete, and they regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature, and views political violence, war, and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th century fascist movements. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Fascism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:feminism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feminism

feminism

Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social rights for women that are equal to those of men. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to promote bodily autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence. Feminist campaigns are generally considered to be one of the main forces behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with having achieved women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles.Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues concerning gender. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Feminism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:feministAnti-ViolenceActivism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministAnti-ViolenceActivism

feminist anti-violence activism

Activism opposing violence from a feminist perspective, often but not exclusively violence against women and children, including sexual and domestic violence and female genital mutilation.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:feministInternationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministInternationalism

feminist internationalism

Feminist participant in the internationalism movement. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalism_(politics)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Internationalism_(politics)
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:feministPacifism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#feministPacifism

feminist pacifism

Feminist participant in the pacifist movement. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalism_(politics) Also see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacifism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Pacifism
dbpedia:Internationalism_(politics
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:fifthMonarchists

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#fifthMonarchists

Fifth Monarchists

The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1660 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 17th century. They took their name from a prophecy in the Book of Daniel that four ancient monarchies (Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman) would precede the kingdom of Christ. They also referred to the year 1666 and its relationship to the biblical Number of the Beast indicating the end of earthly rule by carnal human beings. They were one of a number of nonconformist dissenting groups that emerged around this time. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Fifth_Monarchists
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

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Instance: cwrc:freeTradeMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#freeTradeMovement

free trade movement

Free Trader was a political label used in the United Kingdom by several candidates in the 1906 general election and January 1910 general election. Its candidates were in university constituencies, led by John Eldon Gorst, who had been previously elected as a Conservative Party but had split from the party in 1902. The group was in favour of limited social reforms, and in particular of free trade. While several of its candidates received substantial votes, none were elected, and in 1910 Gorst stood instead as a Liberal Party candidate, the remainder of the grouping soon petering out. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Free_Trader
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:frenchNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#frenchNationalism

French nationalism

French nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the French are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the French. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:French_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:gayRights

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gayRights

gay rights movement

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social movements are social movements that advocate for the equalized acceptance of LGBT people in society. In these movements, LGBTQ people and their allies have a long history of campaigning for what is now generally called LGBTQ rights, sometimes also called gay rights or gay and lesbian rights. Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organization that represents all LGBT people and their interests, numerous LGBT rights organizations are active worldwide. The earliest organizations to support LGBT rights were formed in the 19th century. A commonly stated goal among these movements is social equality for LGBT people. Some have also focused on building LGBT communities or worked towards liberation for the broader society from biphobia, homophobia, and transphobia. LGBT movements organized today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, including lobbying, street marches, social groups, media, art, and research. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:LGBT_social_movements
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:gentry

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#gentry

gentry

1- Gentry indicates someone who is property-owning or related to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms. but is distinguished from nobility in so far as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen). Gentlewomen belong to this class, even thought they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax. (DBpedia, 2017)

2- Membership in the gentry indicates property-ownership or relation to the same; property can be land or stocks and bonds. It "begins in the idea of owning arms and having a coat of arms. but is distinguished from nobility in so far as money is not necessarily related to blood and title. Disinterested gentlemen are of this class (i.e. Mr. Bennett in Jane Austen)."brown_orlando, 2006 Gentlewomen belong to this class, even though they may not themselves own much property but instead be supported by a father or brother, or they may be distressed, which is to say, impoverished gentlewomen, as in the case of Jane Eyre or Austen's Jane Fairfax.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:germanNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#germanNationalism

German nationalism

German nationalism is the idea that asserts that Germans are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Germans. The earliest origins of German nationalism began with the birth of Romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars when Pan-Germanism started to rise. Advocacy of a German nation began to become an important political force in response to the invasion of German territories by France under Napoleon. After the rise and fall of Nazi Germany during World War II, German nationalism has been generally viewed in the country as taboo. However, during the Cold War, German nationalism arose that supported the reunification of East and West Germany that was achieved in 1990. German nationalism has faced difficulties in promoting a united German identity as well as facing opposition within Germany. The Catholic-Protestant divide in Germany at times created extreme tension and hostility between Catholic and Protestant Germans after 1871, such as in response to the policy of Kulturkampf in Prussia by German Chancellor and Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck, that sought to dismantle Catholic culture in Prussia, that provoked outrage amongst Germany's Catholics and resulted in the rise of the pro-Catholic Centre Party and the Bavarian People's Party. There have been rival nationalists within Germany, particularly Bavarian nationalists who claim that the terms that Bavaria entered into Germany in 1871 were controversial and have claimed the German government has long intruded into the domestic affairs of Bavaria. Outside of modern-day Germany in Austria, there are Austrian nationalists who have rejected unification of Austria with Germany on the basis of preserving Austrians' Catholic religious identity from the potential danger posed by being part of a Protestant-majority Germany. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:German_nationalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:girondin

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#girondin

Girondin

The Girondins or Girondists were members of the Gironba, a political group operating in France from 1791 to 1795 during the French Revolution. The Girondins were active within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. They were part of the Jacobin movement, though not every Girondin was a member of the Jacobin Club. The Girondins campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain (Montagnards), a radical faction within the Jacobin Club. This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondins and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror. The Girondins comprised a group of loosely affiliated individuals rather than an organized political party, and the name was at first informally applied because the most prominent exponents of their point of view were deputies to the Legislative Assembly from the department of Gironde in southwest France. The term became standard with Lamartine's history in 1847. Girondin leader Jacques-Pierre Brissot proposed an ambitious military plan to spread the Revolution—one that Napoleon later achieved. He called on the Convention to dominate Western Europe by conquering the Rhineland, Poland, and Holland, with a goal of creating a protective ring of satellite republics in Britain, Spain and Italy by 1795. The Girondins were thus the war party in 1792–93. Other prominent Girondins included Jean Marie Roland and his wife Madame Roland. They had an ally in the English-born, sometime American, activist Thomas Paine. Brissot and Madame Roland were executed and Jean Roland (who had gone into hiding) committed suicide when he learned what had transpired. Paine was arrested and imprisoned but narrowly escaped execution. The famous painting Death of Marat depicts the killing of the fiery radical journalist (and denouncer of the Girondins) Jean-Paul Marat by the Girondin sympathizer Charlotte Corday, who was executed. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Girondins
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:greekNationalist

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#greekNationalist

Greek nationalist

Greek nationalism (or Hellenic nationalism) refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture. As an ideology, Greek nationalism originated and evolved in pre-modern times. It became a major political movement beginning in the 18th century, which culminated in the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire. It became a potent movement in Greece shortly prior to, and during World War I under the leadership of nationalist figure Eleutherios Venizelos who pursued the Megali Idea and managed to liberate Greece in the Balkan Wars and after World War I, briefly annexed the region of Izmir before it was retaken by Turkey. Today Greek nationalism remains important in the Greco-Turkish dispute over Cyprus. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Greek_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:guelphPartyFlorence

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#guelphPartyFlorence

Guelph party (Florence)

The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of Central and Northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, however, persisted until the 15th century.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Guelphs_and_Ghibellines
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:hanoverian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hanoverian

Hanoverian

The House of Hanover is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and that also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 and ruled the United Kingdom until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. The House of Hanover was formally named the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line, as it was originally a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The senior branch became extinct in 1884, and the House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:House_of_Hanover
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:heterosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#heterosexual

heterosexuality

Heterosexuality indicates sexual attraction to the so-called "opposite sex," that is, sexual attraction between men and women. This understanding relies, like bisexual, on a binary understanding of sex and gender that also often conflates sex with gender. Adrienne Rich draws on Kathleen Gough in articulating an understanding of heterosexuality as compulsory for women within patriarchy. In her essay "The Straight Mind" (first published in 1980) Monique Wittig understands heterosexuality as a semiotic, linguistic, political, and ontological construct. It constitutes itself as a normative system through the oppression of women by men and the "necessity of the different/other at every level". The straight mind "creates the doctrine of the difference between sexes to justify this oppression".

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:hinduism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hinduism

Hinduism

General term for the set of intellectual and philosophical tenets and highly diverse beliefs and practices that define the civilization, art, literature, society, and politics of the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is not a common set of rigid beliefs , but varies significantly between different regions; it includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Srauta, and numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. The highest divine powers are seen as complementary to one another and not exclusive. Hinduism does not have a particular founder or central authority. Hindu literature is rich and varied, with no one text considered uniquely authoritative. The Vedas, dating to the Vedic period (ca. 1200-500 BCE), are the earliest extant writings. Religious law books and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have been and continue to be highly influential. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Hinduism
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073727
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:homosexual

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#homosexual

homosexuality

Homosexuality indicates sexual attraction to subjects of the same gender. Like bisexual, it draws on a binary understanding of sex and gender that also often conflates sex with gender. Homosexual is often used as an umbrella term for lesbian and gay sexuality.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:housingMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#housingMovement

housing movement

Advocacy or activism related to housing for the poor or otherwise disadvantaged.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:humanRights

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#humanRights

human rights

Advocacy or activism in support of human rights. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Human_rights
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:humanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#humanism

humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it. The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today humanism typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Humanism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:imperialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#imperialism

imperialism

Imperialism means "to extend a country's power through military and diplomacy". Its name originated from the Latin word imperium, which means to rule over large territories. Imperialism is "a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means". It has also allowed for the rapid spread of technologies and ideas. The term imperialism has been applied to Western (and Japanese) political and economic dominance especially in Asia and Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars. Some writers, such as Edward Said, use the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. Imperialism is defined as "A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force." Imperialism is particularly focused on the control that one group, often a state power, has on another group of people. This is often through various forms of "othering" (see other) based on racial, religious, or cultural stereotypes. There are "formal" or "informal" imperialisms. "Formal imperialism" is defined as "physical control or full-fledged colonial rule". "Informal imperialism" is less direct; however, it is still a powerful form of dominance. The definition of imperialism has not been finalized for centuries and was confusedly seen to represent the policies of major powers, or simply, general-purpose aggressiveness. Further on, some writers used the term imperialism, in slightly more discriminating fashion, to mean all kinds of domination or control by a group of people over another. To clear out this confusion about the definition of imperialism one could speak of "formal" and "informal" imperialism, the first meaning physical control or "full-fledged colonial rule" while the second implied less direct rule though still containing perceivable kinds of dominance. Informal rule is generally less costly than taking over territories formally. This is because, with informal rule, the control is spread more subtly through technological superiority, enforcing land officials into large debts that cannot be repaid, ownership of private industries thus expanding the controlled area, or having countries agree to uneven trade agreements forcefully. It is mostly accepted that modern-day colonialism is an expression of imperialism and cannot exist without the latter. The extent to which "informal" imperialism with no formal colonies is properly described remains a controversial topic among historians. Both colonization and imperialism have been described by Tom Nairn and Paul James as early forms of globalization: Even if a particular empire does not have a "global reach" as we would define it today, empires by their nature still tend to contribute to processes of globalization because of the way that imperial power tends to generate counter-power at its edge-lands and send out reverberations far beyond the territories of their immediate control. The word imperialism became common in Great Britain during the 1870s and was used with a negative connotation. In Great Britain, the word had until then mostly been used to refer to the politics of Napoleon III in obtaining favorable public opinion in France through foreign military interventions. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Imperialism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:indianIndependence

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indianIndependence

Indian independence movement

The Indian Independence Movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1858) and the British Raj (1858–1947) in the Indian subcontinent. The Movement spanned a total of 190 years (1757-1947). The very first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took movement in the then newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of nonviolence and civil resistance, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's constitutional struggle for the rights of minorities in India, and several other campaigns. Activists Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Bhagat Singh preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Poets and writers such as Rabindranath Tagore, Subramaniya Bharathi, Allama Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature, poetry and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. Babasaheb Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India movement led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Army movement led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. The Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society. It also underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic, republican, and civil-libertarian political structure. After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, due to the increasing influence of left-wing elements in the Congress as well as the rise and growth of the Communist Party of India. The All-India Muslim League was formed in 1906 as a separate Muslim party which later in 1940 called for separate state of Pakistan. The work of these various movements led ultimately to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which ended the suzerainty in India and the creation of Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India; Pakistan was a dominion until 1956, when it adopted its first republican constitution. In 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Indian_independence_movement
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:indigenousRights

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigenousRights

Indigenous rights movement

Advocacy or activism in support of human rights. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_rights

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Indigenous_rights
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:indigent

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#indigent

indigent

This social class is "poor, destitute, unemployed," supported by charity, or on social security.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:individualism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#individualism

individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon one's own interests by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, collectivism and more corporate social forms. Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts "with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation." Classical Liberalism, existentialism, and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves "the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization". It has also been used as a term denoting "The quality of being an individual; individuality" related to possessing "An individual characteristic; a quirk." Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self-creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors as so also with humanist philosophical positions and ethics. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Individualism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:internationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#internationalism

internationalism

Internationalism is a political principle which advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and peoples, and whose ideological roots can be traced to both socialism and liberalism. Supporters of this principle are referred to as internationalists, and generally believe that the people of the world should unite across national, political, cultural, racial, or class boundaries to advance their common interests, or that the governments of the world should cooperate because their mutual long-term interests are of greater importance than their short-term disputes. Internationalism is, in general, opposed to nationalism, jingoism or chauvinism, and war, and proponents can include supporters of any of the four socialist Internationals and organizations such as the United Nations or the World Federalist Movement. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Internationalism_(politics)
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:irishHomeRuleMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishHomeRuleMovement

Irish Home Rule Movement

The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that agitated for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It was the dominant political movement of Irish nationalism from 1870 to the end of World War I. Isaac Butt founded the Home Government Association in 1870. This was succeeded in 1873 by the Home Rule League, and in 1882 by the Irish Parliamentary Party. These organisations campaigned for home rule in the British House of Commons. Under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, the movement came close to success when the Liberal government under William Ewart Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill in 1886, but the bill was defeated in the House of Commons after a split in the Liberal Party. After Parnell's death, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in 1893; it passed the Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords. After the removal of the Lords' veto in 1911, the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, leading to the Home Rule Crisis. On the outbreak of World War I it was enacted, but suspended until the conclusion of the war. Following the Easter Rising of 1916, public support shifted from the Home Rule movement to the more radical Sinn Féin party. In the 1918 General Election the Irish Parliamentary Party suffered a crushing defeat, only a handful of MP's surviving. This was effectively the death of the Home Rule movement. The elected Sinn Féin MPs had no interest in home rule, instead setting up their own legislature, Dáil Éireann, and declaring the independence of Ireland as a republic. Britain passed a Fourth Home Rule Bill, the Government of Ireland Act 1920, aimed at creating separate parliaments for Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. The former was established in 1921, and the state continues to this day, but the latter never functioned. Following the Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War, the 26 southern counties of Ireland gained independence as the Irish Free State. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Irish_Home_Rule_movement
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:irishNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishNationalism

Irish nationalism

Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation. Since the partition of Ireland, the term generally refers to support for a united Ireland. Irish nationalists assert that rule from London has been to the detriment of Irish interests. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Irish_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:irishRepublicanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishRepublicanism

Irish republicanism

Irish republicanism (Irish: poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic. The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was reflected in Ireland in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule. This followed hundreds of years of British conquest and Irish resistance through rebellion. Discrimination against Catholics and Non-conformists, attempts by the British administration to suppress Irish culture, and the belief that Ireland was economically disadvantaged as a result of the Act of Union were among the specific factors leading to such opposition. The Society of United Irishmen, formed in the 1780s and led primarily by liberal Protestants, evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the 1798 Rebellion with the help of French troops. The rebellion had some success, especially in County Wexford, before it was suppressed. A second rising in 1803, led by Robert Emmet, was quickly put down, and Emmet was hanged. The Young Ireland movement, formed in the 1830s, was initially a part of the Repeal Association of Daniel O'Connell, but broke with O'Connell on the issue of the legitimacy of the use of violence. Primarily a political and cultural organisation, some members of Young Ireland staged an abortive rising, the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Its leaders were transported to Van Diemen's Land. Some of these escaped to the United States, where they linked up with other Irish exiles to form the Fenian Brotherhood. Together with the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in Ireland by James Stephens and others in 1858, they made up a movement commonly known as "Fenians" which was dedicated to the overthrow of British imperial rule in Ireland. They staged another rising, the Fenian Rising, in 1867, and a dynamite campaign in England in the 1880s. In the early 20th century IRB members, in particular Tom Clarke and Seán MacDermott, began planning another rising. The Easter Rising took place from 24 to 30 April 1916, when members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the centre of Dublin, proclaimed a republic and held off British forces for almost a week. The execution of the Rising's leaders, including Clarke, MacDermott, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, led to a surge of support for republicanism in Ireland. In 1917 the Sinn Féin party stated as its aim the "securing the international recognition of Ireland as an independent Irish Republic", and in the general election of 1918 Sinn Féin took 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British House of Commons. The elected members did not take their seats but instead set up the First Dáil. Between 1919 and 1921 the Irish Republican Army (IRA), who were loyal to the Dáil, fought the British Army and Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) in the Irish War of Independence. Talks between the British and Irish in late 1921 led to a treaty by which the British conceded, not a 32-county Irish Republic, but a 26-county Irish Free State with Dominion status. This led to the Irish Civil War, in which the republicans were defeated by their former comrades. The Free State became an independent constitutional monarchy following the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 and formally became a republic with the passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. That same year, the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland thereafter. The Border Campaign, which lasted from 1956 to 1962, involved bombings and attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks. The failure of this campaign led the republican leadership to concentrate on political action, and to move to the left. Following the outbreak of The Troubles in 1968-9, the movement split between Officials (leftists) and Provisionals (traditionalists) at the beginning of 1970. Both sides were initially involved in an armed campaign against the British state, but the Officials gradually moved into mainstream politics after the Official IRA ceasefire of 1972; the associated "Official Sinn Féin" eventually renamed itself the Workers' Party. The Provisional IRA, except during brief ceasefires in 1972 and 1975, kept up a campaign of violence for nearly thirty years, directed against security forces and civilian targets (especially businesses). While the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) represented the nationalists of Northern Ireland in initiatives such as the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement, republicans took no part in these, believing that a withdrawal of British troops and a commitment to a united Ireland was a necessary precondition of any settlement. This began to change with a landmark speech by Danny Morrison in 1981, advocating what became known as the Armalite and ballot box strategy. Under the leadership of Gerry Adams, Sinn Féin began to focus on the search for a political settlement. When the party voted in 1986 to take seats in legislative bodies within Ireland, there was a walk-out of die-hard republicans, who set up Republican Sinn Féin and the Continuity IRA. Following the Hume–Adams dialogue, Sinn Féin took part in the Northern Ireland peace process which led to the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997 and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly, republicans sat in government in Northern Ireland for the first time when Martin McGuinness and Bairbre de Brún were elected to the Northern Ireland Executive. However, another split occurred, with anti-Agreement republicans setting up the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and the Real IRA. Today, Irish republicanism is divided between those who support the institutions set up under the Good Friday Agreement and the later St Andrews Agreement, and those who oppose them. The latter are often referred to as "dissident" republicans. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Irish_republicanism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:irishUnionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#irishUnionism

Irish unionism

Unionism in Ireland is a political ideology that favours the continuation of some form of political union between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Since the partition of Ireland, unionism in Ireland has focused on maintaining and preserving the place of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom. In this context, a distinction may be made between the unionism in the province of Ulster and unionism elsewhere in Ireland. Today in Northern Ireland, Unionist ideology is expressed in a number of different ways: through preferences for particular newspapers or sports team, participation in unionist culture and by voting for political candidates who espouse unionism. Irish nationalism is opposed to the ideology of unionism. Most unionists come from Protestant backgrounds; most nationalists come from a Roman Catholic background. Exceptions to these generalisations exist; there are Protestant nationalists and there are Catholic unionists. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Unionism_in_Ireland
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:islam

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#islam

Islamism

Refers to the religious beliefs and social practices founded in the seventh century by the Arabian Prophet Muhammad, held to be the last of a series of major prophets, which include, according to Islamic dogma, Adam, Noah, and Jesus. It later spread throughout the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and parts of Asia. It is characterized by the belief in the fundamental idea that a devotee 'surrenders' and submits his will to Allah, the prime creator and sustainer of the universe and all creation. In Islam, God is unique and has no partner or intermediary as in the Christian Trinity. Social service and the active alleviation of suffering in others is considered the only path to salvation and prayer and sacred ritual alone are inadequate forms of submission to Allah. The Qur'an (Koran), the sacred text of the religion, is a compilation of revelations from Allah believed to have been received by Muhammad. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073715
dbpedia:Islam
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:italianNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#italianNationalism

Italian nationalism

Support for the unification of Italy as a single nation or of Italian nationalism. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_nationalismhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_unification

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Italian_unification
dbpedia:Italian_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:jacobism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jacobism

Jacobism

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (French: Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or just collectively Jacobins, was the most famous and influential political club in the development of the French Revolution. Initially founded by anti-Royalist deputies from Brittany, the Club grew into a nationwide republican movement, with a membership estimated at a half million or more. The Jacobin Club was heterogeneous and included both prominent parliamentary factions of the early 1790s, the radical Mountain and the more moderate Girondists. In 1792–3, the Girondists (led by Brissot and including Thomas Paine) dominated the Jacobin Club and led the country. Believing that revolutionary France would not be accepted by its neighbours, they called for an aggressive foreign policy and forced war on Austria. The Girondists were the dominant faction when the Jacobins overthrew the monarchy and created the republic. When the Republic failed to deliver the unrealistic gains that had been expected, they lost popularity. The Girondists sought to curb fanatical revolutionary violence, and were therefore accused by the Mountain of being royalist sympathisers. The National Guard eventually switched its support from the Girondists to the Mountain, allowing the Mountain to stage a coup d'etat. In May 1793, led by Maximilien de Robespierre, the leaders of the Mountain faction succeeded in sidelining the Girondist faction and controlled the government until July 1794. Their time in government was characterized by radically progressive legislation imposed with very high levels of political violence. In June 1793, they approved the Constitution of Year 1 which introduced universal male suffrage for the first time in history. In September 1793, twenty-one prominent Girondists were guillotined, beginning the Reign of Terror. In October, during the Terror, the new constitution was ratified in a referendum which most eligible voters avoided participating in. The Mountain executed tens of thousands of opponents nationwide, ostensibly to suppress the Vendée insurrection and the Federalist insurrections, and to prevent any other insurrections, during the War of the First Coalition. In 1794, the fall of Robespierre pushed the Mountain out of power. The Jacobin Club was closed and many of its remaining leaders, notably Robespierre, were themselves executed. Today, Jacobin and Jacobinism are used in a variety of senses. In Britain, where the term "Jacobin" has been linked primarily to the Mountain, it is sometimes used as a pejorative for radical, left-wing revolutionary politics, especially when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression. In France, "Jacobin" now generally indicates a supporter of a centralized republican state and strong central government powers and/or supporters of extensive government intervention to transform society. It is also used in other related senses, indicating proponents of a state education system which strongly promotes and inculcates civic values, and proponents of a strong nation-state capable of resisting any undesirable foreign interference. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Jacobin
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:jacobitism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jacobitism

Jacobitism

Jacobitism (/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzm/ JAK-ə-beye-TIZ-əm;Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas, Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James VII of Scotland, II of England and Ireland, and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland. The movement took its name from Jacobus, the Renaissance Latin form of Iacomus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled against the British government on several occasions between 1688 and 1746. After James II was deposed in 1688 and replaced by his daughter Mary II, ruling jointly with her husband and first cousin (James's nephew) William III, the Stuarts lived in exile, occasionally attempting to regain the throne. The strongholds of Jacobitism were parts of the Scottish Highlands and the lowland north-east of Scotland, Ireland, and parts of Northern England (mostly within the counties of Northumberland and Lancashire). Significant support also existed in Wales and South-West England. The Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with the line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones was illegal. Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy. In Scotland, the Jacobite cause became intertwined with the last throes of the warrior clan system. The emblem of the Jacobites is the White Cockade. White Rose Day is celebrated on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of the Old Pretender in 1688. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Jacobitism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:jewishEmancipation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishEmancipation

Jewish emancipation

Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis. It included efforts within the community to integrate into their societies as citizens. It occurred gradually between the late 18th century and the early 20th century. Jewish emancipation followed the Age of Enlightenment and the concurrent Jewish enlightenment. Various nations repealed or superseded previous discriminatory laws applied specifically against Jews where they resided. Before the emancipation, most Jews were isolated in residential areas from the rest of the society; emancipation was a major goal of European Jews of that time, who worked within their communities to achieve integration in the majority societies and broader education. Many became active politically and culturally within wider European civil society as Jews gained full citizenship. They emigrated to countries offering better social and economic opportunities, such as the Russian Empire and France. Some European Jews turned to Socialism, others to Jewish nationalism: Zionism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Jewish_emancipation
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:jewishEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishEthnicity

Jewish

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
cwrc:Ethnicity
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:jewishGeographicalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishGeographicalHeritage

Jewish

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
skos:Concept
cwrc:GeographicalHeritage

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Instance: cwrc:jewishLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishLabel

Jewish

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:jewishNationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishNationalIdentity

Jewish

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalIdentity
owl:Thing
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:judaism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#judaism

Judaism

Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Judaism
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073723
RDF Type:
owl:Thing
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:labourMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#labourMovement

labour movement

The Labour movement or Labor movement (see spelling differences), or, respectively, labourism or laborism, are general terms for the collective organization of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, their governments. The standard unit of organization is the trade union. In some countries, especially the United Kingdom and Australia, the labour movement is understood to include a formal political wing, usually as a political party known as a "labour party" or "workers' party". Many individuals and political groups otherwise considered to represent ruling classes may be part of and active in the labour movement. Contemporary labourism developed in response to the depredations of industrial capitalism at about the same time as socialism. However, while the goal of labourism was to protect and strengthen the interests of labour within capitalism, the goal of socialism was to replace the capitalist system entirely. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Labour_movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:left-Wing

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#left-Wing

left-wing

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. It typically involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others (prioritarianism), as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished (by advocating for social justice). The term left wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms Left and Right were coined during the French Revolution (1789–1799), referring to the seating arrangement in the Estates General: those who sat on the left generally opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents". The word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century, usually with disparaging intent, and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views. The term was later applied to a number of movements, especially republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism, anarchism, and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since then, the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements, and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to author Barry Clark, "Leftists [...] claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status, power, and wealth are eliminated.". (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Left-wing_politics
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:lesbian

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lesbian

lesbianism

Lesbianism indicates the sexual attraction of women to other women. Yet, lesbian feminist thinkers underline that this common definition is reductive. Drawing on Kathleen Gough and within an understanding of heterosexuality as compulsory for women within patriarchy, Adrienne Rich describes a lesbian continuum, the "range—through each woman's life and throughout history—of woman-identified experiences, not simply the fact that a woman has had or consciously desired genital sexual experience with another woman" (Of Blood Bread and Poetry, 1983) . In a heteronormative context, lesbianism is not only a question of sexuality but also has complex political implications.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:liberalUnionistParty

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#liberalUnionistParty

Liberal Unionist Party

The Liberal Unionist Party was a British political party that was formed in 1886 by a faction that broke away from the Liberal Party. Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule. The two parties formed the ten-year-long, coalition Unionist Government 1895–1905 but kept separate political funds and their own party organisations until a complete merger was agreed in May 1912. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Liberal_Unionist_Party
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:liberalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#liberalism

liberalism

Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Whereas classical liberalism emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation. Liberalism first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, and the Divine Right of Kings. The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct philosophical tradition. Locke argued that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property, while adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy and the rule of law. Prominent revolutionaries in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. Liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the French Revolution. The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America, and North America. In this period, the dominant ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism later survived major ideological challenges from new opponents, such as fascism and communism. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Liberalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:libertarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#libertarianism

Libertarianism

Libertarianism (Latin: liber, "free") is a collection of political philosophies that uphold liberty. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment. Libertarians generally share a skepticism of authority; however, they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling to restrict or to dissolve coercive social institutions. Some libertarians advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure, and natural resources. Others, notably libertarian socialists, seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production in favor of their common or cooperative ownership and management. An additional line of division is between minarchists and anarchists. While minarchists think that a minimal centralized government is necessary, anarchists propose to completely eliminate the state. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Libertarianism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:lollardy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollardy

Lollardy

Lollardy (Lollardry, Lollardism) was a political and religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation. It was initially led by John Wycliffe, a prominent theologian who was dismissed from the University of Oxford in 1381 for criticism of the Church, especially in his doctrine on the Eucharist. The Lollards' demands were primarily for reform of Western Christianity. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Lollardy
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:lowerMiddleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lowerMiddleClass

lower-middle class

Employees, clerical workers, teachers, governesses. Note, however, that some teachers go into Professions (Mr. Chips from the 1939 film of that name) and women starting schools and then managing them also go into Professions.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:maleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleLabel

male

Comment:

Deprecated with no current equivalence..

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels

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Instance: cwrc:man

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#man

man

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
skos:Concept
cwrc:Gender

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Instance: cwrc:manLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#manLabel

man

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:managerial

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#managerial

managerial

This class refers to those whose "station in life comes from the fact that they are running something but not putting their money into it, for instance salaried civil service, bankers, or hospital administrators."brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:maoism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maoism

Maoism

Mao Zedong Thought (simplified Chinese: 毛泽东思想; traditional Chinese: 毛澤東思想; pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), or Maoism, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong (1893–1976). Its followers, known as Maoists, consider it an anti-Revisionist form of Marxism–Leninism. Developed from the 1950s until the Deng Xiaoping reforms in the 1970s, it was widely applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. The essential difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism is that Mao claimed that peasants should be the essential revolutionary class in China, because, contrary to their industrial working "comrades," they were more suited to establishing a successful revolution and socialist society in China. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Maoism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:marriageLawReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#marriageLawReform

marriage law reform

Advocacy or activism related to the reform of laws related to marriage and divorce, including education, marital rape, wages for housework and childrearing, property law, child custody, and civil rights.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:marxism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#marxism

Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marxist methodology originally used a method of economic and sociopolitical inquiry known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. According to Marxist perspective, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between the highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat, and the private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product (profit) by a small minority of the population who are private owners called the bourgeoisie. As the contradiction becomes apparent to the proletariat through the alienation of labor, social unrest between the two antagonistic classes will intensify, until it culminates in social revolution. The eventual long-term outcome of this revolution would be the establishment of socialism – a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution, and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces and technology continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would eventually give way to a communist stage of social development, which would be a classless, stateless, humane society erected on common ownership and the principle of "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has since developed into different branches and schools of thought, and there is now no single definitive Marxist theory. Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while de-emphasizing or rejecting other aspects, and sometimes combine Marxist analysis with non-Marxian concepts; as a result, they might reach contradictory conclusions from each other. Lately, however, there is movement toward the recognition that the main aspect of Marxism is philosophy of dialectical materialism and historicism, which should result to more agreement between different schools. Marxist analyses and methodologies have influenced multiple political ideologies and social movements, and Marxist understandings of history and society have been adopted by some academics in the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, media studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, critical psychology, and philosophy. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Marxism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:methodism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#methodism

Methodism

"Or United Methodists, an English Nonconformist community formed in 1907 by the union of the Methodist New Connexion (1797), the Bible Christians (1815), and the United Methodist Free Churches (1857). The act of parliament which enabled this amalgamation received the royal assent on the 26th of July 1907, and authorized the union “to deal with real and personal property belonging to the said three churches or denominations, to provide for the vesting of the said property in trust for the United Church so formed and for the assimilation of the trusts thereof, and for other purposes.” The union was completed on the 16th of September 1907 in Wesley's Chapel, City Road, London."(Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911)

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:millenarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#millenarianism

Millenarianism

Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin mīllēnārius "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed. Millenarianism is a concept or theme that exists in many cultures and religions. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Millenarianism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept
foaf:Organization

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Instance: cwrc:monarchism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#monarchism

monarchism

Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent of any specific monarch; one who espouses a particular monarch is a royalist. Conversely, the opposition to monarchical rule is sometimes referred to as republicanism. Depending on the country, a monarchist may advocate for the rule of the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Monarchism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:multiculturalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#multiculturalism

multiculturalism

Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, and/or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. This can happen when a jurisdiction is created or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures (e.g. French Canada and English Canada) or through immigration from different jurisdictions around the world (e.g. Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and many other countries). Multicultural ideologies and policies vary widely, ranging from the advocacy of equal respect to the various cultures in a society, to a policy of promoting the maintenance of cultural diversity, to policies in which people of various ethnic and religious groups are addressed by the authorities as defined by the group to which they belong. Multiculturalism that promotes maintaining the distinctiveness of multiple cultures is often contrasted to other settlement policies such as social integration, cultural assimilation and racial segregation. Multiculturalism has been described as a "salad bowl" and "cultural mosaic". Two different and seemingly inconsistent strategies have developed through different government policies and strategies. The first focuses on interaction and communication between different cultures; this approach is also often known as interculturalism. The second centers on diversity and cultural uniqueness which can sometimes result in intercultural competition over jobs among other things and may lead to ethnic conflict. Cultural isolation can protect the uniqueness of the local culture of a nation or area and also contribute to global cultural diversity. A common aspect of many policies following the second approach is that they avoid presenting any specific ethnic, religious, or cultural community values as central. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Multiculturalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:multiracialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#multiracialism

multiracialism

Multiracialism is a concept or ideology that promotes a society composed of various races, while accepting and respecting different cultural backgrounds. It is a society that consists of a diverse mix of people, whether it be relative to their ethnicity, language, culture, religion, or traditions. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Multiracialism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:nationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nationalism

nationalism

Nationalism is a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture or ethnicity that holds that group together. This can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with or becoming attached to one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related concept of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviours that support a state's decisions and actions. From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism. One is the primordialist perspective that describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct groupings based on an affinity of birth. The other is the modernist perspective that describes nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society in order to exist. An alternative perspective to both of these lineages comes out of engaged theory, and argues that while the form of nationalism is modern, the content and subjective reach of nationalism depends upon 'primordial' sentiments. There are various definitions for what constitutes a nation, however, which leads to several different strands of nationalism. It can be a belief that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity group, or that multinationality in a single state should necessarily comprise the right to express and exercise national identity even by minorities.The adoption of national identity in terms of historical development has commonly been the result of a response by influential groups unsatisfied with traditional identities due to inconsistency between their defined social order and the experience of that social order by its members, resulting in a situation of anomie that nationalists seek to resolve. This anomie results in a society or societies reinterpreting identity, retaining elements that are deemed acceptable and removing elements deemed unacceptable, in order to create a unified community. This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are or are deemed to be controlling them. National flags, national anthems and other symbols of national identity are commonly considered highly important symbols of the national community. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:nazism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nazism

Nazism

National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism (/ˈnɑːtsɪzəm, ˈnæ-/), is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state, as well as other far-right groups. Usually characterized as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism, Nazism developed out of the influences of Pan-Germanism, the Völkisch German nationalist movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic after German defeat in World War I. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of "racial purity" (Volksgemeinschaft). The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum, while excluding those deemed either to be community aliens or belonging to an "inferior" race. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class struggle, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, and sought to convince all parts of a new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good" and to accept the priority of political interests in economic organisation. The Nazi Party was founded as the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP) to broaden its appeal. The National Socialist Program, adopted in 1920, called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, written in 1924, Hitler outlined the antisemitism and anti-communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for parliamentary democracy and his belief in Germany’s right to territorial expansion. In 1933, with the support of traditional conservative nationalists, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany and the Nazis gradually established a one-party state, under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, with several millions eventually imprisoned and killed. Hitler purged the party’s more socially and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives and, after the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in his hands, as Führer or "leader". Following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Nazism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:neo-Conservatism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-Conservatism

neo-conservatism

Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among conservative leaning Democrats who became disenchanted with the party's foreign policy. Many of its adherents became politically famous during the Republican presidential administrations of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Neoconservatives peaked in influence during the administration of George W. Bush, when they played a major role in promoting and planning the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Prominent neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration included Paul Wolfowitz, John Bolton, Elliott Abrams, Richard Perle and Paul Bremer. Senior officials Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, while not identifying as neoconservatives, listened closely to neoconservative advisers regarding foreign policy, especially the defense of Israel and the promotion of democracy in the Middle East. The term "neoconservative" refers to those who made the ideological journey from the anti-Stalinist Left to the camp of American conservatism. Neoconservatives typically advocate the promotion of democracy and promotion of American national interest in international affairs, including by means of military force and are known for espousing disdain for communism and for political radicalism. The movement had its intellectual roots in the Jewish monthly review magazine Commentary, published by the American Jewish Committee. They spoke out against the New Left and in that way helped define the movement. C. Bradley Thompson, a professor at Clemson University, claims that most influential neoconservatives refer explicitly to the theoretical ideas in the philosophy of Leo Strauss (1899–1973),though in doing so they may draw upon meaning that Strauss himself did not endorse. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Neoconservatism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:neo-thomism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#neo-thomism

Neo-thomism

Neo-Scholasticism (also known as neo-scholastic Thomism or neo-Thomism because of the great influence of the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas on the movement), is a revival and development of medieval scholasticism in Roman Catholic theology and philosophy which began in the second half of the 19th century.(DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Neo-Scholasticism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:newDealer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#newDealer

new dealer

Supporter of New Deal policies. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:New_Deal
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:nihilism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nihilism

nihilism

Nihilism is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value. Moral nihilists assert that morality does not inherently exist, and that any established moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism can also take epistemological, ontological, or metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or that reality does not actually exist. The term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence that one may develop upon realising there are no necessary norms, rules, or laws. Movements such as Futurism and deconstruction, among others, have been identified by commentators as "nihilistic". Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch, and some Christian theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity and many aspects of modernity represent a rejection of theism, and that such rejection of their theistic doctrine entails nihilism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Nihilism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:nobility

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nobility

nobility

This group refers to "those holding a title or of close family relation to someone holding a title (such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord Byron, or Nancy Mitford)".brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:nonjurorsMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#nonjurorsMovement

nonjurors movement

The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William III and Mary II could legally be recognised as sovereigns. The word "nonjuring" means "not swearing [an oath]", from the Latin word iuro or juro meaning "to swear an oath". Many of the Anglican clergy felt legally bound by their previous oaths of allegiance to James II and, though they could accept William as regent, they could not accept him as king. It was not necessarily a split on matters of religious doctrine, but more of a political issue and a matter of conscience, though most of the nonjurors were high church Anglicans. Thus, latitudinarian Anglicans were handed control of the Church of England, while Presbyterians took control of the Church of Scotland. The nonjurors thus were nominally Jacobite, although they generally did not actively support the Jacobite rebellions in 1715 or 1745. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Nonjuring_schism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:occultism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#occultism

Occultism/Theosophism

Any religious or philosophic ideology based on mystical insight into the nature of God and/or divine truth. This insight is attained only through direct experience of the divine. The term is sometimes used to specifically refer to the principles of the Theosophical Society founded in New York in 1875 by Madame Blavatsky and H. S. Olcott which incorporated aspects of Buddhism and Brahmanism.(Getty, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300056000
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:pacifism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pacifism

pacifism

Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In Christianity, Jesus Christ's injunction to "love your enemies" and asking for forgiveness for his crucifiers "for they know not what they do" have been interpreted as calling for pacifism. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, particularly in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr., James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the Civil Rights Movement. Pacifism was widely associated with the much publicized image of Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989 with the "Tank Man", where one protester stood in nonviolent opposition to a column of tanks. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Pacifism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:paganism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#paganism

Paganism

Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own, Judaism, or Islam–the three Abrahamic religions. Throughout Christendom, it continued to be used, typically in a derogatory sense. In the 19th century, it was re-adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-description by practitioners of contemporary pagan, or neo-pagan, religious movements. There has been much scholarly argument as to the origin of the term paganism. Paganism has also been understood by some[who?] to include any non-Abrahamic religions, but this is generally[who?] seen as insulting by adherents of those religions. While paganism is often considered to exclude monotheism and to express a worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, or animistic, there are some monotheistic pagans. Once monotheistic religions, such as Christianity and Islam, started to become more prominent (in processes known as Christianization and Islamization), names to encompass polytheistic worshipers started to develop; some of these include Hellene, pagan, and heathen, and at times these names were used as slurs. Modern knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including: anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, and the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to the classical world. Before the rise of monotheistic religions, most people practiced some type of polytheism. Many of these religions started to die out, and eventually they became extinct. In some cases, elements of polytheistic belief systems continued to exist in folklore. Paganism would later be studied during the Renaissance and Romantic era. Forms of these religions, influenced by various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, exist today and are known as contemporary or modern paganism, also referred to as Neo-paganism. (DBpedia, 2017)

RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:parliamentarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parliamentarianism

parliamentarianism

Advocacy for parliamentary systems in government. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_system

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Parliamentary_system
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:parliamentaryReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#parliamentaryReform

parliamentary reform

Support for reform of the parliamentary system of the United Kingdom. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reform_Bills; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Representation_of_the_People_Acts; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_reform

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Category:Representation_of_the_People_Acts
dbpedia:Electoral_reform
dbpedia:Reform_Bills
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:patriotism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#patriotism

patriotism

Patriotism is an emotional attachment to a nation which an individual recognizes as their homeland. This attachment, also known as national feeling or national pride, can be viewed in terms of different features relating to one's own nation, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to those of nationalism. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; another related term is jingoism. The English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era, via Middle French from Late Latin (6th century) patriota, meaning "countryman", ultimately from Greek πατριώτης (patriōtēs), meaning "from the same country", from πατρίς (patris), meaning "fatherland". The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Patriotism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:plymouthBrethren

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#plymouthBrethren

Plymouth Brethren

The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, Evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism. Among other beliefs, the group emphasizes sola scriptura, the belief that the Bible is the supreme authority for church doctrine and practice over and above "the [mere] tradition of men" (Mark 7:8). Brethren generally see themselves not as a denomination but as a network, or even as a collection of overlapping networks, of like-minded independent churches. (The Brethren would generally prefer that their gatherings be referred to as "assemblies" rather than "churches" but, in the interests of simplicity, this article uses both terms interchangeably.) The movement refused for many years to take any denominational name to itself, a stance that some still maintain. The title "The Brethren," however, is one that many of their number are comfortable with, in that the Bible designates all believers as "brethren". ("[O]ne is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren." Matthew 23:8)(DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Plymouth_Brethren
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:polishNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#polishNationalism

Polish nationalism

Polish nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Poles are a Polish nation, and promotes the cultural unity of Poles. Norman Davies, in the context of Polish nationalism, defined nationalism in general as "a doctrine ... to create a nation by arousing people's awareness of their nationality, and to mobilize their feelings into a vehicle for political action". The old Polish protonationalism of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth based on the Polish-Lithuanian identity was multi-ethnic and multi-religious. The nationalist ideology developed soon after the Partitions was initially free of "ethnic nationalism" of any kind. It was a Romantic movement for the restoration of the Polish sovereign state. Polish Romantic nationalism was described by Maurycy Mochnacki as "the essence of the nation" no longer defined by borders but by ideas, feelings, and thoughts resulting from the past. The birth of modern nationalism under foreign rule coincided with the November Uprising of 1830 and the subsequent Spring of Nations. However, the defeat suffered by the Poles also broke the Polish revolutionary spirit. Many intellectuals turned to social Darwinism of Herbert Spencer, blaming the Romantic philosophy for the loss of their property, mass destruction, and ultimately the loss of the nation. With the advent of Positivism between 1860 and 1890 Polish nationalism became an elitist cause. Because the partitioning powers could not have identified themselves with the Polish nation, therefore the ideology became more restrictive in terms of ethnicity and religion. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Polish_nationalism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:poorAdvocacy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#poorAdvocacy

poor advocacy

Advocacy for the poor.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:poorLawReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#poorLawReform

poor law reform

From the reign of Elizabeth I until the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 relief of the poor in England was administered on the basis of a Poor Law enacted in 1601. From the start of the nineteenth century the basic concept of providing poor relief was criticised as misguided by leading political economists and in southern agricultural counties the burden of poor-rates was felt to be excessive (especially where poor-rates were used to supplement low wages (the 'allowance' or Speenhamland system)). Opposition to the Elizabethan Poor Law led to a Royal Commission on poor relief, which recommended that poor relief could not in the short term be abolished; however it should be curtailed, and administered on such terms that none but the desperate would claim it. Relief should only be administered in workhouses, whose inhabitants were to be confined, 'classified' (men, women, boys, girls) and segregated. The Poor Law Amendment Act allowed these changes to be implemented by a Poor Law Commission largely unaccountable to Parliament. The Act was passed by large majorities in Parliament, but the regime it was intended to bring about was denounced by its critics as (variously) un-Christian, un-English, unconstitutional, and impracticable for the great manufacturing districts of Northern England. The Act itself did not introduce the regime, but introduced a framework by which it might easily be brought in. Opposition to the New Poor Law strictly speaking was resistance to the introduction of the New Poor Law administrative framework; this was chiefly encountered in the industrial North in 1837–9 and overcome after a few riots by a judicious mixture of legal threats and deployment of the military. Opposition to the New Poor Law in the looser sense of resistance to (and criticism of) key features of the regime recommended by the Royal Commission persisted and eventually became orthodoxy: for example outdoor relief was never abolished in much of the industrial North. When a prominent West Riding opponent of the New Poor Law died in 1858, the Huddersfield Chronicle wrote "..the controversy closed and English common sense has settled down on the poor-law question somewhat nearer to the views of Oastler and Pitkethly than those of their opponents." (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Opposition_to_the_English_Poor_Laws
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:presbyterianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#presbyterianism

Presbyterianism

One of the main Protestant groups that arose out of the 16th-century Reformation. Generally speaking, modern Presbyterian churches trace their origins to the Calvinist churches of the British Isles, the European counterparts of which came to be known by the more inclusive name of Reformed. The term presbyterian also denotes a collegiate type of church government led by pastors and lay leaders called elders or presbyters. Strictly speaking, all Presbyterian churches are a part of the Reformed, or Calvinist, tradition, although not all Reformed churches are presbyterian in their form of government. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Presbyterianism
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300153854
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:prisonReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#prisonReform

prison reform

Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Prison_reform
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:pro-American

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-American

pro-American

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:pro-BoerWar

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-BoerWar

pro-Boer War

Support of the First or Second Boer War. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Boer_War; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Boer_War

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:First_Boer_War
dbpedia:Second_Boer_War
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:pro-Catholicism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Catholicism

pro-Catholicism

Favouring the political re-establishment of Catholicism as a component of the state or the extension of civil rights to Catholics. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Catholicism-related_controversies

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Category:Catholicism-related_controversies
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:pro-Choice

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Choice

pro-choice

Abortion-rights movements advocate for legal access to induced abortion services. The issue of induced abortion remains divisive in public life, with recurring arguments to liberalize or to restrict access to legal abortion services. Abortion-rights supporters themselves are frequently divided as to the types of abortion services that should be available and to the circumstances, for example different periods in the pregnancy such as late term abortions, in which access may be restricted. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Abortion-rights_movements
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:pro-European

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-European

pro-European

Supportive of the existence, policies, or influence of the European Union. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-Europeanism

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Pro-Europeanism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:pro-Slavery

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pro-Slavery

pro-slavery

Proslavery is an ideology that perceives slavery as a positive good. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Proslavery
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:professional

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#professional

professional

Doctors, lawyers, guild members, and those of high calling such as members of the clergy (Church of England) belong to this class. It implies social respect and intellectual requirements. Examples are Ann Hunter, who was married to a surgeon, and Virginia Woolf, daughter of an intellectual.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:propertyLawReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#propertyLawReform

property law reform

Support for reform of the laws regarding real or personal property. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Property_law

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Property_law
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:protestantRule

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantRule

Protestant rule

Support for protestant rule in the United Kingdom. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Reformation

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:English_Reformation
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

[back to top]

Instance: cwrc:protestantism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#protestantism

Protestantism

The general term for types of Christian faith originating from the Reformation. Although the early forms of Protestantism were those who followed Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli, the term now includes most non-Roman Catholic or non-Orthodox denominations. Protestants want to be closer to the style of faith of the early Church which they feel has been obscured in Catholic practices. The term derives from the word 'protestari' which means not only to protest but to avow or confess. Common characteristics of Protestantism include the justification by faith alone, the authority of scripture, and the priesthood of all believers, in which not only the clergy are able to hear the confession of sin. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300073735
dbpedia:Protestantism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:quakerism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakerism

Quakerism

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers. (DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Quakers
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:racialEquality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#racialEquality

racial equality

Racial equality is an equal regard to all races. It can refer to a belief in biological equality of all human races, and it can also refer to social equality for people of different races. Racial equality is a stated goal of most current political movements. The divergence of any particular society from a state of racial equality is often contested by members of that society of different races. In today's society, there is more diversity and more integration among races. However, attaining equality has been difficult for African Americans, Asians, and Latinos, especially in schools. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Racial_equality
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:racism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#racism

racism

Racism is a product of the complex interaction in a given society of a race-based worldview with prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems (e.g., apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as inferior or superior. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life. Associated social actions may include xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena. While race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior). Racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. The UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition. It is usually found in, but usage is not limited to, law, the social and behavioral sciences, humanities, and popular culture. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Racism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:radicalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#radicalism

radicalism

The term political radicalism (or simply, in political science, radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways. Derived from the Latin radix (root), the denotation of radical has changed since its eighteenth-century coinage to comprehend the entire political spectrum—yet retains the "change at the root" connotation fundamental to revolutionary societal change. Historically, radicalism has referred exclusively to the radical left (under the single category of far-left politics) and rarely incorporating far-right politics, though these may have revolutionary elements; the prominent exception is in the United States where some consider radicalism to include both political extremes of the radical left and the radical right. In traditional labels of the spectrum of political thought, the opposite of radical on the "right" of the political spectrum is termed reactionary. The nineteenth-century Cyclopaedia of Political Science (1881, 1889) reports that "radicalism is characterized less by its principles than by the manner of their application". Conservatives often used the term radical pejoratively, whereas contemporary left radicals used the term conservative derogatorily; thus contemporary denotations of radical, radicalism, and political radicalism comprehend far left (hard left, radical left), and far right (hard right, radical right). The Encyclopædia Britannica records the first political usage of radical as ascribed to the British Whig Party parliamentarian Charles James Fox, who, in 1797, proposed a "radical reform" of the electoral system, franchise to provide universal manhood suffrage, thereby, idiomatically establishing radical to denote supporters of the reformation of the British Parliament. Throughout the nineteenth century, the term was combined with political notions and doctrines, thus working class radicalism, middle class-, philosophic-, democratic- bourgeois-, Tory-, and plebeian radicalism. In the event, politically influential radical leaders give rise to their own trend of political radicalism, e.g. Spencean radicalism and Carlilean radicalism. Philosophically, the French political scientist Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–78), is the principal theoretician proposing political radicalism as feasible in republican political philosophy, viz the French Revolution (1789–99), and other modern revolutions—the antithesis to the liberalism of John Locke. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Political_radicalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:rationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalism

rationalism

In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure. Because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics, ethics, and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction. The rationalists had such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence were regarded as unnecessary to ascertain certain truths – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience". Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic (skeptical) clear interpretation of authority (open to the underlying or essential cause of things as they appear to our sense of certainty). In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. In politics, Rationalism, since the Enlightenment, historically emphasized a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism, secularism, and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism later ameliorated by utilitarian adoption of pluralistic rationalist methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology. In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became socially conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term 'rationalist' was often used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, and for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force (thus in 1670 Sanderson spoke disparagingly of 'a mere rationalist, that is to say in plain English an atheist of the late edition...'). The use of the label 'rationalist' to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today; terms like 'humanist' or 'materialist' seem largely to have taken its place. But the old usage still survives. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Rationalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:republicanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#republicanism

republicanism

Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. However, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word, republic, derives from the Latin, res publica, which referred to the system of government that emerged in the 6th century BCE following the expulsion of the kings from Rome by Lucius Junius Brutus and Collatinus. This form of government collapsed in the latter part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form, if not in name. Republics revived subsequently, with, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain. The concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britain's North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe it gained enormous influence through the French Revolution. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Republicanism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:revolutionaryPolitics

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#revolutionaryPolitics

revolutionary

A revolutionary is a person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Revolutionary
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:rural-unskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rural-unskilled

rural unskilled

This class generally indicates farm laborers, mostly male and in earlier periods, and includes migrant farm workers.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:sabbatarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sabbatarianism

Sabbatarianism

Sabbatarianism is a movement within Protestantism whose proponents advocate that certain observances, specifically enumerated in a code of behavior or law, are required for Christians to properly observe the Sabbath or Sabbath principles. Its historical origins lie in Puritan Sabbatarianism, which delineated precepts for keeping Sunday holy in observance of Sabbath commandment principles. This observance of Sunday is the purest form of first-day Sabbatarianism, a movement which diminished and largely disappeared in the 18th century, though traces and influences remain today. Today, seventh-day Sabbatarianism is the most prominent type, a movement that generally embraces a literal reading of the Sabbath commandment that provides for both worship and rest on the seventh day of the week. Seventh-day Baptists leave most other Sabbath considerations of observance to individual conscience. The Seventh-day Adventist Church and Church of God (Seventh Day) have similar views, but maintain the original, scriptural duration as Friday sunset through Saturday sunset. Non-Sabbatarianism is the view opposing all Sabbatarianism, declaring Christians to be free of mandates to follow such specific observances. It upholds the principle in Christian church doctrine that the church is not bound by such law or code, but is free to set in place and time such observances as uphold Sabbath principles according to its doctrine: to establish a day of rest, or not, and to establish a day of worship, or not, whether on Saturday or on Sunday or on some other day. It includes all Catholics and Orthodox, and most Protestant denominations. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Sabbatarianism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:sanitaryMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sanitaryMovement

sanitary movement

Promotion of sanitary practices and conditions, often directed at the poor or the reform of urban sanitation, through charitable or political activities. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation#History;

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sanitation#History
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:scottishNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#scottishNationalism

Scottish nationalism

Scottish nationalism promotes the idea that the Scottish people form a cohesive nation and national identity and is closely linked to the cause of Scottish home rule and Scottish independence, the ideology of the Scottish National Party, the party forming the Scottish Government. It is often described as a form of civic nationalism rather than ethnic nationalism. The Acts of Union merged the independent kingdoms of Scotland and England into Great Britain in 1707, but a separate legal system and distinct Scottish institutions continued to exist. Linguistic independence was an important part of the twentieth century Scottish Renaissance, associated with the nationalist impetus provided by Hugh MacDiarmid. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Scottish_nationalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:secularism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#secularism

secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, or, in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from the imposition by government of religion or religious practices upon its people. Another manifestation of secularism is the view that public activities and decisions, especially political ones, should be uninfluenced by religious beliefs and/or practices. Secularism draws its intellectual roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Epicurus and Marcus Aurelius; from Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, Denis Diderot, Voltaire, Baruch Spinoza, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine; and from more recent freethinkers and atheists such as Robert Ingersoll and Bertrand Russell. The purposes and arguments in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism, it has been argued that secularism is a movement toward modernization, and away from traditional religious values (also known as secularization). This type of secularism, on a social or philosophical level, has often occurred while maintaining an official state church or other state support of religion. In the United States, some argue that has served to a greater extent to protect religion and the religious from governmental interference, while secularism on a social level is less prevalent. Within countries as well, differing political movements support secularism for varying reasons. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Secularism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:servants

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#servants

servant

Domestic servants typically live in the home with the family or institution that employs them, although the lowest class of servants might work only casually and hence not receive room and board. This type of labour, very common before the twentieth century, is distinct from that of service positions such as shop assistants, flight attendants, and restaurant workers.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:sexualReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualReform

sexual reform

Advocacy or activism related to the reform of attitudes, practices and laws related to sex, including autonomy, age of consent, trafficking, and sex work.

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:sexualityBisexuality

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityBisexuality

bisexuality

Bisexuality indicates sexual attraction to both genders. In terms of binary understandings of sex or gender, bisexuality is often defined as being sexually attracted to "both sexes".

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:sexualityCelibacy

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityCelibacy

celibacy

Celibacy indicates abstention from sex, and can stem from personal choice, religious prescriptions, or with religious occupations such as being a nun or priest . Celibacy is not the be confused with asexuality, which describes a lack of interest in sex or sexual attraction to other subjects.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Sexuality
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:sexualityFrigidity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityFrigidity

frigidity

Frigidity labels a female subject as sexually withdrawn or unenthusiastic (read: non-consenting) in relation to the sexual advance, usually of men within a heterosexual framework, and suggests a lack of pleasure from sexual activities. Unlike asexual and celibate, this term is often ascribed to women, as opposed to self-referential. The term "frigid" was coined in the 1920s by sexologists (Sex and Society, Vol. 1, 285). Its use in discourse surrounding female sexuality is waning.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:sexualityLibertinism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityLibertinism

libertinism

Libertinism refers to a type of sexual identity (often tied to men) used to describe a subject who subscribes to hedonistic sexual politics.

RDF Type:
cwrc:Sexuality
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:sexualityPromiscuity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#sexualityPromiscuity

promiscuity

Promiscuity indicates sex with multiple partners in a casual or indiscriminate fashion and in opposition to socially sanctioned sexual behaviour. Promiscuity is differently constructed for women and men in most historical and cultural contexts, being closely connected to the control of female sexuality and reproduction. It includes libertinism, a form of hedonistic sexual politics frequently ascribed to or adopted by men.

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Sexuality

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Instance: cwrc:shopkeepers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#shopkeepers

shopkeepers

Typically applied to someone who "owns and runs a pub or shop," but not on the scale of an entrepreneur or industrialist.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:skilledCraftpersonArtisan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#skilledCraftpersonArtisan

artisan

This class includes such trades as "goldsmith, tailor, shoemaker, milliner, and dressmaker."brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:socialPurity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialPurity

social purity

The social purity movement was a late 19th-century social movement that sought to abolish prostitution and other sexual activities that were considered immoral according to Christian morality. Composed primarily of women, the movement was active in English-speaking nations from the late 1860s to about 1910, exerting an important influence on the contemporaneous feminist, eugenics, and birth control movements. The movement helped to shape feminist views on prostitution. The roots of the social purity movement lay in early 19th-century moral reform movements, such as radical utopianism, abolitionism, and the temperance movement. In the late 19th century, "social" was a euphemism for "sexual"; the movement first formed in opposition to the legalization and regulation of prostitution, and quickly spread to other sex-related issues such as raising the age of consent, sexually segregating prisons, eliminating abortion, opposing contraception, and censoring pornography. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Social_purity_movement
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:socialReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialReform

social reform

A reform movement is the kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic) or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self-sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change. Reactionary movements, which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before any successes the new reform movement(s) enjoyed, or to prevent any such successes. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Reform_movement
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:socialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these. Although there are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist economic systems can be divided into both non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets, and, in some cases, the profit motive with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The feasibility and exact methods of resource allocation and calculation for a socialist system are the subjects of the socialist calculation debate. The socialist political movement includes a diverse array of political philosophies that originated amid the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 1700s and of a general concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. In addition to the debate over markets and planning, the varieties of socialism differ in their form of social ownership, how management is to be organized within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism. Core dichotomies associated with these concerns include reformism versus revolutionary socialism, and state socialism versus libertarian socialism. Socialist politics has been both centralist and decentralized; internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organized through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent of, and critical of, unions; and present in both industrialized and developing countries. While all tendencies of socialism consider themselves democratic, the term "democratic socialism" is often used to highlight its advocates' high value for democratic processes in the economy and democratic political systems, usually to draw contrast to tendencies they may perceive to be undemocratic in their approach. The term is frequently used to draw contrast to the political system of the Soviet Union, which operated in an authoritarian fashion. By the late 19th century, and after further articulation and advancement by Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels as the culmination of technological development outstripping the economic dynamics of capitalism, "socialism" had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. By the 1920s, social democracy and communism became the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. Socialism proceeded to emerge as the most influential secular political-economic worldview of the twentieth century, and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, many economists and intellectuals have argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence in all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism, feminism and liberalism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Socialism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:societyOfFriends

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends

Society of Friends

1- Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "that of God in every person," and therefore they profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers. In 2012, there were 377,055 adult Quakers. Around 79% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor. Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship (more commonly known today as Meeting for Worship), where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, and may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry. The first Quakers lived in mid-17th century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England. The Quakers, especially the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women. They based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, and a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers. They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism. Described as "natural capitalists" by the BBC, some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry's; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.
Deprecated in favour of instance #quakerism.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Quakers
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:spanishRepublicanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spanishRepublicanism

Spanish republicanism

There has existed in the Kingdom of Spain a persistent trend of republican thought, especially throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, that has manifested itself in diverse political parties and movements over the entire course of the history of Spain. While these movements have shared the objective of establishing a republic in Spain, during these three centuries there have surged distinct schools of thought on the form republicans would want to give to the Spanish State: unitary (centralized) or federal. Despite the country's long-lasting schools of republican movements, the government of Spain has been organized as a republic during only two very short periods in its history, which totaled less than 10 years of republican government in the entirety of Spanish history. The First Spanish Republic lasted from February 1873 to December 1874, and the Second Spanish Republic lasted from April 1931 to April 1939. Currently there are movements and political parties throughout the entire political spectrum that advocate for a Third Spanish Republic, including almost all of the Spanish left, as well as liberal, right-winged, and nationalist parties. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Republicanism_in_Spain
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:spiritualism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#spiritualism

Spiritualism

Spiritualism is the belief that the spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living. The afterlife, or the "spirit world", is seen by spiritualists, not as a static place, but as one in which spirits continue to evolve. These two beliefs: that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits are more advanced than humans, lead spiritualists to a third belief, that spirits are capable of providing useful knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about the nature of God. Some spiritualists will speak of a concept which they refer to as "spirit guides"—specific spirits, often contacted, who are relied upon for spiritual guidance. Spiritism, a branch of spiritualism developed by Allan Kardec and today practiced mostly in Continental Europe and Latin America, especially in Brazil, emphasizes reincarnation.(DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Spiritualism
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:stalinism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#stalinism

Stalinism

Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented by Joseph Stalin. Stalinist policies in the Soviet Union included state terror, rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a centralized state, collectivization of agriculture, cult of personality in leadership, and subordination of interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—deemed by Stalinism to be the most forefront vanguard party of communist revolution at the time. Stalinism promoted the escalation of class conflict, utilizing state violence to forcibly purge society of claimed supporters of the bourgeoisie, regarding them as threats to the pursuit of the communist revolution that resulted in substantial political violence and persecution of such people. These included not only bourgeois people but also working-class people accused of counter-revolutionary sympathies. Stalinist industrialization was officially designed to accelerate the development towards communism, stressing that such rapid industrialization was needed because the country was previously economically backward in comparison with other countries; and that it was needed in order to face the challenges posed by internal and external enemies of communism. Rapid industrialization was accompanied with mass collectivization of agriculture and rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization converted many small villages into industrial cities. To accelerate the development of industrialization, Stalin pragmatically created joint venture contracts with major American private enterprises, such as Ford Motor Company, that under state supervision assisted in developing the basis of industry of the Soviet economy from the late 1920s to 1930s. After the American private enterprises completed their tasks, Soviet state enterprises took over. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Stalinism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:suffrage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#suffrage

suffrage movement

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, and the combination of both rights is sometimes called full suffrage. In many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are sometimes called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may also be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums and initiatives; other states have not. The United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision, but most democracies no longer extend differing rights to vote on the basis of sex or race. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries (e.g., Commonwealth citizens and European Union citizens). (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Suffrage
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:taxResistance

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#taxResistance

tax resistance

Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax or to government policy or as opposition to the concept of taxation in itself. Tax resistance is a form of direct action and if in violation of the tax regulations, a form of civil disobedience. Examples of tax resistance campaigns include those advocating home rule, such as the Salt March led by Mahatma Gandhi, and those promoting women's suffrage, such as the Women's Tax Resistance League. War tax resistance is the refusal to pay some or all taxes that pay for war and a form of nonviolent resistance. War tax resistance may be practiced by conscientious objectors, pacifists, or those protesting against a particular war. As a percentage of income tax funds military expenditure, war tax resisters may avoid or refuse to pay some or all income tax. For example, war resisters may choose to avoid taxes by living simply below the income tax threshold. Tax resisters are distinct from tax protesters who deny that the legal obligation to pay taxes exists or applies. Tax resisters may accept that some law commands them to pay taxes but they still choose to resist taxation. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Tax_resistance
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:temperanceMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#temperanceMovement

temperance movement

The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements typically criticize excessive alcohol consumption, promote complete abstinence (teetotalism), or use its political influence to press the government to enact alcohol laws to regulate the availability of alcohol or even its complete prohibition. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Temperance_movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:toryPartyBritain

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#toryPartyBritain

Tory Party (Britain)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed, sequentially, in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York (who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland). This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool. The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by the Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Tories_(British_political_party)
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:tractarianMovement

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tractarianMovement

Tractarian Movement

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams and William Palmer.(DBpedia, 2017)

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Oxford_Movement
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:tradeUnionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#tradeUnionism

trade unionism

In support of the formation of a trade union. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_union

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Trade_union
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:transMan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transMan

transman/transmale

RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:Gender

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Instance: cwrc:transWoman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transWoman

transwoman/transfemale

RDF Type:
cwrc:Gender
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:unitarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism

Unitarianism

The liberal Protestant movement that arose in Europe during the 16th century Reformation, was embodied in a church in Transylvania, and achieved denominational status in the 19th century in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. It is characterized by a denial of the orthodox Christian doctrines of the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus, the free use of reason in religion, and the belief that God exists in one person. In 1961, in the United States and Canada, it merged with the Universalist denomination to form "Unitarian Universalism." Use also generally for the theological doctrines of the unified nature of God and the humanity of Jesus, first expressed in second- and third-century monarchism and in the teachings of Arius in the third and fourth centuries, and later in the radical Neoplatonist thinkers of the Reformation such as Michael Servetus, Faustus Socinus, and Ferenc David. (Getty, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Unitarianism
http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300263305
RDF Type:
cwrc:Religion
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:upper-middleClass

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#upper-middleClass

upper-middle class

Comment:

This term is a CWRC specific addition not in the original Orlando tag set.

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:urban-industrialUnskilled

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urban-industrialUnskilled

urban unskilled

This class includes factory workers and workers in urban or large-scale industries without defined trades or professional qualifications, and those in low-wage and low-status service sector jobs, such as the restaurant or fast-food industry, in industrial or post-industrial societies.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:urbanReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#urbanReform

urban reform

Advocacy or activism in support of reforming the urban environment, often in support of alleviating poverty. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_renewal

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Urban_renewal
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:vegetarianism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#vegetarianism

vegetarianism

Vegetarianism /vɛdʒɪˈtɛəriənɪzəm/ is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. Vegetarianism can be adopted for different reasons. Many object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, along with animal rights. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are varieties of the diet as well: an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs, and an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs, dairy, and honey. Some vegans also avoid other animal products such as beeswax, leather or silk clothing, and goose-fat shoe polish. Various packaged or processed foods, including cake, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, and may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. Often, products are reviewed by vegetarians for animal-derived ingredients prior to purchase or consumption. Vegetarians vary in their feelings regarding these ingredients, however. For example, while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the usual production of cheese and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, other vegetarians may not take issue with its consumption. Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish or poultry, or sometimes other meats, on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. This is because earlier dictionaries included fish as part of the definition whereas the current versions do not. A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are also animals. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Vegetarianism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:welshNationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#welshNationalHeritage

Welsh

RDF Type:
cwrc:NationalHeritage
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:welshNationalism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#welshNationalism

Welsh nationalism

Welsh nationalism (Welsh: Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Welsh_nationalism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:whiggism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiggism

whiggism

Whiggism, sometimes spelled Whigism, is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651). The whigs' key policy positions were the supremacy of Parliament (as opposed to that of the king), tolerance of Protestant dissenters, and opposition to a Catholic (especially a Stuart) on the throne. After the huge success of the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689, Whiggism dominated English and British politics until about 1760, although in practice it splintered into different factions. After 1760 the Whigs lost power, apart from sharing it in a few short-lived coalitions, but Whiggism fashioned itself into a generalized belief system that emphasized innovation and liberty and was strongly held by about half of the leading families in England and Scotland, as well as most merchants, Dissenters and professionals. The opposing Tory position was held by the other great families, the Church of England, and most of the landed gentry and officers of the army and the navy. Whigs who opposed Robert Walpole often called themselves "Old Whigs" and comprised part of the Country Party. Whiggism referred originally to the Whigs of the British Isles, but in its "Old Whig" form was largely adopted by the American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies. American Whiggism was known as republicanism. One meaning of 'whiggism' given by the Oxford English Dictionary is "moderate or antiquated Liberalism". (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Whiggism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:whiteEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteEthnicity

white

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
cwrc:Ethnicity
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:whiteLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteLabel

white

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:whiteRaceColour

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRaceColour

white

RDF Type:
cwrc:RaceColour
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:wilkite

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#wilkite

Wilkite

A view of the law, in support of John Wilkes. Focused on government accountability and right to trial by jury. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:John_Wilkes
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:woman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#woman

woman

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
skos:Concept
cwrc:Gender

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Instance: cwrc:womanLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womanLabel

woman

RDF Type:
cwrc:TextLabels
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:womanism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womanism

womanism

Womanism is a social theory deeply rooted in the racial and gender-based oppression of black women. There are varying interpretations on what the term "womanist" means, and efforts to provide a concise and all encompassing definition have only been marginally successful. The ambiguity within the theory allows for its continuous expansion of its basic tenets, though this ambiguity is also widely considered its greatest weakness. At its core, womanism is a social change perspective based upon the everyday problems and experiences of black women and other women of minority demographics, but more broadly seeks methods to eradicate inequalities not just for black women, but for all people. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Womanism
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:womensEducationReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womensEducationReform

women's education reform

Reform of education for women. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_education; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Women_and_education

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Female_education
dbpedia:Category:Women_and_education
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:womensEmploymentReform

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#womensEmploymentReform

women's employment reform

Advocacy or activism related to women's employment including training, opportunities, wages, and working conditions. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_the_workforce

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Women_in_the_workforce
RDF Type:
skos:Concept
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation

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Instance: cwrc:yeoman-farmer

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#yeoman-farmer

yeoman farmer

Members of this historic class "own[ed] just enough land to support themselves if they did most of the work themselves." Examples include Elizabeth Ham and Mary Webb.brown_orlando, 2006

RDF Type:
cwrc:SocialClass
skos:Concept

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Instance: cwrc:zionism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#zionism

Zionism

Zionism is a nationalist political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Palestine, Canaan or the Holy Land). Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in central and eastern Europe as a national revival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles, and liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and address threats to its continued existence and security. A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state. A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha'am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Ha'am strived for Israel to be "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews". Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland. Critics of Zionism view it as a colonialist, racist and exceptionalist ideology that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Palestine, followed by the forced exodus of Palestinians, and the subsequent denial of their human rights. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment:

The description for this term is indebted to DBpedia.

PROV Derived From:
dbpedia:Zionism
RDF Type:
cwrc:PoliticalAffiliation
skos:Concept

9. CWRC Ontology Design Rules

Beyond the formalism of [citation on ontology design rules], the CWRC ontology follows the following design rules and styles:

10. Notes on SKOS and OWL

SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) enjoys widespread popularity in the semantic web community as it provides simple terms for taxonomies without requiring reasoner support. Whenever appropriate, SKOS terms are inserted within this ontology to link terms to each other. However, since these terms are not ontologically powered, their scalability is limited since each additional layer of terms within a taxonomy requires another database query.

Some of the constructs within the CWRC ontology are deep and require reasoning support. OWL is the preferred means of using this ontology, though the usage of the terms, SKOS-style, is possible.

11. Notes on CWRC Events

12. Conclusion and Future Work

This is a draft ontology that is very much in progress. It will continue to be developed, expanded, and revised as we discover the implications of how we have structured the ontology through using it to extract and explore our data, data and uses cases that necessitate expansion or refinement, and as new needs, understandings, and debates arise.

13. Version History

14. Deprecated Terms

Global Cross Reference of Deprecated Terms

Deprecated Terms:
CulturalFormation,EnglishLanguage,EnglishNationalHeritage,EnglishNationalIdentity,FemaleLabel,FrenchLanguage,JewishEthnicity,SexIdentity,SexualIdentity,SocialClassIdentity,baptistChurch,catholicChurch,churchOfChristianScience,churchOfEngland,congregationalChurch,dissenters,dissentingChurches,entrepreneurial-industrialism,femaleSex,genderManMale,genderTransMan,genderTransWoman,genderWomanFemale,hasCulturalForms,hasEthnicitySelfDefined,hasGenderSelfDeclared,hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared,hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared,hasNationalitySelfDeclared,hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared,hasRaceColourSelfDeclared,hasReligionSelfDefined,hasSexualitySelfDeclared,hasSocialClassSelfDefined,jewishReligion,lollards,maleLabel,maleSex,pagan,personalPropertySelfDeclared,quakers,rationalDissenter,societyOfFriends,unitarianChurch,unknownSex,whiteRace,

Detailed references for all terms, classes and properties

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Term: cwrc:CulturalFormation

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalFormation

cultural formation

Cultural formation refers to the processes of lived social subjectivities of people and is often combined with predicates indicating the identity positions as they relate to the following discursive constructions of Class, Religion, Ethnicity, Gender, GeographicalHeritage, LinguisticAbility, NationalHeritage, NationalIdentity, PoliticalAffiliation, RaceColour, Sexuality. These categories are not understood as transhistorical or isolated categories. Rather, they facilitate analysis of how such situationally contingent, changing, and negotiated labels are assigned to or adopted by a particular individual. The tensions endemic to practices of classification demand critical engagement and inquiry into the situatedness of particular cultural identities.

Comment: Deprecated in favour of class #CulturalForm.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#CulturalForm

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Term: cwrc:EnglishLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishLanguage

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Term: cwrc:EnglishNationalHeritage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalHeritage

English

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #englishNationalHeritage.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalHeritage

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Term: cwrc:EnglishNationalIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#EnglishNationalIdentity

English

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #englishNationalIdentity.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#englishNationalIdentity

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Term: cwrc:FemaleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FemaleLabel

female

Comment: Deprecated with no current equivalence.

Replaced by: None

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Term: cwrc:FrenchLanguage

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#FrenchLanguage

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Term: cwrc:JewishEthnicity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#JewishEthnicity

Jewish

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #jewishEthnicity.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishEthnicity

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Term: cwrc:SexIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexIdentity

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Term: cwrc:SexualIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SexualIdentity

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Term: cwrc:SocialClassIdentity

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClassIdentity

social class identity

A subclass of culturalForms, socialClassIdentity terms associate subjects with a specific social group, recognizing that such categories and their application to individuals are contested and can change over time. The association may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. Unlike Notes typed as socialClassContext, which contain detailed discussion of a subject's class position, socialClassIdentity links to a word or phrase signifying a particular construction of class, with particular reference to earlier historical periods in the British Isles. Social class has been variously constructed and theorized, and for women is further complicated by the fact that women were understood to take their social status from fathers and/or husbands. The terminology used here reflects quite basic social groupings that intersect with other factors such as wealth.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#SocialClass

[back to top]

Term: cwrc:baptistChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChurch

Baptist

Refers to a Protestant denomination centered around the belief that the sacrament of baptism should only be administered to adult members after a personal profession of belief in Jesus Christ. Baptism in this faith is usually done by full immersion. Emphasis is placed on biblical scripture and preaching. The Baptist denomination is primarily derived from early 17th-century England and Wales where it quickly spread although there are some links with the Anabaptists of the 16th century. Baptist churches very rapidly increased in the late 19th century in the United States. (Getty, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #baptistChristianity.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#baptistChristianity

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Term: cwrc:catholicChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicChurch

Roman Catholic

Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church. (Getty, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #catholicism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#catholicism

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Term: cwrc:churchOfChristianScience

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfChristianScience

Christian Science

Refers to a Christian denomination and movement founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) that seeks to reinstate the Christian message of salvation from all evil, including sickness and disease as well as sin. Eddy, a semi-invalid who was interested in cures not involving medicine, claimed a recovery from a bad injury without medical assistance in 1866. Afterwards, she devoted herself to restoring the healing emphasis of early Christianity. In 1875 she finished writing the first edition of the 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures.' This work and the Bible are the principal texts of the movement and importance has been laid on establishing reading rooms where these works can make their own appeal to readers. The 'Christian Science Monitor' is also published by the denomination. Christian Science believes that ignorance is at the root of human unease and thus 'dis-ease.' Instead of seeking medical treatment, special Christian Science healers are to be consulted for spiritual healing. Health, happiness, and holiness can be restored by applying to all aspects of life practices and attitudes in keeping with the principal of divine harmony. The first Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston and its headquarters remain there. (Getty, 2017)

Comment: The description for this term is indebted to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#christianScience

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Term: cwrc:churchOfEngland

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#churchOfEngland

Church of England

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #anglicanism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#anglicanism

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Term: cwrc:congregationalChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congregationalChurch

Congregational Church

Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism is often considered to be a part of the wider Reformed tradition. Many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian Robert Browne in 1582. These arose from the ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England. In Great Britain, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the similarly Calvinistic Presbyterians. Congregational churches were widely established in the Plymouth Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony (later New England), and together wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 which described the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York, then into the Old North West, and further. With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is largely split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, which is the most theologically conservative. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5% of the worldwide Protestant population. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #congregationalism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#congragationalism

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Term: cwrc:dissenters

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissenters

Dissenters

"One who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, &c. The term 'dissenter' is, however, practically restricted to the special sense of a member of a religious body in England which has, for one reason or another, separated from the Established Church. Strictly, the term includes the English Roman Catholics, who in the original draft of the Relief Act of 1791 were styled “Protesting Catholic Dissenters.” It is in practice, however, restricted to the “Protestant Dissenters” referred to in sec. ii. of the Toleration Act of 1688."(Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #dissentProtestant.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentProtestant

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Term: cwrc:dissentingChurches

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChurches

Dissenting Churches

English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, “to disagree”) is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters, and founded their own churches, educational establishments, and communities; some emigrated to the New World. They originally agitated for a wide-reaching Protestant Reformation of the Established Church, and triumphed briefly under Oliver Cromwell.(DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #dissentProtestant.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentProtestant

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Term: cwrc:entrepreneurial-industrialism

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialism

entrepreneurial industrialism

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #entrepreneurial.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#entrepreneurial-industrialist

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Term: cwrc:femaleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#femaleSex

Female

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #genderWomanFemale.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderWomanFemale

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Term: cwrc:genderManMale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderManMale

man/male

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #man.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#man

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Term: cwrc:genderTransMan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransMan

Transman/Transmale

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #transMan.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transMan

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Term: cwrc:genderTransWoman

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderTransWoman

Transwoman/Transfemale

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #transWoman.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#transWoman

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Term: cwrc:genderWomanFemale

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderWomanFemale

Woman/Female

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #woman.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#woman

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Term: cwrc:hasCulturalForms

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForms

has a cultural form

This sub-class of culturalFormation associates specific concepts and categories with the process of identity formation through cultural processes. Such associations may be or have been embraced by the subject her/himself or attributed by others. The concepts and categories classed as culturalForms are understood to overlap with each other conceptually and in terms of the labels used.

Comment: Deprecated in favour of object property #hasCulturalForm.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasCulturalForm

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Term: cwrc:hasEthnicitySelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfDefined

has ethnicity (self defined)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasEthnicitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasEthnicitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasGenderSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfDeclared

has gender (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasGenderSelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGenderSelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfDeclared

has geographic heritage (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasGeographicHeritageSelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

language known (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasNationalitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfDeclared

has nationality (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasNationalitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNativeLinguisticAbilitySelfDeclared

natively known language (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasLinguisticAbilitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasRaceColourSelfDeclared

has race (self declared)

This describes a person's self-reported racial identity.

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasNationalitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasNationalitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasReligionSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfDefined

has religious affilication (self defined)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasReligionSelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasReligionSelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasSexualitySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfDeclared

has sexual orientation (self declared)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasSexualitySelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSexualitySelfReported

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Term: cwrc:hasSocialClassSelfDefined

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfDefined

has social class (self defined)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #hasSocialClassSelfReported.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#hasSocialClassSelfReported

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Term: cwrc:jewishReligion

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#jewishReligion

Jewish

Refers to the monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles. The religion, which traces its origins to Abraham, places more emphasis on expressing beliefs through ritual rather than through abstract doctrine. The Sabbath, beginning on sunset on Friday and ending at sunset on Saturday, is the central religious observance; there is also an annual cycle of religious festivals and days of fasting. Judaism has had a diverse history of development over almost 4000 years, with a number of resulting branches in modern times, namely Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. (Getty, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #judaism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#judaism

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Term: cwrc:lollards

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollards

Lollards

Lollardy (Lollardry, Lollardism) was a political and religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation. It was initially led by John Wycliffe, a prominent theologian who was dismissed from the University of Oxford in 1381 for criticism of the Church, especially in his doctrine on the Eucharist. The Lollards' demands were primarily for reform of Western Christianity. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #lollardy.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#lollardy

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Term: cwrc:maleLabel

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleLabel

male

Comment: Deprecated with no current equivalence..

Replaced by: None

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Term: cwrc:maleSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#maleSex

Male

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #genderManMale.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#genderManMale

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Term: cwrc:pagan

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#pagan

Pagan

Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own, Judaism, or Islam–the three Abrahamic religions. Throughout Christendom, it continued to be used, typically in a derogatory sense. In the 19th century, it was re-adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-description by practitioners of contemporary pagan, or neo-pagan, religious movements. There has been much scholarly argument as to the origin of the term paganism. Paganism has also been understood by some[who?] to include any non-Abrahamic religions, but this is generally[who?] seen as insulting by adherents of those religions. While paganism is often considered to exclude monotheism and to express a worldview that is pantheistic, polytheistic, or animistic, there are some monotheistic pagans. Once monotheistic religions, such as Christianity and Islam, started to become more prominent (in processes known as Christianization and Islamization), names to encompass polytheistic worshipers started to develop; some of these include Hellene, pagan, and heathen, and at times these names were used as slurs. Modern knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including: anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, and the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to the classical world. Before the rise of monotheistic religions, most people practiced some type of polytheism. Many of these religions started to die out, and eventually they became extinct. In some cases, elements of polytheistic belief systems continued to exist in folklore. Paganism would later be studied during the Renaissance and Romantic era. Forms of these religions, influenced by various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, exist today and are known as contemporary or modern paganism, also referred to as Neo-paganism. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #paganism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#paganism

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Term: cwrc:personalPropertySelfDeclared

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#personalPropertySelfDeclared

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Term: cwrc:quakers

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakers

Quaker

Quakers (or Friends) are members of a group of religious Christian movements which is known as the Religious Society of Friends in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North America; and known as the Friends Church in Africa, Asia, South America and parts of the US. The movements were originally, and are still predominantly based on Christianity. Members of the movements profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were approximately 359,000 adult Quakers. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #quakerism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakerism

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Term: cwrc:rationalDissenter

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#rationalDissenter

Rational Dissenter

An 18th-century, group much "closer to the Anglicanism of their day than other Dissenting sects; however, they believed that state religions impinged on the freedom of conscience. They were fiercely opposed to the hierarchical structure of the Established Church and the financial ties between it and the government."(DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #dissentingChristianity.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#dissentingChristianity

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Term: cwrc:societyOfFriends

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#societyOfFriends

Society of Friends

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #quakerism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#quakerism

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Term: cwrc:unitarianChurch

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianChurch

Unitarian Church

Unitarian church usually refers to a church (either a single church or a group of churches and/or its followers) which follows Unitarianism, a Christian theology. It can also more broadly refer to a church which is a member of an umbrella group with "Unitarian" in its title, such as the Unitarian Universalist Association in the U.S., the Canadian Unitarian Council, and similar bodies. (DBpedia, 2017)

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #unitarianism.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unitarianism

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Term: cwrc:unknownSex

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#unknownSex

Unknown

Comment: Deprecated with no current equivalence.

Replaced by: None

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Term: cwrc:whiteRace

URI: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRace

white

Comment: Deprecated in favour of instance #whiteRaceColour.

Replaced by: http://sparql.cwrc.ca/ontologies/cwrc#whiteRaceColour

15. Bibliography

[sajnani_rachel/racial_nodate] Damon Sajnani. Rachel/Racial Theory: Reverse Passing in the Curious Case of Rachel Dolezal. Transition Magazine, Hutchins Center. [ http ]
[de_lauretis_differences:_1991] Teresa De Lauretis. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Duke University Press, (2):Introduction, pp. iii–xviii, 1991.
[wright_feminism_1992] Elizabeth Wright, editor. Feminism and psychoanalysis: a critical dictionary. Blackwell reference. Blackwell, Oxford, UK ; Cambridge, Mass., USA, 1992.
Keywords: Psychoanalysis and feminism
[woolf_room_1929] Virginia Woolf. A Room of One's Own. The Hogarth Press, London, 1929.
[beauvoir_second_2011] Simone de Beauvoir, Constance Borde, and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier. The second sex. Vintage, New York, 2011. OCLC: 705522798.
Newly translated and unabridged in English for the first time, Simone de Beauvoir's masterwork is a powerful analysis of the Western notion of "woman," and a groundbreaking exploration of inequality and otherness. This long-awaited new edition reinstates significant portions of the original French text that were cut in the first English translation. Vital and groundbreaking, Beauvoir's pioneering and impressive text remains as pertinent today as it was sixty years ago, and will continue to provoke and inspire generations of men and women to come. Overview: Newly translated and unabridged in English for the first time, Simone de Beauvoir's masterwork is a powerful analysis of the Western notion of "woman," and a groundbreaking exploration of inequality and otherness. This long-awaited new edition reinstates significant portions of the original French text that were cut in the first English translation. Vital and groundbreaking, Beauvoir's pioneering and impressive text remains as pertinent today as it was sixty years ago, and will continue to provoke and inspire generations of men and women to come.

[crenshaw_demarginalizing_1989] Kimberle Crenshaw. Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine,Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, pages 139–167, 1989.
[grosz_volatile_1994] E. A. Grosz. Volatile bodies: toward a corporeal feminism. Theories of representation and difference. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1994.
Keywords: Feminist theory, Gender identity, Human body, Social aspects
[butler_gender_1990] Judith Butler. Gender Trouble. Routledge, 1990.
[brown_orlando:_2006] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy, editors. Orlando: Women's Writing in the British Isles from the Beginnings to the Present. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006.
[petersen_art_1990] Toni Petersen. Art & architecture thesaurus. Oxford University Press, 1990. [ http ]
First edition of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a project, started in 1979, of the Getty Art History Information Program. The work presents, in a faceted hierarchical structure, a standard vocabulary for the field of art and architecture. Two displays are provided: the hierarchical, which includes seven facets (associated concepts, physical attributes, styles and periods, agents, activities, materials, objects), and the alphabetical display including all terms.

[simpson_xml_2013] John Simpson and Susan Brown. From XML to RDF in the Orlando Project. pages 194–195. IEEE, September 2013. [ DOI | http ]
[haraway_situated_1988] Donna Haraway. Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective. Feminist Studies, 14(3):575–599, 1988. [ DOI | http ]
[noauthor_getty_2017] Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus, 2017. [ http ]
[halpin_when_2010] Harry Halpin, Patrick J. Hayes, James P. McCusker, Deborah L. McGuinness, and Henry S. Thompson. When owl:sameAs Isn’t the Same: An Analysis of Identity in Linked Data. In International Semantic Web Conference, volume 6496. Springer, 2010. [ DOI ]
[brown_cultural_2017] Susan Brown, Abigel Lemak, Colin Faulkner, and Rob Warren. Cultural (Re-)formations: Structuring a Linked Data Ontology for Intersectional Identities. In The Proceedings of the Digital Humanities Conference, Montreal, Canada, 2017.
[brown_story_2007] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, Sharon Balazs, and Jeffrey Antoniuk. The Story of the Orlando Project: Personal Reflections. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, 26(1):135–143, 2007.
[brown_introduction_2007] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, Isobel Grundy, Sharon Balazs, and Jeffrey Antoniuk. An Introduction to the Orlando Project. Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, 26(1):127–134, 2007.
[james_smith_working_2013] James Smith. Working with the Semantic Web. In Constance Crompton, Richard J Lane, and Ray Siemens, editors, Doing Digital Humanities: Practice, Training, Research, page 444. Routledge, 2013. [ http ]
[matthew_k._gold_debates_2012] Matthew K. Gold. Debates in the Digital Humanities 2012. Debates in the Digital Humanities. Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2012.
[jewett_sarah_1931] Sarah Orne Jewett. Sarah Orne Jewett Manuscript Collection. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1931.
[ellis_studies_1897] Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds. Studies in the Psychology of Sex. Wilson & Macmillan, London, UK, 1897.
[carpenter_intermediate_1908] Edward Carpenter. The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Swan Sonnenschein and Company, London, UK, 1908.
[crook_complete_1926] G. T. Crook. The Complete Newgate Calendar, volume 2. Navarre Society, London, UK, 1926.
[martin_lesbian/woman_1972] Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon. Lesbian/Woman. Glide P, San Francisco, CA, USA, 1972.
[ross_house_1995] Becki Ross. The House That Jill Built: A Lesbian Nation in Formation. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, On, Canada, 1995.
[noauthor_ladies_1997] Ladies of Llangollen: Letters and Journals of Lady Eleanor Butler (1739-1829) and Sarah Ponsonby (1755-1831) from the National Library of Wales. Adam Matthew Publications, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England, 1997.
[bornstein_gender_2010] Kate Bornstein and S. Bear Bergman, editors. Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation. Seal P, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2010.
[coyote_persistence:_2011] Ivan E Coyote and Zena Sharman. Persistence: All Ways Butch and Femme. Arsenal Pulp Press, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2011.
[fuss_essentially_2013] Diana Fuss. Essentially speaking: Feminism, nature and difference. Routledge, 2013.
[lerman_big_2013] Jonas Lerman. Big data and its exclusions. Stanford Law Review, 66:55–63, September 2013. [ http ]
[treviranus_value_2014] Jutta Treviranus. The value of the statistically insignificant. Educause, January 2014. [ http ]
[scott_description_1762] Sarah Scott. A Description of Millenium Hall. Broadview Press, Peterborough, ON, Canada, 1995 edition, 1762.
[james_bostonians_1886] Henry James. The Bostonians. Macmillan, 1921 edition, 1886.
[krafft-ebing_psychopathia_1892] Richard Krafft-Ebing. Psychopathia Sexualis, with Especial Reference to Contrary Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Legal Study. F. A. Davis, London, UK, 7th edition, 1892.
[radclyffe_well_1928] Hall Radclyffe. The Well of Loneliness. Jonathan Cape, London, UK, 1928.
[woolf_three_1938] Virginia Woolf. Three Guineas. Hogarth Press, 1938.
[noauthor_woman-identified_1970] The Woman-Identified Woman. Radicalesbians, New York, NY, USA, 1970.
[mayor_ladies_1971] Elizabeth Mayor. The Ladies of Llangollen: A Study in Romantic Friendship. Joseph, London, UK, 1971.
[brown_rubyfruit_1973] Rita Mae Brown. Rubyfruit Jungle. Daughters Inc, Plainfield, VT, USA, 1973.
[johnston_lesbian_1973] Jill Johnston. Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution. Simon and Schuster, 1973.
[grier_lesbian_1976] Barbara Grier and Coletta Reid. Lesbian Lives: Biographies of Women from the Ladder. Diana Press, Baltimore, MD, USA, 1976.
[faderman_surpassing_1981] Lillian Faderman. Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. Morrow, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
[richards_lesbian_1990] Dell Richards. Lesbian Lists: A Look at Lesbian Culture, History, and Personalities. Alyson Publications, Boston, MA, USA, 1990.
[nestle_persistent_1992] Joan Nestle, editor. The Persistent Desire: A Femme-Butch Reader. Alyson Publications, Boston, MA, USA, 1992.
[bornstein_my_1998] Kate Bornstein. My Gender Workbook: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely. Routledge, New York, NY, USA and London, UK, 1998.
[halberstam_female_1998] Jack Halberstam. Female Masculinity. Duke University Press, Durham, NC, USA, 1998.
[munt_sisters_1998] S. Munt. Sisters in exile: The Lesbian Nation. New frontiers of space, bodies and gender, 3(19), 1998.
[nakamura_cybertypes:_2002] Lisa Nakamura. Cybertypes: Race, ethnicity, and identity on the internet. Routledge, London, UK, 2002.
[bergman_butch_2006] S. Bear Bergman. Butch Is a Noun. Suspect Thoughts Press, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006.
[sycamore_nobody_2006] Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore. Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity. Seal P, Emeryville, CA, USA, 2006.
[mcpherson_why_2012] Tara McPherson. Why are the Digital Humanities so white? Or thinking the histories of race and computation. Debates in the digital humanities, pages 139–160, 2012. [ http ]
[brown_curious_2013] Susan Brown and John Simpson. The curious identity of Michael Field and its implications for humanities research with the semantic web. In 2013 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, 2013.
[dean-hall_sex_2013] Adriel Dean-Hall and Robert H. Warren. Sex, privary and ontologies. In Workshop on Search and Exploration of XRated Information (SEXI 2013), Rome, Italy, February 2013. [ .pdf ]
[susan_brown_sorting_2006] Susan Brown, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy. Sorting things in: Feminist knowledge representation and changing modes of scholarly production. Women's Studies International Forum, pages 317–325, June 2006. [ http ]
[bailey_all_2012] Moya Z. Bailey. All the Digital Humanists Are White, All the Nerds Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave. Journal of Digital Humanities, March 2012. [ http ]
Keywords: Conversations, Vol. 1, No. 1 Winter 2011
[mark_algee-hewitt_representing_2016] Mark Algee-Hewitt, J.D. Porter, and Hannah Walser. Representing race and ethnicity in american fiction, 1789- 1964. Banff, Canada,, October 2016.
[matthew_k._gold_debates_2016] Matthew K. Gold and Lauren F. Klein, editors. Debates in the Digital Humanities 2016. 2016. [ http ]
If the publication of Debates in the Digital Humanities in 2012 marked the “digital humanities moment,” this book—the first in a series of annual volumes—will chart the possibilities and tensions of the field as it grows.